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Caesars Gallic War 




C. M. LOWE. Ph.D.. AMD J. T. EWINQ, U.A. 


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In its genera! plan the present edition of Caesar is based on that 
of Lowe and Ewing, first published in 1891. It retains the feature* 
which gave distinction to that book, the most important of which 
are thus described in its preface: 

" The vocabularies, notes, illustrationa, and esplanatory matter have 
been placed on the same page with the text, thus saving the student's 
tune, which ia useleasly spent in turning leaves and searching for expla- 
nations which are here placed immediately before him. At the same 
time, self -reliance is secured by the use of a separate text in the class 
room, without either notes or vocabulary. The special vocabularies 
have been arranged so that the first four booksand the rest of theanno- 
tated text may be read consecutively, or the war with Arioviatns (Bk. 
I, chaps. 30-54) may be omitted and the valuable andless familiar, 
matter substituted from the annotated chapters of Bks. V-VII. An 
opportunity for sif^ht reading is afforded in the unannotated parts of 
these latter books.'' 

While the general plan of the earlier edition has been followed, 
in all details the book Has been rewritten from beginning to end. 
In its preparation three definite purposes have been kept steadily 
in mind: 

1. To help the pupil to follow the narrative imderstandingly. 

2. To give the pupil, especially at the beginning of his reading^ 
a systematic drill on all the common syntactical principles. 

3. To exclude all bits of antiquarian and granmiatical lore 
which, however valuable in themselves, have no direct bearing on 
an appreciation of Caesar's language or story. 

The Stupt of Caesar's Narrativi:. It is surely a pedagogical 
mistake to let a pupil carry away from the study of Caesar nothing 
but a memory of ablatives absolute and indirect discourse. These 
tilings he mmt learn as a preparation for further reading, it is true, 
and the language must be his chief study; but there is danger that- 


a year of grammar only will not tempt him to the further reading 
for which he has heen preparing. Caesar tells an interesting stoiy 
and tells it well. The universal testimony of the ages to the greatness 
of his writing is not founded on a universal love for grammar. The 
interest in finding out what Caesar did should serve as an incentive 
to solve his sentences. Moreover, a neglect of Caesar's thought is 
wrong on principle. The habit of careful attention to the subject- 
matter is the one thing best worth cultivating, whether one reads 
English or a foreign language; and this should not be forgotten in 
teaching Caesar. 

Therefore as much as possible has been done in the notes and 
ntfps to assist in an understanding of the narrative, without intro- 
ducing any discussion of disputed points. Every effort has been 
made to adopt the most reasonable theory for each campaign, 
and to make every note, plan, and map consistent with that 

The pupil's progress through the story must be slow, and, how- 
ever well he understands each move in Caesar's game, he will have 
difficulty in grasping the whole. It is hoped that the campaign 
maps may lessen this difficulty by putting before the eyes the total 
results of the campaigns. In each map the route is laid out on a 
map of all Gaul, because only in this way can the relation of any 
one campaign to the whole of Caesar's task be kept constantly be- 
fore the mind. The system of coloring shows the condition of Gaul 
at the end of each campaign, — how much had been reduced by 
fighting, how much had jielded without fighting, and how much 
was yet untouched. A comparison of any two maps will show the 
results of the intervening operations. 

System in Gr.\mmar References. An attempt has been made 
to facilitate and even insure, early in the study of Caesar, a syste- 
matic drill on the more important case and mode constructions. In 
the notes on Book I, 1-29, it is believed that references are given 
tor all the most common constructions. In general, the cases are 
emphasized during the earlier chapters, and the modes during the 
later. To each construction reference is made three times, two 


sets of references being given close hither, that they may re- 
enforce each other, and the third after a few chapters, that the point 
may be clinched by review. And these references are made not 
oily to the grammatical Appendix given in this book, but also to 
iive leading grammars. 

In Book II the same references are given, as nearly as possible 
in the same order; but the references for each chapter are grouped 
tegether after the notes of that chapter. In this way opportunities 
for the same grammatical drill are afforded, whether the class be- 
gins with Book I or Book II; but, if the class begins with Book I, 
these references in Book II may be omitted as unnecessary. 

With such a syst«m it is natural and right to postpone to later 
chapters or books the consideration of certain constructions. 
Thus, conditions and the details of indirect discourse are post- 
poned to Book I, 30-54, tenses to Book III. If the teacher does 
not like the order of presentation he can ea^y supply needed refer- 
ences; but if he will insist on the study of the references as they 
come in the notes, it is believed that he will find the necessary 
ground covered thoroughly and systematically. 

Exclusion of Non-essenti als. Many things are known or are 
guessed about ancient mihtary science which in no way help the 
pupil to understand Caesar. Many facts and theories of grammar 
are suggested by Caesar's language which the pupil might find use- 
lul at some later day, but which help him neither in translating 
Caesar nor in writing the Latin composition which should accom- 
pany the reading. An honest attempt has been made to ^ve what 
is helpful and to exclude the useless lumber, though it is not hoped, 
much less expected, that all teachers would draw the line where 
the editor has drawn it. 

Beginning vnih Book II. The most dreaded portions of Caesar 
are his indirect discourse, and unfortunately the majority of the 
q>eeches are found m tne first book. Though the fear of indirect 
discourse is largely traditional, and though the construction is not 
really difficult for one who is properly grounded in the essentials 
sf Latin, yet it is clearly a misfortune that the pupil should eo* 

counter its full difficulties at a time when the ordinary narrative 
pves him trouble enough. Moreover, it is questionable whether 
it ia worth while to drill the pupil on all details of the construction, 
since he will see very little indirect discourse elsewhere in his pre- 
paratory course. For these reasons many teachers seek to make 
the pupil's path easier by reading the second book before the first, 
or by omitting chapters 30-54 of the first book, in which chapters 
the construction chiefly abounds. In preparing this edition every- 
thing possible has been done to make feasible either of these plans, 
without throwing any obstacles in the way of a consecutive reading 
from the first. But the editor feels strongly that Book I, 1-29 
should be read first. The latter part of the book may well be 
omitted entirely, and one or more of the veiy interesting annotated 
portions of the last three books may be substituted for it. 

No editor of Caesar can escape a debt of gratitude to Mr. 
T. Rice Holmes for having discussed with such impartiality and 
thoroughness the geographical and military questions of the Gallic 
War, Caesar's Conquest of Gmd, by Mr, Holmes, should be in the 
bands of every teacher of Caesar. Though the present editor baa 
found it impossible to agree with all its conclusions, the book b 
so fair in its discussions that he is under equal obligations whether 
he agrees or disagrees with the author. 

The text of the Lowe and Ewing edition was Kraner's. In the 
present edition Meusel's readings have been substituted for the 
most part, but not completely. The quantities are marked in ac- 
cordance with the revised edition of Lane's Grammar. A few 
doubtful words were submitted to the decision of Professor Hanns 
Oertel, of Yale University, who prepared the chapter on Sound in 
that Grammar. For his ready assistance, thanks are due. 

It would be impossible to mention by name all who have assisted 
the editor by suggestion and in various ways. The labor of prepar- 
ing the Vocabulary was largely performed by Mr. Eari W. Murray, 
a former graduate student, now Assistant Professor in the Univer- 
aty of Kansas. Mr. Murray also prepared the first draft of the 
systematized references for Book I, 1-29, and Book II. For the 

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preparation of the Index the editor is indebted to Miss Martha 
Whitney, Prrfessor Charles Knapp, of Columbia ITniveraily, gave 
the early part of the book the benefit of a most searching and 
helpful criticbm. From banning to end the editor has been under 
deep obli^atiuns to the editors-in-chief of the series- 

Abthub Tafpan Waikib. 


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Preface 1 

List of Maps and Illustrations - 8 

Introduction 9 

I. The Importance of the Gallic Campaigns 9 

II. Life of Caesar 11 

III. Chronological Table 17 

IV. Caesar as General 18 

V. Caesar as Author 19 

VI. The Gauls 20 

VII. Caesar's Army 23 

A Brief Bibliography 38 

List of Abbreviations 40 

Book I, 1-29 41 

Book I, 30-54 116 

Book II 160 

Book III 215 

Book IV 252 

Book V 292 

Book VI 329 

Book VII 356 

The Direct Form of the Indirect Discourse in Books I and II . . . 412 

Qrammatical Appendix 423 




General Map of Gaul Front Cover 

Caesar (Bust in British Museum) FrontiapUce 

Pila 24 

Giftdius and Va^na 24 

Roman Soldiers Facing 27 

Plan of a Roman Camp 29 

Camp on the Axona 29 

Vallum and Fossa 30 

Roman Officers and Gauls Facing 31 

Gallic Wall 33 

Storming a City Fanng 34 

Agger 34 

Plutei 34 

Museul"3 34 

Vinea 35 

Catapulta 35 

Prow of Galley 36 

Campaign Map for Book I, 1-29 Fa~ing 42 

Fortifications on the Rhone 70 

Battle with the Helvetii, first stage 104 

Battle with the Helvetii, second stage 108 

Campaign Map for Book I, 30^4 Facing 1 17 

Battle with Ariovistua 153 

Campaign Map for Bock II Facing 162 

Battle on the Axona 177 

Battle on the SabU 191 

The Town of the Atuatuci 207 

Campaign Map for Book III Facing 217 

Galba'sCamp * 219 

Operations against the Veneti 232 

Campaign Map for Book IV Facing 254 

Caesar's Bridge 272 

Pile-driver 273 

Second Invasion of Britain , 294 

Caesar's Geography 30S 

Caesar's Lines around Alexia 392 

Details of Fortifications around Alesia 39& 

Stimulus 398 



I. Thb Ihpoetance of the Gallic Cahpaions 

The Commentariea on the Gallic War are Caesar's own atoiy i 
of how he conquered the peoples living in what is now France 
and some of the lands bordering on France. He has told his 
Btorj simply and directly. It was bis genius that made the 
conquest possible, and the story could not be true without 
making this evident; but he has spokea ot himself as it the 
writer and the general were different men, and tbere is no 
boasting. He has not explained to us the great importance of 
the war to the Roman state; there is no anggesLion of its 
importance to his personal career; much less has he hinted at 
his own importance in the histoiy of Rome and the world. 
These things must be learned from a study ot history, not from 
Caesar's story. 

Effect on Rome. Rome was the governing nation of ancient 2 
times. In Caesar's time she had conquered the other nations 
which touched the Mediterranean, and was governing most of 
them as provinces; that is, she sent Roman governors to them 
and collected taxes from them. In this way she governed a 
comparatively narrow strip of land in southern Gaul; and 
as this was the particular province which Caesar was sent 
to govern, he calls it simply "the Province," Provincia (see 
map). This province was only partially protected by mountams 
aad rivers from the semicivilized and warlike Gauls on the 
north; and for this reason it could never be sure of peace and 
safety until the rest of Gaul was conquered. Moreover, the 
laud on the north was productive and well worth having. 



Therefore Caesar's conqaeet of Gaul was jnatified, from a Roman 
point of view, both by the value of the land and by the neces- 
eity of protecting the Province. 

S Effect on Gaul. But there was a better reason for that con- 
quest. Though the Gauls were brave they were no match 
for the less civilized Germans, who lived across the lUiine. 
Just at the time when Caesar took command of his province 
the Germans had begun crossing the Rhine in great nnmbers 
and were driving the Gauls out of their homes. If this move- 
ment had not been checked, the homeless Gauls would have 
been driven to attack Roman territory; and if the Gauls had 
been exterminated between the Germans and the Romans, then 
the -Romans would have found the Germans still more 
dangerous neighbors than the Gauls. For the Gauls them- 
selves, too, it was far better to be conquered by the civilized 
Romans than by the uncivilized Germans. The one means of 
safety for both Gauls and Romans was that the Romans should 
govern all the country west of the Rhine and should hold the 
Germans at bay on the other side of that great river. This 
was the result of Caesar's conquest of Gaul; and this result is 
the great justification of his bloody warfare there. 

t Effect on Caesar. In their effect on Caesar's own career the 
Gallic campaigns were all-important, and his career changed the 
course of history. In Gaul he gained military experience and 
the devotion of his army. By the aid of that army he over- 
threw a constitution under which the Roman state was 
going to ruin, and laid the foundations of an empire which 
lived for centuries. Ko doubt he did this from eel&sh and 
ambitious motives; but bis ambition was so great that it 
coold never have been satisfied until he had brought the empire 
he ruled to the highest possible degree of. excellence, and his 
genins was so great that he saw the needful measures and the 
means to carry them out. The daggers of his assassins gave 
hiih too short a time to complete his work; but he did enough 
to prove himself the greatest man in Roman history. 


II. Life of Caksar 

Eail7 Teari, and Choice of Faity. Gains Julius Caesar was s 
born in the year' 103, B.C., on the 13th day of the month 
which was then called Quintilis, hut which we now, in his honor, 
call Julj. Tradition traced the descent of the Julian family 
back beyond the foundation of Rome, and even to the 
goddess Venus as its remote ancestor. Caesar, therefore, 
belonged to the Roman nobility, and ia the continuous strife 
between the Senatorial, or Aristocratie, and the Democratic 
parties, might have been expected to side with the aristocrats. 
But none of his own family had been very conspicuous in the 
state, and his aunt had married Marius, the greatest leader of 
the Democratic party, the great general who had saved Rome 
by his victories over the Cimhri and Teutoni. It was natural 
that his ambition should be fired by his uncle's career, and 
that his sympathies should incline toward the Democratic party. 
When he was only fifteen Marius made him priest of Jupiter, 
an office of some honor and few duties; and in 83, after the 
death of Marius, he deliberately identified himself with the 
Democratic party by marrying Cornelia, the daught«r of the 
new leader of that party, Ginna. 

Orertbrow of Cailsar'i Party. But the power of the Demo- 6 
cratic party was almost at an end. In 83 Sulla, the leader of 
the Aristocratic party, returned to Italy with his victorious 
army, after fighting for several years against Mithradatea, in 
the East. A bloody contest drove the Democrats from power; 
and in 82 the victor, determined to make a revival of that party 
impossible, slaughtered its eminent men and so changed the 
constitution of the state that the Senate was in full con- 
trol. The young Caesar, as nephew of Marius and son-in- 
law of Cinna, was too conspicuous to be overlooked. Sulla 
ordered him to divorce Cornelia, Caesar refused, and had to 
flee for his life until influential friends persuaded Snlla to 

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pardon him. Sulla's grudging consent is said to hare been 
coDpled with the warning that Caesar would prove as dangerous 
as many Mariuses. 

I WeaknesB of Opposite Party. But the form of governmetit 
set up by Sulla did not stand long, and the years which fol- 
lowed his death made more and more clear the need of some 
strong man who should give order and stability to the state. 
Daring those same years Caesar was testing and developing 
the powers which were to make hiiji the man to do this work. 

i Revival of Caesar's Party. When Sulla died, in ?8, the Sen- 
ate was in complete control: the Democratic party had neither 
a leader nor any chance to use its strength. Gradually the 
Senate lost this control, until, in 70, under the conaula Pom- 
pey and Craasns, the changes made by Sulla were completely 
done away with and the Democratic party again had au oppor- 
tunity, if it could but find a leader. For a time Pompey 
seemed likely to be this leader. In 66 the people, contrary 
to the wishes of the Senatorial party, elected him general to 
serve against Mithradates. Tliia gave him supreme control in 
Asia Minor, but kept him out of Home for the next four years. 

9 Development of Caesar's Powers. During all this time Caesar 
was developing his powers of leadership. He got a taste of 
military service in Asia Minor, and at twenty-two he won the 
civic crown of oak leaves for saving the life of a fellow citizen 
in battle; but as yet he seems to have had no thought of gain- 
ing distinction as general. A bom politician, he loted the game 
of politics for its own sake as well as for its rewards. An 
escellent orator, both by nature and by training, he used his 
oratorical powers in furthering the planS of his party. H& 
made friends easily, and his influence over them was strong. 
Therefore, before he was old enough to take office he was a 
great favorite with the people and a much sought for ally in 
political scheming; and at the earliest age permitted bylaw 
he was elected without difficulty to the offices of Quaestor (for 
68), Aedile (for 65), and Praetor (for 63). The greatest test 


of hlB popnlarity came in 63, when the office of Fontifex 
MaximuB fell vacant and Caesar was elected to tbia most 
bouorable position over the Btrongest candidate the Senatorial 
party ooald put forward. 

Caesar's Tint Kilitarr Comiutiid. Bat in spite of his ability 10 
and popularity, in the year 63 Caesar was thonght of as only 
ft^rewd politician. Rome looked npon Pompey as her greatest 
man, because he was her greatest general; and Caesar knew 
that if he should come into confiict with Pompey his shrewd- 
nesB could never prove a match for Pompey's army and gen- 
eralship. Caesar felt that he too mnst he a general, but he did 
not know whether he eoald be ; for he had never had an oppor- 
tUDity to try hia powers. The opportunity offered itself in 
61, when he was sent to govern a part of Spain. There he 
fought with great success against some of the native tribes. 
His victories were not very important in themselves, and they 
attracted no great attention in Borne; but they showed Caesar 
what he could do and made him anxious for a larger field of 

Caesar's Consulship. Caesar now wanted the consulship, the il 
highest office in the state: if he got it he intended to carry 
throngh some measures which would be opposed by the Sena- 
torial party. He therefore needed strong friends. Pompey 
bad returned in triumph from the war with Mithradates, bnt 
the Senate had refused to grant some reasonable requests which 
he had made of it. Crassus too had a grievance against the 
Senate. With these two men Caesar made a secret agreement 
that each should further the interests of the others; and thus 
Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed what is known in history 
as the First Triumvirate, a mere personal agreement, with no 
public sanction. The influence of Pompey and Crassus helped 
in securing Caesar's election to the consulship for the year 59, 
and also assisted him, when consul, in passing measures which 
were for the advantage of each of the three allies. For him- 
self Caesar took a five-year term of office as governor of Ciaal- 



pine Gaul (the northern part of Italy), Illyricom (north and 
east of the Adriatic Sea), and Transalpine Gaul (then including 
only the southern part of France). To protect these proyincet 
he was given an army of four legions. 
I Caesar's Command in Oaol. In 58, therefore, Caesar entered 
npOD his commaod. Partly because it was beat for the proT- 
ince and the state (cf. 2 and 3), and partly because he needed 
the training and the reputation of a general (cf. 10), he deter- 
mined to conquer all the rest of Gaul. How he did this he 
tells ua himself in the Commentaries; and a brief summary pre* 
fixed to each book in this edition makes it unnecessary to tell 
the story here. Since he found the fire years originally given 
him too short for the full accomplishment of his purpose, he 
secured an additional five years. By the year 50 the last trace 
of resistance to Koman authority had been crushed, and Caesar's 
great task was completed. Moreover, he now had a perfectly 
disciplined, veteran army, enthusiastically devoted to its leader. 

3 Ontbreak of Civil War. It was high time that Caesar should 
have his hands free, for a greater task lay before him. For 
several years Pompey and Craasus had looked out for his inter- 
ests in Rome. But io 53 Crasaua was killed iu battle; and at 
about the same time Pompey began to feel jealous of Caesar's 
success and fearful of his power. lie gradually turned away 
from Caesar and attached himself to the Senatorial party, which 
had always hated Caesar. On the first day of the year 49 the 
Senate VDted that Caesar should lay down his command and 
return to Home as a private citizen, though the time for which 
the command had been given him had not yet expired. Caesar 
was then in Cisalpine Gaul, and his reply was an immediate 
march toward Kome. 

4 Weakness of the Constitntional Qovemment. But during 
Caesar's absence from Rome the complete failure of the consti- 
tutional form of government had shown that the so-called 
republic could not exist much longer. Trials and elections 
vere decided by bribery and bloodshed. The governing partj 

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had been so veak that for one entire yew a snoceeeioD of riots 
had prevented the holding of elections, ^ow when it was 
attacked by Caesar it again showed its weakness. Although it 
had taken steps which were sore to bring on civil war it had 
done nothing to prepare for that war, except to appoint Pom- 
pey its commander-in-chief. In abont two months from the time 
when Caesar marched into northern Italy, Pompey set sail from 
Bouthem Italy with his army aad most of the Senate, leaving 
Borne and Italy in Caesar's hands. 

CiTil War Hakes Caesar Haster of Borne. Bat Uie hardest ift 
fighting of Itis life lay before Caesar. Pompey had crossed the 
Adriatic only to gain time for preparation. Besides, while Pom- 
pey*B strong army lay on the east of Italy, there was another 
large army of Caesar's enemies in Spain, on the west. But 
Caesar's magnifies.. t army and wonderful generalship carried 
him tbroogh all difficulties. In 49 he marched to Spain and 
defeated his enemies there. In 48 he followed Pompey across 
the Adriatic and utterly rooted his army in the great battle 
of Pharsalns. Pompey himself fled to Egypt and was assas- 
sinated by order of the connselors of the Egyptian king. Caesar 
followed him to Egypt with an insufficient force and was 
blockaded for several months in the city of Alexandria by the 
Egyptian army. Meanwhile the remnants of Pompey's army 
made their way to the northern coast of Africa, and a new army 
was there organized to oppose Caesar. In 46 Caesar defeated 
this army too, at Tbapsns, eo decisively that he is said to have 
lost but fifty men while fifty thousand of the enemy fell. Then 
the sons of Pompey rallied thelast opponents of Caesar, in Spmn, 
for a final struggle, and Caesar's victory at Uunda in 45 made 
him the undisputed master of the Koman world. 

Caesar as Statesman. Caesar was no mere soldier, and it was 16 
from DO choice of his own that he spent all these years in 
fighting. He became a general because that was the only way to 
achieve his purpose of becoming sole roler of Rome. Bat 
that purpose was not prompted wholly by personal ambition. 



He had begnn as a politician and had matured into a great 
statesman. There bad been many abases in the state, and 
the civil war had bronght in confusion as well. With 
characteiietic energy and clear-sightedness he set himself to 
bring order out of chaos, to organize the whole empire, and 
to improve its details.^ To carry out this work he needed the 
best mea in tbe state, regardless of party: hence he pardoned 
those who had fonght against him and gave some of them 
positions of high honor and great responsibility. He reformed 
the calendar. He took measures to remedy the financial 
disorders of the country. He planned a codification of the 
laws. He intended to carry out some great engineering feats, 
among others the cutting of a canal through the isthmus of 
Corinth. In order to protect the frontiers of the empire he 
planned military expeditions against the Farthians and the 
nations along the Dannbe. 
T Assassination of Caesar. Such enormous plans needed time 
for their execution, and time was denied to Caesar. A form of 
government which had stood for centuries could not be over- 
thrown without grieving some true lovera of their country. 
One man could not make himself the master of all others, who 
had previously been his equals, without arousing jealousy. One 
man could not select the men to fill all ofQces without disap- 
pointing many. Men of all these classes, patriots, would-be 
rivals, and disappointed office seekers, joined in a conapiracy, 
and on the fifteenth of March, H R.G., Caesar fell beneath their 
daggers while presiding over a meeting of the Senate. The 
history of the following years shows the folly of this murder. 
For themselres the assassina reaped only death, since in a very 
few years every one whose fate is known had died by violence. 
For the state the deed was equally disastrous, since the assassin- 
ation of Caesar merely caused a bloody civil war to intervene 
between his rule and that of Augustus. 

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■ Age. 

Birth of Caesar. Julf 13. Morins defeats the Teutooi 1 

1 Mariua defeats the Cimbri. 

15 Marius appoints Caesar Prieet of Jupiter. 

16 Death of Marius. Cinna is Dictator. 

19 Caesar marrieH Cornelia, daughter of Cinoa, the Dictator. 

20 Sulla becomes perpetual Dictator. He proscribes and 

pardons Caesar. Caesar leaves Rome for the East. 
22 Caesar wiaa the oivfo orown at Hjtilene. 
34 Sulla diee. Caesar retuma to Rome. 

36 CoeHar sails to Rhodes to study under Molo. 

38 Caesar la elected Military Tribune and Pontifex. 

32 Consulship of Pomftey and Craseus. The Sullan congtitu- 

tioD is overthrown. 
34 Caesar is Quaestor. 

37 Caesar is Curule Aedile. 

39 Caesar is elected Praetor and Pontifex Maximus. Cicero 

b Consul Conspiracy of Catiline exposed, 

40 Caesar is Praetor Pompey returns from the East- 

41 Caesar is Propraetor in Farther Spain. 

43 Caesar is elected Consul. "First Triumvirate" is formed. 

43 Caesar is Consul. He marries Calpumia. 

44 Caesar becomes Proconsul of Gaul. Campaigns against thfl 

Helvetii and Ariovistus. Cicero is exited. 

45 Caesar conquers the Belgae. Recall of Cicero. 

46 Caesar's campaign in Brittany. 

47 Caesar invades Britain and Oenn&ny. Pompey and 

Craasua are joint Consuls for the second time. 

48 Caesar invadee Britain a second time. Death of Julia. 

49 The northeastern Gauls rebel Crassus is slain. 

50 General revolt of the Gauls. Alienation of Pompey. 

51 Caesar completes the conquest of Gaul. 

I 53 The quarrel between Caesar and the Senate. 
I 53 Civil War. Caesar is made Dictator. 

64 Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey is killed in 
Egypt. The "Alexandrian War." 

55 Cae^r, again Dictator, reorganizes the government. 
i 56 The "African War." The Pompeians defeated at Thapsus. 
i 67 The "Spanish War." Battle of Munda. 
L 68 Caesar Dictator for life. Assassinated March 16th. 



IV. Caesar as General 

19 Tho Commentaries present Caesar to oar view aa a military 
leader of the first rank, and yet he had reached middle life 
before he held an independent command. During his youth, 
when the fascinations of "war's wild trade" may have attracted 
him, all the channels to military prefennent were cloeed to 
him on account of bis connection with the Marian party. 
When he finally turned his attention to war, he brought the 
calm calculation of the man of affairs seeking to accomplish 
certain desirable ends through its agency. Neither the charm 
aor the traditions of camp and field life held sway over his 
mind. Love of military glory alone never lured him on, nor 
was the sweep of his genius hampered by the shackles of an 
exclusively military training. 

20 Characteristics u General. The Commentaries reveal his 
method. He clearly conceived the object desired and took the 
most direct way possible to reach it. When it best soited his 
purpose he was deliberate and cautious, watching for the beat 
opportunity to strike a crushing blow. Yet in an emergency 
he would coolly carry out the moat daring plans, so that he 
sometimes appears even reckless; but this apparent recklessness 
was the resnlt of swift and unerring decision, based on a keen 
insight into the chu:acter and probable action of his opponents. 
He always took the offensive and endeavored to concentrate 
his force and strike the enemy unexpectedly. He made up by 
quickness of movement for his lack of numbers. In battle he 
was cool and confident. He was devoid of fear, and when 
necessary fought in the foremost ranks. If the enemy fied he 
pursued him vigorously with his cavalry, slaughtering without 
mercy as long as a man was to be reached. He was sometimes 
cruel from policy, though naturally clement. 

21 Power over his Xea. Caesar won the entire devotion of his 
army, and this was one of the secrets of his success. He 
was careful of the comfort and lives of his men. He saw 


to it that they had an abandance of sopplies. He cautioned 
them against unnecessarj risk in battle, and sometimeB refueed 
to allow them to fight in dangeronB places even when the; 
wished to do so. He ruled bj tact rather than b; fear. He gen- 
eroDsly rewarded their valor and fidelity, and knev how to ronse 
them on occasion to the highest pitch of enthiiBiasm. Bat 
such statements only partially account for his ascendency oyer 
their minds. He possessed in t)ie fullest measnre that 
combination of natural qualities which makes a man a bom 
leader. Therefore his army was the obedient instrument 
of his will and endured QDexampled hardships without a 

V, Caesar ab Author 

Caesar's genius was many-sided, and he might have been no 2a 
less eminent as an orator and an author than as a statesman 
and a general, if he had chosen those fields of activity for 
their own sake. Etcq as it was, though he spoke and wrote 
mainly for political effect, he was recognized by his contempo- 
raries as an orator second only to Cicero, and the simplicity, 
clearness, and terseness of his Commentaries have made them a 
classic from his day to our own. In the purity of their 
Latinity they rank with Cicero's works as the best that have 
come down to us. The interest of the narrative and the 
quality of the generalship shown in it have made the book a 
favorite with some of the world's greatest generals. The 
great Napoleon, for example, recommended it to his officers 
and himself wrote an abstract of it. 

Pnipose in Writing the Commentariefl en the Oallic War. 23 
Yet the book was written hastily, probably in the winter of 
53-51, after the events narrated in Book VII; and it was 
written for a politic al purpose. Absent from Kome and 
deprived of his two chief supporters by the death of Crassus 
and the alienation of Pompey, Caesar wished to put himseK i» 
a good hght before the Koman people. With such a purpoBn 



he might have been expected to misstate some facts ; and th«r» 
have been man; attempts to show that he did so. Bnt a fair 
Qxamination of these attempts shows that not one of them is 
well-founded. There may be occasional mistakes, where 
Caesar was forced to rely on information furnished him by the 
Ganls; bnt it cannot be proved that there is a single ioten* 
tional false statement in the whole work, 
t ' Caesar's Other Writings. In addition to the Commentaii^ 
on the Gallic War, in seven books, we have Caesar's Com- 
mentaries on the Civil War, in three books. Besides these we 
know of other works, now lost. We hear of some poetry and 
a collection of jests. He wrote a treatise on grammar while 
traveling rapidly from Rome to Spain. He wrote a treatise on 
astronomy when he reformed the calendar. He wrote an attack 
on Cato to counteract the effect of certain books which in 
praising Cato attacked Caesar. All this shows his versatility; 
but probably no one of these works would have been very 
valuable if it had been preserved. 

Vr. The Gal'ls 

s Firat Appearance of the Oanis in History. Some seven 
centuries before Christ, a tall, fair-haired race of men, the 
Gauls, began crossing the Ehine and conquering the original 
inhabitants of the country on its we^t. In time they overran 
everything as far as tlie Pyrenees, partly destroying the origioal 
inhabitants, partly uniting with them. Abont five centuries 
before Christ they began crossing the Alps and settling in 
northern Italy, and in 390 B.C. they took Kome and burned 
it. Rome was then but a small city, governing only the part 
of Italy which immediately surrounded it. 

6 Pint Decline of Oallic Power. But from that time on the 
power of Rome increased and that of the Ganls decreased. A 
little more than two centuries before Christ, after desperate 
fighting, the Romans conquered and held northern Italy, 
Cisalpine Gaul. Again in the years from 133 to 118 there was 


hard Sghting with Gauls, and at the end Rome controlled that 
part of Gaul which Caeaar calls PrSvinoia (see 2). 

Invasion of Clmbri and Teotoni. In 113 began the invaeioa 27 
of the Cimbri and Tentoni, the most terrible danger of Rome 
since the day when the Gaols bnmed the city. It is not known 
whether they were Germans or Ganls, and probably the Romans 
of the time did not discriminate between the two races. They 
crossed the Rhine with their women and children, and marched 
slowly through Gaul, leaving a waste wherever they had passed. 
Several Roman armies met them and were cnt to pieces. At last 
they made ready to invade Italy, the Teatoni by the western 
Alps, the Cimbri by the eastern. Bnt the great Marius was 
now in command of a Roman army. In 102 he met the 
Teutoni and destroyed them. In 101 he joined the other 
Roman army and destroyed the Cimbri. 

Geographical Diviaions of Oanl in Caesar's Time. In Caesar's 2B 
time Cisalpin e Gaul was almost as Roman as any other part of 
Italy. From it Caesar recruited his legions and levied new 
ones; and later he gave its inhabitants the right of Roman citi- 
ienship. The Province was peaceable and loyal to Rome, 
althongh the Allobroges had rebelled only a few years before. 
Caesar's task was the subjugation of all the rest of the Gauls, 
the inhabitants of all the country lying north of the Prov- 
ince and west of the Rhine. This is the country which he 
calls Gallia. However, he divides it into three parts and often 
uses the name Gallia of only the great central part, Gallia 
Celtics, where the Gallic stock was purest. In the south- 
western part, Aqnitania, fewer of the Gallic invaders had settled, 
and the population consisted largely of descendants of the 
original inhabitants. In the northeastern part, Bel^um, Ger- 
mans had settled in large numbers. 

Factions in Oanl. If Caesar had found Gaul a compact 29 
nation bis task would have been more difficult than it was. 
Bnt faction and division seem to have been a part of the Qallio 
uatore, and he took advantage of this characteristic. Gaol 


was cut up into many small etatea, each feeling itself right- 
fully independent. These states fought frequently with one 
another, and the weaker of them were either forced into 
dependence on the stronger or voluntarily attached themselves 
to stronger states for protection. In this way loose leagues or 
confederations were formed, between which rivalry and war- 
fare vent on. In Oallia Celtica the chief confederations were 
the one beaded by the Haedui and the one formerly headed 
by the Arverni, but in Caesar's time headed by the Seqnani. 
But the evils of faction did not stop here. The individual 
states, for the most part, bad no strong governments. Appar- 
ently most of them had been governed by kings one or two 
generations before Caesar's time; but a series of revolutions 
had generally abolished the kingly office and had snbstitnted 
magistrates elected yearly. The real power lay in the hands of 
rich nobles, or eqnites as Caesar calls them. Each of these 
nobles lived snrrounded by nnmerons slaves and retainers; and 
as there was no power strong enough to keep them in order, 
individual nobles or leagues of nobles sometimes pushed their 
continuous rivalries to the point of civil war. 

30 Caesar's ITae of the Gallic Factions. This factional spirit was 
of great assistance to Caesar, for he usually found means to 
attach one faction or the other to himself. For example, at 
the outset he found two factions in the state of the Haedui, 
headed by two brothers, Diviciacus, friendly to the Romans, 
and Dumnorix, hostile to them. By strengthening Biviciacus 
and checking Dumnorix he secured the help of the state. The 
state was the leader of one of the two leagues in Celtic Gaol, 
and Caesar thus secured the submission of all the states in that 
league without fighting for it. In fact, not only did be have 
their passive submission, bnt he obtained from them provisions 
and men to use in conquering other parts of Gaul. 

31 Gallic Civilization. The details of the Gallic manners and 
customs can be learned best from Chapters 11-20 of Book VI. 
It will be enough to say here that in Caesar's time the Gaula 

., .Coo>;Ic 


vere not irild barbariaDs, bnt had attained a considerable 
degree of civilization. They had long passed the stage of 
roaming about from one part of the country to another; 
though we find, in the first book of the Commentaries, that 
for special reasons the Helvetii intended to leave their homes 
and find new ones. They had roads and bridges and towns 
of considerable size, fortified by well built walls. 

VII. Cab bar's Abht 


The legions formed the strength of Caesar's army. When 32 
the euemy met him in hand to hand battle the legions bore the 
brunt of the fighting and won him the victory. Bat since they 
consisted of heavily armed, and therefore comparatively slow, 
foot soldiers, and since their weapons were useless at any con- 
siderable distance, the legions needed the assistance of cavalry 
and light-armed infantry, to complete their Bnccesa. 

Organization of the L^on. In theory a legion consisted of 33 
6000 men; bat battles, accidents, and disease so reduced this 
number that Caesar's legiona probably averaged about 4000 
men, or even less. The following table gives the divi^ona of 
a legion and their theoretical strength: 

century [centum, hundred] = 100 men 

2 centuries - 1 maniple - '^00 men 

3 maniples * 1 cohort = 600 men 
10 cohorts = 1 legion = 6060 men 

In theory, ag^n, the legions were made up of Roman citizens; 
but in fact a large part of Caesar's legionary soldiers came from 
Cisalpine Gaul, which had not yet received the right of citizen- 
ship. However, it was thoroughly Bomanized, and, in spirit at 
least, Caesar's legionaries were Roman citizens. 

,,, .GlKwIc 




(Plate I) 

Clothing, a. A eieeveleas woolen shirt, reaching nearly to 
the knees. 

5. Tight-fitting leather trousers, or perliaps merely bandages 
vrapped abont the legs. 

c. Shoes or saudals. 

d. A heavy cloak tor bad weather. ThU serred also as a 
blanket at night. 

Armor, a. A helmet of leather (galea) or metal (oasaia). 

b. A leather coat (lonca), strengthened by bands of metal 
across the shoulders, breast, and back. 

c. A curved wooden shield (scStom), covered with leather, 
and having a metal boss in the center. It was about four feet 

high and two and a half feet wide. 

d. Perhaps a greave on the right leg, though Caesar 
does not mention it. This was very much like a foot- 
ball shin-guard, but made of metal. 

Arms. a. A heavy wooden javelin 
(pilnm, Fig. 1), with a long iron point 
which was strong enough to pierce any 
armor but was likely to bend as it did 
80. Therefore it could not easily be 
withdrawn when it had pierced a 
shield, and could not be thrown back 
by the enemy. After the battle the 
javelins were gathered and straightened 
by the Eomans. Each soldier carried 
but one javelin. 

i. A straight, heavy, two-edged sword 
(gladioi. Fig. 3), about two feet long, 
adapted for either cutting or thrusting. 
Its scabbard (vS^na) hung from a belt 
(baltene) which passed over the left 


ehoalder. The sword was thus on the right side, out of the 
way of the shield. But the higher officers, who carried no 
shield, wore, the sword on the l^ft aide. 

Individual Baggage. Besides hia personal belongings each 37 
aoldier carried his share of the picks, spades, baskets, etc. , used 
in entrenching the camp; cooking ntensils; and several days' 
rations of grain, which seems to hare been apportioned oat 
only twice a month. All this, weighing from thirty to forty-five 
pounds, was made into a pack (satoina) and strapped on a forked 
stick; this the aoldier carried on his shoulder. While thns 
encumbered the soldiers were said to be ImpedlU. If the army 
was attacked on the march the packs were stacked in one 
place onder guard, and the soldiers were then ezpedlti. 

Le^tUfl. All governors of provinces were given several 3S 
l^ati, deputies or assistants. These legates were not strictly 
military officers, but were to be employed by the governors in 
any way they saw fit, Caesar introduced the innovation of 
putting a legate in command of each legion just before a battle. 
When one or more legions were detached from the main army 
for Epecial service, Caesar put a legate in command; and legates 
were left in command of the winter quarters during Caesar's 
absence. But no one legate was in permanent command of any 
one legion. 

Qoaestor. The quaestors were financial officers, elected 39 
yearly by the people at Eome. One was chosen by-lot to take 
charge of the finances of each province, so that Caesar always 
had one with him. He took charge of the pay and the 
sapplies of the army. When he was competent Caesar 
employed him in battle as he did his legatea, putting him in 
command of a legion. 

Praefeotni Fabrum. The chief of engineers had charge of 40 
anch matters as the building of bridges, construction of camps, 
erection of siege works, repair of artillery, and the refitting ol 



BhipB. He prob&bly had special assistants, but the actual labor 
was performed by skilled men detailed from the ranks. 

1 Tribonas. Ko single ollicer permanently commanded t, 
legion, as our colonels command regiments. Each legion had 
six tribunes, who took the chief command in rotation, wbile 
the rest probably commanded groups of cohorts or were 
assigned to special service. In Caesar's army many of the 
tribunes were experienced and capable officers, who did good 
service ; but others were yonng men without military experience, 
who had been appointed only because they were friends or 
relatives of infloential men at Borne whom Caesar wished to 
please. It was for this reason that Caesar pnt his legates and 
quaestor in command of the legions in battle. On the march 
or in camp a tribune was in command. 

2 Centnrifi. The centurions commanded centuries, and there 
were therefote sixty in each legion. On them fell the 
immediate management of the men in battle. They fought in 
the ranks like the men and were expected to set the men ati 
example of conspicuous bravery. They were therefore pro- 
moted from the ranks on the basis of their strength and size 
as well aa their skill and gallantry. They could hope for no 
promotion above the rank of centurion; but there were grades 
of centurions from one to the other of which they rose. The 
highest of all was the first centurion of the first cohort, the 
pnmipilnB. He and a few others, just how many is not known, 
were called centurions of the first rank (oenturidnes primorum 
firdinom, br primi ordinea), and were commonly summoned to 
conncils of war along with the tribunes and legates. 


3 Aqnila. £ach legion had as its standard a bronze or silver 
eagle (aqnila), carried on the top of a wooden staS. It was 
regarded with almost religious respect, and its loss was the 
deepest disgrace that could befall the legion. It was in charge 
of the first centurion of the first cohort, and was carried by a 


I. legionarii s. signifen 7. bibicen 

, 8. Sucinotor 

Roman Soldiebs 


man of conspicnone strength and bravery, the aqnilifer (Plate 

Signnm. Each cohort had its own standard (■ignom), «« 
carried by a ngnifei (Plate I, 5). These standards were of 
Tarious forms — an open hand, the figore of an animal, etc. On 
the staff, below the figure, were fastened the deoorations of 
honor which had been bestowed on the cohort — disks, half 
moona, wreaths, and tassels. The diversity of form was 
necessary in order that each soldier might recognize easily the 
standard of his own cohort. In hasty preparation for battle 
each man fonnd his place by looking for his standard; and all 
through ihe battle he regulated his movements by thoBe of bis 
standard. For this reason the technical t«rms for such 
maneuvers as advancing and retreating are slgna inferre, stgna 
referre, etc. 

Hniical Instrnmenti. There were no bands, and the only 4s 
nse mads of musical instruments was in the giving of signals. 
The only instrument mentioned by Caesar in the Glallic War 
is the tuba, a straight brazen trumpet, blown by a tubiceo, 
bat others were prolmbly nsed as well (Plate I, 7, 8). 


The heavy baggage (impedimenta) consisted of tents, pro- 46 
visions, hand-mills for grinding grain, engines of war, etc., and 
was carried on pack horses or mules (inmenta). These were 
driven or led by .the drivers (mulionSs) and camp servants 
(calSuSt), who were probably slaves. 


Infuitry. The light armed infantry (Plate I, 1 and 2), 47 
which Caesar usually calls Roxilia, contained no Roman 
citisens. Caesar had sliagers (fonditfires) from the Balearic 
Islands, and archers (B^tt&iii) from Crete and Numidia; but 
most of his light armed infantry was drawn from friendly 
Gallic tribes and was armed in the native fashion. He put 
little reliaoce oo them for serions fighting, but made them 

■, Google 


luefal in Tarions vays: itB Bkirmisbers, to delay the enemy's 
attack; as raiders; in making fortificationB at a critical time; 
for mere show, to impress the enemy with hia numbera; and 
in pargnit of a routed enemy. Their higher officera were 
prefects (praefecti). Their standard was a banner (TeziUum, 
Plate I, 4) attached to a horizontal cross-piece at the end of a 
46 Cavalry. Caesar had no Roman cavalry. Daring bis first 
six years in Gaol be had none bnt GaHic cavalry, but in the 
aeventh year he secured some Germans and fonnd them much 
more effective. They were aseless against a line of infantry, 
but met the enemy's cavalry. Caesar employed them especially 
as sconts and raidera, or in pursuit of a routed enemy. Their 
higher officers were praefecti, and their standards were vexillft 
(cf. 47). 


49 A Roman army never halted even for one night withoat 
fortifying its camp (caitra) with a wall and trench. This muat 
have cost two or three hours of hard work; but it made the 
army safe from attack, and ao allowed the general to choose 
hie own time and place for battle; and in case of defeat the 
camp was a place of refuge. 

50 Location and Form of Camp. Whenever it was poBBible the 
camp was built on a hill sloping gently toward the enemy, so 
that the Roman army coald form its line of battle in front of 
the camp and make the enemy charge np hill. The normal shape 
of the camp was a square or oblong, but it bad to be accom- 
modated to the shape of the hill. Fig. 3 aliowa the normal 
shape, while Fig. 4 shows the actual shape of one of Caesar's 
camps. Within the camp, streets were laid out in accordance 
with a fixed plan, and every legion, every cohort, every maniple 
had always the same location. Fig. 3 shows the normal 
arrangement for a camp wliich would accommodate five 

n„jN.«j.-v Google 


Portifloatioiu of Camp (Fig. b). The size of the trench s 
(fbiw) varied, bnt vas nsually aboat nine feet wide and seven 













5^ [231^ 

g Praetorlum pi 















I, First Legion 
' Second Coftoi 

Fio. 3. P1.JIN OF A RouAH Cahp (RUston) 

deep. The earth, dug ont with spades and carried in baekets, 
was piled np just inside the trench to make the wall (voUum). 
This wall was faced partly with sods, partly with bundles of 
sticks (fascines), so that it was quite 
steep on the outside. Other fas- 
cines were pnt inside the wall, to 
strengthen it. It stood about six 
feet high, was wide enongb 00 top ' 
to let the soldiers move about com- 
fortably in fighting, and sloped bo 
gradnally toward the inside that sol- 
diers conld easily ascend it. Some- 
times this slope was faced with logs, 
so as to make steps. On the outer 


edge of the top stood a row of palisadea (rtlll), about (onr feet 
high, which served as a breastwork. In case of an attack the 

snemy would be halted by the ditch several feet from the 
wall, and he completely exposed to the Roman javelins, while 
the defenders stood on a higher position, protected by a breast- 
work, and could throw their missiles with great effect. In 
times of especial danger, tovers (tnrrei) were erected at inter- 
vals on top of the wall. 
2 Gates of Camp. Usually there was one gate (porta) on each 
of the four e'des; hnt in the camp represented in Fig. 4 
there were two gates in front, where the soldiers had most 
occasion to pass in and out. The gates were mere openings in 
the wall, about forty feet wide as a rule. Fig. 4 shows how 
they were protected. A short curved wall projected into the 
camp from the left side of the gate. A line of soldiers stood 
in the gate, and another manned this wall. If the enemy got 
into the opening they would be exposed on their shieldleas side 
to a shower of miesilea from the wall. Ordinarily this was a 
sufficient protection, and it left the gates open for a sodden 
charge from within. Bnt in times of great emergency the 
gates could be walled ap solidly. 



t. legatus 3. cenhoiO t. Hi 

t'or c. OalUc standard bearer 7. Oaltic cMt 

RouAN Officers and Gauls: .CiOCiyl 


Line of ICarch. The vanguard usnally coneisted of cavalry S3 
and light armed in&ntry. Under ordinary circumatatices each 
legion was followed by a train of pack snimale carrying its 
baggage; bnt in the near neighborhood of the enemy all the 
b^gage was bronght together, preceded hj most of the legions 
and followed by the rest. 

Length of Hareh. The length of a day's march of course 54 
varied greatly, according to the nature of the country and the 
need for haste. As the soldier bad to carry from forty-five to 
sixty pounds of arms and baggage, and as the army had to halt 
early in the afternoon to give time for making camp, the rate 
of march of the army could be nothing like that of an nnen- 
cumbered individual. Probably when there was no need of 
haste the average march was no more than twelve to fifteen 
miles, and a day of rest was given about every fifth day. Bnt 
Caesar, like Napoleon, owed much of his success to his power of 
inspiring his army to great efforts on the march. When he 
speaks of forced marches (ma^s itinera, wia-yima itinera), we 
are to think of marches of from eighteen to twenty-five miles a 
day, or even more. On one occasion he marclied four legions, 
without baggage, fifty Roman miles in less than thirty hours, 
including all stops. 

Since the legions had to do the serious work of fighting, the 55 
line of battle was arranged solely with reference to their 
tactics. When the enemy were within the short range of the 
Roman javelins they were met by a volley of these deadly 
missiles and their ranks were thus broken. Immediately the 
BomaoB charged, and the rest of the battle was fought out at 
close quarters with the sword. When possible, therefore, the 
line ot battle was drawn np facing down a gentle slope. This 
gave greater range to the javelins and greater impetus to the 
charge; while the enemy must begin the battle breathless from 


a charge up the hill. The anxiliary infantry might be posted 
in front of the line, but it was expected to do no more than 
delay the attack of the enemy. More often it was posted on 
the flanks, sometimes merely as a show of strength. The 
cavalry might meet the cavalry of the enemy. Otherwise it 
usually merely awaited the ront of the enemy, when it pnrsaed 
and cut to pieces the fugitives. 

5 Line of Battle. The line of battle was commonly triple 
(triplex acies), though Bomettmes only double (duplex aciSa). 
In the triple line of battle the first line was composed of the 
first four cohorts of each legion, standing side by side, with 
no intervals between the cohorts. Three cohorts of each legion 
formed the second line, which stood a short distance behind 
the first, ready to relieve it when it became exhansted in the 
battle. The remaining three cohorts of each legion formed 
the third line, in the rear, and were held as a reserve for any 
emergency. Each of these lines was eight or ten men deep, 
and only the front rank of the first line could engage in the 
battle at any one moment. But that rank would fight 
vigorously for a few moments, then fall back and be relieved 
by the nest tank, and so on until all the men of the first line 
had been engaged. Tlien it was relieved as a whole by the 
second line. 

7 Orbis. When surrounded by the enemy and hard pressed, a 
body of men would form what is now called a hollow square, 
and what the Romans called a circle (otbis), with the baggage 
and camp servants inside the ring of armed men. 

a A great part of Caesar's military operations consisted in the 
capture of walled towns. The fortification of these towns was 
rather primitive, but it was quite effective (Fig. 6). The face 
of the wall showed regnlar rows of log ends separated by huge 
stones. No one log could be grappled and pulled out, for they 
were all fastened together far within the wall. The logs 


would not bam, for they were each imbedded in stone and 
earth. A battering-ram could demolish a solid stone wall, 
but the framework of timbers 
defied it. Therefore Caesar 
relied little on making breaches 
in the walla and entering in that 
way. But there were three 
other possible methods — a block- 
ade, a sadden assault, and a 
formal siege. 

Blockad«(ob8idi5). A ring of ^""^ Seotiok of Ga.^.c Wali. 5, 
fortifications could be built around the town, and the place 
starred into submission. Bnt this was too slow a method to 
be employed unless all other methods were hopeless, and Caesar 
used it only once in the Gallic War. 

Sadden Assault (oppagn&tio repentina). If a town had lew 60 
walls and few defenders, it might be taken by a sudden assault. 
Archers and slingera kept the wall partly clear of defenders. 
Soldiers approached the wall in safety by holding their shields 
over their heads and letting them overlap, forming a testadfi 
(tortoise, Plate III, 3). If there was a trench around the wall, 
they filled it with bundles of brushwood (oriites, fascines). 
Then they mounted the wall by means of scaling ladders 
(scalae, Plate III). But such towns would usually surrender 
without a struggle, so that the method was little used. 

Pormal Siege (oppngi^tio). The favorite method was by 61 
the use of the agger and tower (tnrris). The agger was a great 
causeway, built of logs and earth, which sloped gradually up 
toward the top of the wall. Generally it was not intended to 
be as high as the wall. In that case a tower, several stories 
high, was pushed up the causeway on rollers. From the upper 
stories, which rose higher than the wall, archers and slingers 
and artillery shot down the defenders. When the tower was 
near enough, a drawbridge was let down from one of the lower 
■toriea to the top of the wall, and the Romans charged across 

. ..c:oo'-ic 



it. Sometimes the causeway was as high as the wall, and thus 
itself gave access to its top (Fig. 7). Sometimes, if tJie wall wiia 

- " ^ 

Fio. 7. Sine View of Agcrh im Pbocesb of Comstbcction 
ft b. the e7iemi/'a walL f g h, part alreadti conalrucled. c d e f h. part to be can- 
atructed. abed, pari to be filled in icilh earth and rubbUh al the lasl miymerU. 
p p p. tines of plulei protecling the workmen. The tinea of direction skmii tht 
epacea protected by the plutei. 
low and the ground aboat it level, no causeway was built, and 
the tower was pushed over the ground to the wall. Then a 
battering-ram might be hung ia the lowest storj, and the 
drawbridge was let down from one of the upper stories. Plate 
III illustrates this method of using the tower, as well as severaJl 
other devices; but the city is not a Gallic town. 
62 Xeans of Froteoting the Besiegers. In building the agger 
and carrying on the other operations of a siege the aesailants 
had to approach within easy range of missiles from the wall: 
hence they made use of several 
forms of protection. 

a. The pluteus (Fig. 8) was a 
heavy shield, several feet liigh, 
mounted on wheels. A line of 
these, parallel to the wall, gave 
Fig. 8 protection to men working imme- 

diately behind it; and it could be 
moved forward at pleasure. 

b. The mnscnlua (Fig. 9) was a hut 
with one end open and the other 

end partially closed. Its roof was ' 

strong enough to withstand the Fio. 9 



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shock of great etonea which might be. dropped upon it from 
the wall. It oouM be pushed up to the wall, and under its 
Bheltar men conld dig out 
the foundation of the wall. 

c. Tlie testfido ariet&ria 
(Plate in, 2) was a similar 
hut in which hung a batter- 
ing-ram (aries), a heavy tim- 
ber capped with iron, in- 
tended to be Bwung against 
the wall. 

i. The TOiw (Fig. 10) was 
a lighter hut, open at both '° 

enda. A number of theee placed end to end made a sate cot- 
ered gallery extending from a point out of range up to the 
muKuIi, -testudiniB, or pintti. 
AU these huts were pushed forward on rollers. 
The Artillery. — Caesar had with him engines of war, the 63 
purpose of which corresponded to that of modern artillery. 
They were too heavy 
and clumsy to be of 
much service in bat- 
tle: hence their chief 
use was in siege op- 
erations. The gen- 
eral name tormenta is 
derived from torque o, 
to twist, and was ap- 
plied to them because 
the propelling force 
wasobtained by twist- 
ing a stick between 
two tightly stretched 
horse-hair ropes. 
Fro. n catapttlta O" '^'he ballista 



(Plate III, 5) threw he^vy etonee at a considerable angle from 
the horizoDtal. 

b. The catapult (oatapnlta) threw great arrows nearly hori- 
zontally. Fig. 11 makea most of its mechaniBm clear without 
explanation, (a) is an arrangement for raising or lowering 
the rear of ths nearly horizontal track, thus regalating the 
range. The track is grooved to hold a long sliding carriage, on 
the rear portion of which is the trigger (b). The operation of 
firing was as follows: The carriage was pushed forward till the 
claws of the trigger wore over the bowstring; a block (c) was 
shoved under the heavy rear end of the trigger, and the claws 
were thus held down on the string; the carriage was drawn 
back by means of the windlass, and held in place by the hook 
(d); the arrow was laid on the grooved upper snrf&ce of the 
carriage, with its end resting on the string between the claws 
of the trigger; the block (c) was withdrawn and the- rear end 
of the trigger fell by its own 
weight, thus releasing the 

c. The Horpio was a small 

d. The onager (Plate III, 
4) thrsw atones, like the 
balliat&, but -was of different 


I The fleet is to be consid- 

ered aa belonging to the 
army, rather than as a sep- 
arate organization ; for when 
Caesar had need of it he 
manned it with his legiona- 
ries, put tribunes and centa- 
F,a 12 rions in command of Indi- 

. . ,,, .GlKwIc 


Tidnal shipa, and made one of hie legates its admiral. The 
ships of war were about eight times ae long as they were broad, 
and were therefore called n&vei longae, in distinction from the 
transports (navea onerftriae), which were shorter and wider. 
They had a mast and single sail, but in battle depended 
on oara for their propulsion. Their prows (Fig. 13) were 
armed with metal beaks (roatra), with which to ram the ships 
of the enemy. If the Romans failed in this they sought to 
make the battle as much as possible like a battle on land, 
their special object being to grapple one of the enemy's ship* 
ind board it. 



The following list of books will suggest those which are most 
helpfnl to pupiU and teachers who read only English. Those 
who wish to make a more detailed study of special points will 
find that Holmes gives references to almost everything of 
importance in the enormous literature of Caesar, except on th« 
lingoistic side. 


A. Holder. (Freiburg and Tubingen, 1882.) This may be 
naeful for its (inaccurate) index of words, which is intended to 
be complete. 

H. Meusel. (Berlin, 1894.) The critical edition is the best 
text edition of the Gallic War. No explanatory notes. 

H. Rheinhard. (Stnttgart, 1896.) Uaefnl for its illustra- 

Of the following English editions the first two are nsefnl: 

C. E. Moberly. (The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1878.) 

A. G. Peskett. (Cambridge, 1878-1882.) 

St. George Stock. (The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1898.) 
Usually good when it follows good authorities. 

Caesar's Life and Campaigns 

Col. T. A. Dodge. Caesar. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1894.) 
Useful if Napoleon can not be obtained, but without much inde- 
pendent value. 

W. Warde Fowler. JuUus Caesar. (G. P. Putnam's Song, 
1892.) The best life of Caesar. 

J. A. Froude. Caesar: a Sketch. Interesting, bnt grossly 
partisan and inaccurate. 

T. Rice Holmes. Caesar's Conquest of Gaul. (Macmillan 

n„jN.«j.-v Google 


& Co., London, 1899.) Tiie best diBcuBsioii, in any language, 
of the military and geographical problems. 

Napoleon III, History of Julius Caesar. (Oat of print, but 
can be obtained at second hand. If possible get the Atlaa with 
the two volumes. The French edition is more easily obtained.) 
Volume II gives a more complete narrative and explanation of 
Caesar's campaigas in Gaul than can be found elsewhere, but 
without much discussion of disputed points. 

C. W. C, Oman. iSeven Roman Statesmen. (Edward Arnold, 
London, 1902.) The characterization of Caesar is too violent 
a reaction against the views of Mommsen and Fronde. 

Plutarch's Lives. Every pupil should read the life of Caesar. 

Anthony Trollope, The Commentaries of Caesar. (In the 
series. Ancient Classics for English Readers.) 

Much that is valuable will be found in the following histories: 

Dnruy. History of Rome. 

Long. Tlie Decline of the Roman Republic. This is espa- 
cially good in its treatment of Caesar's campaigns. 

Merivale. Hixfory of the Romans under the Empire. 

Hommsen. History of Rome. The chief defect of this 
extraordinary work is its too great partiality for Caesar. 


H. P. Judson. Caesar's Army. (Ginn & Co., 1888.) This 
gives much fuller information about the organization and tactics 
of the Roman army than can be given in the introduction of an 
edition. It shonid be at hand for reference. 

R. Oehler. Bilderatlas z« Cdsars de Bella Gallico. (Leipzig, 

W. Rustow. Atlas zu Cdsars Qallischevi Krieg. (Stuttgart.) 

A. Van Eampen. Quindecim ad Caesaris de Bello Gallico 
Commentarios Tabulae. (Gotha.) 

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abl.= ablative. 

ct.= eSt\/er.coiapaTii. 

cliap. = cliapter. 

comp. = comparative. 

con]. = conJonctloD. 

Oat. = dative. 

det. = delecllre. 

dem. = demonslratlve. 

dim. = dlminutlve- 

dlitr. = distributive. 

«.g. = exenipB gratis, [or example. 

gen. = genitive. 

lmp.= imperative. 
Impera. = ImpersoDal. 
ImpC. = Imperfect. 
Incept = Inceptive. 
lad. = IndicallTe, 
Indecl. = Indeclinable. 
Ukdet.= iudeaalte. 


In the grammatical references, App. a Appendix (following BoobVn);a. ii.x 

GtldeisleeTe-Lodge: A. s Allen and Oreeoough; B. =: Bennett; H.-B. - Hitlft and 
Bncb : H. = Harkoess. In each caw (be laMst levlsloa has been followed. 

RefersDces are made to books of tbe text in Roman cbaraclers. to cbapt«« In 
bold-faced Arabic numerals, to lines In plain-faced Arabic numerals. Thus. Ill, I, 
11 = Book lu. cbapter 9, line 11. 

In tbe page vocataularlei. the flgDres 1 . 3. 3. and 4, tollowlns deflDlttons. iodicace 
tbe number of times the word Is used In Books I-IV. * Indicates that the word 
Is nsed 5 or more times In tboae boobb 

For the eiptanatton of some other details, see p. 3 of the general vocabulai; M 
the end of the book. 


Introduction . 
nierrog = InMm^atlTe. 
r. = Intransitive. 
i. = line, lines. 
= literallr- 
m.= mascuUne. 
neg, = negative. 

o. (In grammatical reference) = note. 

num. = numeral, 
ord. = ordinal, 
p.. pp.= paBB, page* 
pan. = participle. 
pass. = passive, 
pers.= personaL 
pr.= parfeot. 
pi. = plural 
p]upt.= pluperfect. 
pa3s.= possessive. 
prep.= prepoBlllon. 

pron.= pronoun, 
reflex. = reflexive. 
rel. = relatlTe. 
sc.=ia£l«e, supply. 
slug. = singular. 
sut^|.= subjunctive, 
sup. = superlaliv* 
ti, = transitive. 

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The Helvetii were & Gallic people living in northern Switzerland. 
Hemmed in by the mountains, they had retained without loss their 
strength and independence. During the invasion of Gaul by the Cimbri 
a put of the Helvetii had left their country' independently and defeated 
1 Roman army in 107 b.c. Many of the Helvetii had joined the Cimbri 
and Teutoni in their attempted invaaioa of Italy in 102 and 101 B.C. 
After the disaatroua result of these attempts the Helvetii had remained 
comparatively quiet for a long time; but now, dissatisfied with the nai^ 
row limits of their country, they determined to seek wider fields 

The originator of this plan was Orgetorix, their most powerful noble- 
man. But the Helvetii soon learned that he was trying to further 
ambitious plana of his own and to use them as tools; that he intended 
to make himself their king, and then to unite with two neighboring 
states in the subjugation of all Gaul. The penalty for the crime of 
aimmg at royal power was death, but Orgetorix anticipated the punish- 
ment by committing suicide. Yet the Helvetii persisted in the plana 
Hhich they had adopted at his suggestion. They made all preparations, 
then burned their homes and gathered near the western end of Lake 
Geneva, ready to set out. 

But Rome had been watching their preparations in some alarm.. If 
the Helvetii marched through the province, they could not fail to give 
trouble to the Romans. And what was a more serious matter, if the 
Helvetii left their country vacant it would be occupied by the Germans; 
and the Germane were dangerous neighbors. Cacsar'a term of office aa 
governor of Gaul began in the year of their departure/ Learning that 
the Helvetii intended to set out sooner than he had expected, he hur- 
ried to Geneva, so that when they gathered he was there to meet 
tbem. He destroyed the bridge across the Rhone, which they had failed 
to secure, and with his one legion hastily made and manned a line of 
detenaeson the south bank of the river. He then forbade their crossing, 
and easily checked their attempts to disobey his orders. 

The baOled Heivetii now obtained permission of the Sequani to pass 
lo the west through their territory. The great host, with its women and 
chUdren and thousands of wagons, marched slowly through this to the 
Sttone, and its van crossed the river and began plundering the land o( 



the Haedui. Meanwhile Caeaar had hastened back to northeiTi Ital; 
and returned with five legions. The Uaedui, who had been Dcmmal 
allies of Hie Romans for many years, now appealed to Coeear. He nas 
not sorry to appear as tlie champion of Gallic freedom, tor he. thus 
gained a footing in Gaul. landing tiiat one of the four divisions of the 
Helveiii had not yet crossed the Saone, he tell upon it and cut it (o 
pieces, "l^mmediately he crossed the river in pursuit of Uie main body. 
For fiftlea days he followed it, but on account of the nature of the 
country he was unable to head oS the slowly moving maas. Finally 
the lack of provisions compelled him to turn aside to Bibracte. 
Believing that tliis action was due to cowardice, the Helvetii in turn 
became the pursuers, tlius allowing Caesar to meet them on ground of 
his own choosing. In a hard fought battle h^ defeated them with 
immense loss; and the remnant of the once proud and mighty people 
udly returned to its mountfun home. 


Brown indicates the part of Transalpine Gaul which belonged t« 
Some when Caesar entered upon hia command. 

Red indicates the states whose submission Caesar secured by conqueN i 
ing them in battle. The Boii are shown in the homes given them after 
their defeat. The Latobrigi and the Tulingi lived across. the Rhine aiid 
are not shown on this map. Tlie Ceutronea, the Graioeeli, and the 
Caturiges were forced to permit the passage of the army, but were 
probably not reduced to submission, and are therefore left uncolored. 

Blue indicates the states which submitted without fighting. In chap. 
SO we are told that envoys from "nearly all Gaul" came to Caesar as a 
result of his victory over the Helvetii. It is certmu that Celtic Gaul is 
meant; therefore Aquitania and Belgium are left uncolored. In chap. 
31 we are told that Ariovistus held a part of the territory of the 
Sequani; this is left uncolored. In II, 34 we are given a list of states 
which did not submit till 57; these also are left uncolored. All the rei;t 
of Celtic Gaul may be supposed to have submitted at the close of the 
war with the Helvetii; it is therefore colored blue. 

The line of march shows Caesar's route in crossing the Alps the 
■econd time, with the five legions. It also shows tlie route of the 
Helvetii after they left their territory. After crossing the Arat 
Caesar's route coincides with that of the Helvetii. 

Crossed sabers indicate battlefields. Colonel Stoffel's identification 
of the mmn battlefield (Histoire de Jules Cfear: Guerre Civile, ii 
439-453) is almost certainly right and is indicated on this map. 






I dlvisa in partes tr§B, qnaram Qnam 

L OftllU, -M, /., Qallla (gftl'l-^). 
Mler, Gaul, includiHg tUKtr (1) Bilgium. 
CeUiea, and .J^Uonia, or (2) only CttUca. 
3a map. « 

lom, e«i«. fnl (App W). itUr., be, 
eilat. lire; Bla;, reinalDi serve tor; 
mlA gat. tn prtdkau, be the mark or 
Elgnot; belong to: bethedutfot: ailA 
dal.ofpOHtnor.-aive. * 

oniili, -•, <^-- all. every, nil the, 
every Mud ol; the whole, as n whole; 
n. pi. at noun, all, every ooe; all the 
rest; n. pi. at noun, all poBsessiODS or 

dlvldS, dlTlden, dlTlBl, dlTUnm, 

<r. divide, aeparate: diTlllU, Itf . part. 
uiuV., divided. * 

la, prep, wilh ncc. and tat. With aee. 
01 0/ motion, from otn placi Mo or 
(ntntriU anolhir plati, inui. to; to, 
among; towards, for, agalDSt; at; up- 
on: 9)0/ tlmt, till, iDto; tor; on, at: 
^ ullur utet. In. In resi>ect to, for. un- 
der, over, oq; In dliB, from day to day; 
19 fagun oonlcer*, put Co BIsht: In 
Cuuietn Inctder*. meet with Caesar : 

In amel&tum vanir*, be 
severely punlalied. WitA abl. (1) o/ rat 
or motion vUkin a placi, !□ among, 
over, within, throughout; on. upon: 
(i) of timt. In. during. In tbe course at; 
oa: (3) othtr vtti. In, In tbe case ot; In 
coasequeuce or. In view of; on, upon; 
In Aimrl, over tbe Arar: In eS, In bli 
case; Inanaorls, at anchor; In open 
■lie, be eugaged In tbe work. i|^ 

pan, putia, /-. pare, portton; 
party, taction; dlreotloo, aide, place: 
district. It 

trta, trl», gtn. trlnm dll), card. 

num. a4j., three. * 

<tn1, 4UM, tlUod, rel. proa, (and itt 
quil), wbo. which, what; oflm bnptg- 
ing an anttctdtnl, he wbo, those who; 
uiitA/orcfo/ dim., this, that; qiULm Ob 
rem, wberetoie; quom kd modum. In 
what manner, bow, as: quB, vUlt eom. 
fHiratlFM, tbe; QU6. ..eO, the. . . the. :ti 

ILiiui, ima, nnum. gm. ikniiu (App. 
32), card. num. flit/., one, the same 
one; single, alone; the aole, the Only; 

Chap. L A brief deBcriptlon of 
the great divisions of Qaul, and of 
their inhabitanto. 

omnia, "as a whole," sbows that Oal- 
tla here has meaning (l) ot the vocah- 

always Indicated In tbe vocabulary. 
The values ot the vowel marklnga are 
•Iwwn In tbe table on p. 2 ot the vocab- 
ulary at tbe end ot tbe book. 

aiTUa: the adjective, 

partes trii: on the divisions of QanL 

qu&Tum Iknun, "one ol which 
(parts)." ikoun:caseF App. lit; G.-L. 
S30: A. 387: B. 173: H.-B. 390: H. 4CW. 
Tbe grammar references should al- 

* The aslerlsh. In tbe voc 
In Boflka I-tV. A figure, 1, 
1ms tban five times. 



incolant Belgae, aliam AqaTt&ui, tertiam qai ipsAram Hngnfi 
Celtae, nostra Oalli appellaatnr. Hi omoeB lingn£l, institutis, 
legibas inter se diSentnt. Gallos ab Aqnitaais Garamiia 

Qallui, -&, -uin, «tf., ot Qanl. Qallle; 
pt, ai nosn, the Gaols. in!iabiliag Oat- 
(ral Qaal. Northern Italy, etc. i|e 

ftppellO, 1, tr., accost, oddtesa, ealX br 
iwme, name. cull. * 

bio, bM,»t, hoc, liem. proa. lApp. 60. 
Hint for mhat it near in tpace, time, irr 
thaagAt, wick mori tmphaiit than !•; 
tbla. thlH man, woman, or thing; he. 
she, It; abl. ting, bdo, on ttala accoimti 
f n this respect ; Che [viilh eomparaUvet) ; 
Uo . . . Ill*, ihe latter. . . ibe lormer. 
See App. 170, a. * 

Inttltbtuis, 'I, 1- [InitltuO, aet 

In; llTs. * 
BclsM, -irum, •»■ (ABdetE). the 

Bels<»(ber]e), or Belgians. * 

ftllUS, -ft, -nd, sen. Illui (App, 32), 
■nother, other; aliUI , . , allua, one 
. . . another; in pl.t some . . . oih- 

I. 'my-, ol Aqnl' 

Aqulttao*. -«, 

Mnis, Aqultanlan: 

Aqnltanl (ftk"wl-t£'tii). paaibly Aqul- 

\»,n\iTi:&.inhabUing loiiVeuieitem Oaul. i^ 

teiUua, -ft, -um, ord. nam. a4j. [ter, 
thrice], ttiird, « 

Ipae, Ipsa, Ipsum, gen. Ipslus (App. 
H), inttmice pron., selr (m oppoted to 
tame oni the; not to 6e coaftued aith (A* 
rifexim ti, self. App. IS!Q; himsell, 
berselt, Itself, tbemselvea; he. she, it, 
tbey; ai aif., very ; in gtn., bis. her, lis, 

UngUft, -ft*, /.. longue, language. S. 
8. 0*]tfte, -ftrum, m., the Celtae 

(sei'te). btller, t 

noiter, -trft, -trum, pou. 01(4. [nOi, 
ve], OUT. OUTS, our own: in pi, at n<Hin, 

ways be looked up and studied. In 
the notes on I, 1-3B, for each of the 
most commoD principles of syntsz 
grammar references are gtren three 
times, la order that 1[ may be studied 
•nd t^ce reviewed. 

3. BalKfte: it is Imponslble lounder- 
Btaod and appreciate Caesar'a story 
nnlesB one follows it on the map. The 
letters Id parentheses wblcb follow geo- 
graphical names. In the vocabulary, 
correspond to tbe letters on Che mar- 

up, e 

llsh], I 

By thHr aid places csn easily b 
■illam, tertlEun: sc. partem it 
qui = i> Tui.' a nominative ] 

antecedent is often omitted. 


lutsr, prep, ultft ace. {tometimet fol- 
iowing Itt noun), (I) 0/ plact. among. 
between; (!) 0/ ItoM, during, within, for: 
IS) in other relatUuu, among, between. 
In; In among or between; to; over; 
along with', it) teilh r^x. prcirt.,oX rt. 
ctprocal action (App. 166), with. to. or 
from each other or one another, at, 
Istsr li dlfferuat, diSer from one an- 
other; each other, one another, at, 00- 

IpiSmin llngui, "in their own lan- 
guage." Ilngnfc: caser App. lU: Q.-I^ 
401: A.tCa: B. 318: B.-B. 133: O. 470. 

S. Oaltft*. Oftlll: case' App. «6. a: 
O.-L. 206: !C6: A. SgS; »4; B. W; I8S. 

a, b: H.-B. aifl; 317, 3: H. 3»3, B. 
lingua, InatltfitlB, Ifiglbni, "bi 

language, institutions, and laws." Ito- 
tlcetheabseuceof aconjonctlon. Latin 
usually says either "a, b. c." or -'a and 
band c," while English nsually says "a. 

b, andc." For case see App. U»i G.-L. 
W7: A. 418: B. 2X: H.-B. 441: H. 180. 

4. Sarumna fliunen; sc. tlivida. 
aBm*n: case ; App. 86. A: O.-L. SSO; SSI: 
A. £81 ; 2BZ: B. IW, 1, 3: H.'B. »<; UT, a. 
a: H. 3S3. 



flumeD, a Belgia Matrona et SSqoana dividit. Hurum o 
fortJBHimi annt Belgae. p ropfere& ^ qod & cnltfl atque humfini- r^ 
tate provinciae longisBime absnot, minjmeqne ad eos mercil- 

hwUtta Inter M, euconragins one 

uioUier. It 

BUl, aibl, se, or itit, rtMt- pfvn. of 
M tMTton (App. 163, 164. IW), blTnielt. 
herself, llself , themselves ; he, she, the;, 

•ic, : Inter le, te« inter and App. 
lu. m 
differs, diserre, dlBtnll, dllktum, 

Ir. and {»tr. [ferS, carr;. App. Bl], 
■otter, spread ! put off, deter ; t>e dll- 
terent, dtOer. I. 

i \.btfoTt tontonawU), ml) (&<<or«voi«- 
(ll and fOfTM eofuononU). abl (btfort 
tf, and in lonu eom;H>Hndf),prep.uii(A oM., 
ptfTtonj, fimf, fffc, from, awaj from, 
from the Tlclnlt? ot: (^Stnoting poiU 
lion, In Kmu phrattt, at, In. on. on Ihe 
■Me of: & tergO, Id tbe rear; (S) uiiA 
4Xprftitoni of meatrtre. away, off; ab 
mlllDua paBBuum dnibUB, two miles 
away : (4) wUll the pati. roici ofttn di- 
notlitf the agent, at tht pttion from 
ahom tfu action eomea, b7:'(S) variomly 
Inmlattd in other relationi, (ram, by. 
In reapect to, after. « 

Qtrumna, -m, m- (DEcd), the Ga- 
mmna (garOm'iia). or Garonne, a riiir 
forminff lAi boundary {utween Aguitania 
ana Celtic Ga^U. S, 

9. Bttroe&,-lnlB,n.[flu(t,sow],rlTer, 

lUitronn, -*e, m. <Bef). the river 
Matrona (mSt'ro-n^), now the Mame. I. 

et, cot^,, and; also, loo, eren; et . . . 
•t, both . . . and. * 

Hawuia, -M, in. (BCdeO. tbe ritw 
Seqaana (afik'wa-na). better. Seloe. I. 
6. fortli, -•, oitl., Btrong. Tallanl. 

propt«re&, adv. [propter. becan«eof], 
OD this accoDut: proptereA quod. 
becanse. * 

quod. eon*. [Oifi. aec. of the nevtir of 
qui, who, Which), as to which. In that, 
thai; as to the fact that, Insomuch as; 
because: quod bI, but If: propterefc 

cultni, -fti. It' (cOlO, cultiyate], eat- 
mode ot life; 

Ktqi e, no (ao only before eonionant*, 
atque before voweti ami caiiaonanCi), 
conj., uiually addt tomething aptcialtir 
Important, tckile et aiaallv auoeialer 
ebjeeti of equal importanee; and also, and 
even, and: after tuordt denoting a eom- 
parieon or difference, than. as. from. # 

taDmftnlUlB, -tfctlB,/. [btimfcnUB, btk- 
m»nl,humanity.reflnenient, culture. K. 

7. prSvInele, -ae, / , ofdce of poe- 
emorofaprouince; province, a («rri(iiri» 

mdbi/ a 

i ProTlnee, (*• 


governor; eepiciatty t: 

eouthempart of France, iti 

lonsi. adv, aonKQe, long], far. far 
away, distant; loDgS l&tCque, far and 

abium, kbeise, kfU, Infr. [nun, bn. 
App. TB], be away from, be abseet or 
distant, be wanting or tree from. 4i 

minimi, ads. [mlnlmiu, least), lean, 

B. Hatrona diTldit: thetworlT- 

oTBtDmied one bonndary. and the verbis 
therefore singular: App, ISO, b: G.-L. 
3Ki.Z: A.31T, b: B, 2K. 3: H.-B. 3S1, S: 
H. ȣ, 4. 

llOniffl: eaeer App. lOI: G.-L. Sa?; 

sn: A.Ste,a, !: B, 201. 1: H.B. 346: H, 
440, G; 443. 

T. pr6Tlnelie: see Int. s. S6. 

quodkbiunt: moder App. 244: Q.-Ii. 

Minim j laepe, "very seldom." 


^ JSrea a^pe commeant atqne ga qnae nd effeminandos anitnOe 

pertinent important, proximique sunt Germ&niB, qui tram 

H Rhenum incolnnt, qaibuscum contiaenter bellnm geruat 

nlL 4 

,le; b7 1 

a, ooiij. (altetit/t ^fflxed to tht viord 
OT 9ome part of £fii t^prestion it connedB), 
and; qu* . . . qua, or que ,..•(, 

Ad. prep. wU/t acC; orii;lniil!y dtnottny 
motion laicard; (l) dmoCtng motion, to. 
toward, ag&liiat. to the Tlcluitf of: (s) 
dnwtin^;w>i(loa. at, by. aear: l^denot' 
ing fiurpoie, wUh gertitnl and gerundive, 
to. for: (4) tBith tuanerait, up to. amat: 
(5)0/ (inw, np to, ontll; at, on: (B)tJaH. 
ovtty tratulattd in other ritationt, al, 
atter. lor. to, acoordlng to, In tba eyes 

U, aa. M 9«n. aim (App. sr , miat 
dtm, pron. rtftrring to tomt pa ion or 
Objtct namtd fn th* eonttxt, thla, that, 
tbese, those; he. she. it, the;; the, a: li 
lOOUl qu6. a. or the, place where; aft 
qua,e, (the) things which: %i,with eomp., 
the; ae magla. all the more; aO . . , 
quB, mith comparaUvti, the . . . the. A 

tnercfctor, -Orli, m. [meioor, trade], 

8. H«pe, adv., often, treqnentlr: 
many times, again aud again; laape nu- 
mart, orten, time and again, frequent. 
1;: cotnp. •fteplUI, ofteuer, more fre- 
quently: time and again; loooften. ^: 

eommeft. I, tnlr. [maO. go}, go back 
and forth; ivilA ad, resort to. Tialt. I. 

merofcUtrto: Roman traders had for 
some time penetrated the Interior of 
Qaul, brlngliig. amoog other things, 
BtroDg wloes, of which tbe Qauls were 
Tery lonil. 

8. qnaa . . . partlnant: notice that 
In relative clauses tbe relative almost 
always stands first and llie verb last; 
everything that stands between the rel- 
ative and the first finlle verb whlcb fol- 
lows usually belongs to the relative 

«mmln6, 1. tr. [as + fSmlna, wom- 
an], maha eOMnlnaie, enervate, eit 
feeble. I. 

anlmm, -I. m., bouL spirit; mind. Id 
lcll«ct: feelings; cbaracier; resoluikm. 
courage: anlml oaiufc, for amosemaati 
IB anlm6habjn. Intend. i|i 

S. pertlneO, -tlnfira, -tlnnl, — , 
intr, [teaeS, hold), hold or reach to.ei- 
tend; pertain, have reference to. con 
cem; tend.almai; •6dam partlnire. 
Mof M> the same purpose or reaolt 
amount to tbe same thing. « 

ImporM, 1, tr. [In-f-pcirt6, canrl 
carry or bring li;, Import. S. 

proximus, -a, -um. "dJ-, mp- (App. 
43). nearest, next; last, previoas; aitk 
>i«G.(App.l!9,a).neitlo. * 

Oarmlnl, -Oram, ">-, tbe Oermanl 
(JSr-mi'iiI). bitter, Germans, jii 

tr&nd prtp. tdtA aec, across, beyond, 
over; (i» compoundt, trftni or tri, 
across, over, through. « - 

10. IUiauni,-I,>n.(ABCIgh),therfHr 
Bheuua (ra'Dds), belter, the Bblne. * 

aum, prep, with abl.. vritb. along with, 
together with. :|i 

contUiBntBT, adv. [continina, con. 
tlnuous], without iDlerruptlon. contin 
nail}', continuously. 3. 

bellum, -1, n-, war. # 

garO, gerara, geisl, gaitimi, <>'.. 
bear, carry, wield; (o/ mar) carry on, 

ad affimtiiandaa anlmOi, "to weak, 
en the courage"; the gerundive con 
Btructlon will be treated later. 

B. proslml OarmbnlR, "next to the 
Germans": caseT App. 123; Q..I- 3".»: 
A. 3M: B. 192, t: H.-B. 3S3, lU: B 
431, £. 

10. qnlbiueam! nsa and position or 

aimr App. 110; «0, b: O.-U 8»; 413.1: 
A. 4IS,»; lEO, d:B.322; 1(3,4: H.-B. 41& 
a; 410.4: 11.473,1; ISt. 1. 


Qnfi, d€ cansft HelvStii quoqae reliqaos Gallos virtute praeoS- 
duDt, quod terh cotidi&nis proetiis'i^m Germ^ais cODtendunt, 
cum aat suia finibus e5B prohibent, aut ipsi in eorum flnibns 

perform, iroge, conduct; pate, bedane, 

IL dt, prep, tdlk abl.. orlglnallvdenot- 
ing motion from; (1) af plaa, trom. down 
from, awar from, otil of: (S) of tlmt, 
Jns t after, &bont: (S) eoHoiuIy f ranilof a/ 
in aiher relatiotu, abont, concerning, or, 
from. In accordance wltb. for. 41 

eauia,-ai«,/.,caase. reason, grotmds, 
mnilve; situation, condlilon; a Iftgan 
CISC, cause ; OAUiam dlears, 10 plead a 
case; Oftnaft, follouting a gen., for the 
sake of, for the purpoae of. for. i/. 

HalveUuB. -a, -Dm, ikU. (Cgh), of the 
Helvetil (hfl-v3'shyi), Helvetian: at 
noun, one of the BelretU. an Helvetian ; 
p'.. theHelvetU.potfAfvEelvetlaiis. * 

quOQTie, con}., folloaiiig thi word tm- 
p'latiMd. also, too, likewise. i|i 

rgltqniu, -■, -um, adj. crelln- 
qua, leate] , left, remaining, the rest, tbe 
mt oil fnture, subsequent: n. ai noim, 
remainder, rest. * 

TlrtfiB, -htli, /. (Tlr, man), manli- 
ness, Talor, merit, worth, vlrlae, 
courage: Btrength, energy: pi., good 
qualities, Ttrtaee. merltx. n 

praecMft, -oMen, -oMBl, -Mmni. 
tr. [eid6, go], go before; surpass, 
»iceL 1. 

It. fere,a(Iii..aImost,Dsarl7, about, 
far the moat part. 41 

cotlU&nua, -a, -nm, ad}. icotldU, 

daily], every day, daUy: usual, custom- 
ary. * 

proellmn, -11, n., battle, contest, en. 
gagement: proaUnin ooBualtMte, 
Join or begin battle, risk a Sght, engage 
In battle, flgbt. « 

contends, -t«ud«r«, -tntdl, -t«i> 
tnm, tr. andlntr. [tandS, stretch], push 
forward, hasten; march; strive, con- 
tend, Sght; be anxious (or; maintain. 
Insist. * 

IS. eiim,rwi^.,when,as. While; after. 
OS soon as: whenever; since, becaose; 
although ; aum . . , turn, not only . . , 
but also, both . . . and 
as soon as. Str App. a 

important or i 

■uni, -&, •nm, r<feE. proHonUtul 
ad], Ttftrring to tabjict <App. IBS, 1M. 
Iffi, 1«. n) tiol, himself, herself, etc-], of 
or belonging to himself, herself, etc., 
hlsown,thelrown: his, hers. Its. theirs; 
■ua. n. pi. M noun, oue's property: tnl, 
m. pi. a$ noun, their men (/rimdt or 
taaatrymen). t 

fInU, -la, »■-, boundary, limit, border, 
end : pi. .bonndarlea ; territory, country. « 

prolilb*6, 3. tr. (iiabe6, have, bold], 
keep from, keep, restrain, prevent, pro- 
bibtt; keep oat or away from; protect, 

11. qnft di cBUBi, "(and) for thU 
reason." The relative is often lisec 
connect Independent sentences In La 
but Is not so used In English. Wa ra 
In such cases translate by a persona 
demanstratlvB pronoun, and we i 
reader tbe connective force of the rela- 
tive by nslng "and" or "bnt," if we 
like: App. 173. n: G.-L. BIO, 1 ; A. 308, /: 
&Kl.a: H.-B.ZS4, 8: H. SIO. 

HelTfltll: altbough the rest of th< 
chapter Is concerned with the largei 
livislons of Oaal, Caesar speaks of this 
iribe In particular, because It is to Ix 
prominent lu the following chapters. 

▼irtate : ablativeot speclQcatloo. 

13. proellli, "in battle": hot It 1( 




bellum gerunt. Efirum una pars, quam GallOa obtinere dic- 
t ttim est, initiTua capik a flumine Bhodano; contingtur Ga- 
rumiia flamine, Oceano, finibns Belgamm; attiagit etiam ab 
Sequanis et Helretiia flumen Rheiinm; vergit ad s^pten- 
triongs. Belgae ab estremia Oalliae finibus oriuntnr; perti- 

14. obOaat. -tlntra, -Unnl, •tan- 

tnm, (r. [UimS, bold] , hold, retain, poa- 
sess, malDUtla; acquire, obtain, ifi 

died, dloel*, dizl, dlotum, tr., sar. 
tell, speak, eipreas. mentlou: name, 
Kppolat; CBUiam dlcere. plead acase; 
Itu dleera, adminlsur justice. * 

IB. Inltlnm, ~tl, n. [ined, go Into], 
begliininB. commencement, origin; edg« 
ef a ayunlry, borders, t 

oaplO, capeia, cSpI, aaptmn, ir., 

tabe, capture, seize, catch; take In, 
beguile, induce; take up (amu); choose, 
■elect (a place); Eonn, adopt (a plan); 
reach, arrive at (a place) ; make (u btgin- 
lu'rv): Mllem oipei*. take posiiionoa 
shUl: (Ugun ctpare, take to fllghii. :|i 
BbodMlui, -1. m. (CDfE), the river 
Bbodanaa (rOd'a-nOs), better, Bhone. * 

coDtlnaS, -tlnfire. -Unnl, -ten- 
tnm, tr. (MneO. hold], hold together; 
hold, keep, restraln;bouDd, shut tn: con- 
lain; (4 continlre, ^bUA abi., cemaln 

attlngS, -ttnsere, -tlgl, -tic- 

turn, tr. (od+tangft, touch], tooch or 
Stiam, con}-, and also, also, evea, 

17. Baqwmui, -a.-nm, ii«..of ofiie- 
Sequanl (Ctg), the Sequanl (aeif wa- 

TSTgft, -ere, , , (n(r., lookier 

He towards, be situated ; slope. 3. 

lepMntrlfinSl. -uni, m. [eepMlD. 
seven -)-trl6nii, plough oxen]. 14* 
teeen plough oxen, the start of th* Oreat 
Star. Aence the north. « 

IS. extremuB, -ft. 'Um, actf. [lup. of 
•xteruB. App. M], outermost, utmost, 
farthest, extreme; the farthest partol; 
ezttlml <(M noun), the rear; ail extri- 
mam, at last, at the end; as a last 

orlor, orlrl, ortna nuti, intr,, arise, 
begin, spring up. rise, start; be bom. 
descend; orlina b61, the tisloe sun, 
simrlse; the east. * 


For case see App. 131; G.-L. 390, 2: A. 
400; 401: B. 211. i; H.-B. 406.3: H. 464, I; 
and notice that the preposition ab is 
Often used in the same sense, as In oA 
AguftOnle, 1. 1. 

eArum refers to the Germans. For 
ease see App. W: G.-L. SS3: A. 343: D. 
leS: H..B. 339: H. 440. I. 

11. eStum refers hacTi to the Gauls 
ftsawhole. not totheHelvetU. wbohave 
Just beeu mentioned. 

quam is the object, QallOe the suh- 
" :t of abtinire; App, 123: G.-C 343, 

A. S97, e: B. li 

App. 2M: G.-L. 343, 3; 650: A. B80: B. 
314, i; H.-B. as»: B. S4S. The whole 
may be freely translated, "which, 
as has been said, the Qanls occn- 

IB. KflftnUne, "at the river." Tbete 

are many plirasea in which we feel "at" 
or "on" to be the appropriate prepoal- 

have thought of a starting-point and 
consequently used aboTOt, which lit- 

16. ab Sfiquanli, "in the direction 
or"or"on thesideof." Cf. the preced- 




nent ad lofeTiorem partem flSmims BhenT; spectant in sep- 
tentrionea et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garamna flu- » 
mine ad Pyieaaeos montea et earn partem Oceani quae est 
ad Hispaniam pertioet; epectat inter occasum Bolie et eeptec- 

2. Apud HelvetioB loQge ndbilissimuB fait et ditiasimna 
Orgetorix. Is, M. Messala, M. Piaone conBulibaa, rfigni cupi- 

U. Infenii, -a. -nai, adj.. low, be- 
low; eomp., Inferior, lower; Interior: Bb 
InftrUre parte, below, down stream; 
tup.. inflmuB or Imui, lowest. lOHt; 
uiih ooliu, the base of; ad InSmum, 
■b InflmS, ftt tbe bottom, ti 

tpsctS, 1, (r. Ifrtg. of ipealft, see], 
look at regard; look, Eace, Ue. 3. 

SO. *ei, •till, in., the Bun; »A OOOl- 
daotam aOIam, towan] the setunfi sua 
ornesc; ad orlenUni Beiam, toward 
tbe rialiiK sun or east. i|i 

Aqlilt&iil&, -a*,/. (DBcd), MoitiUila 
(lk"w1-tB,'Ql.a), tovthattla^ Gaul be- 
latea the Oaronru and tkt Pyn- 
ma. * 

n. ?jriina«iu, -a, -nm, inU-. Pjre- 
man; F^enael inoatii (Ecde), the 
PyrenaBt {iar"a-nS^), better, Pyrsneea 
Moontalns. 1. 

UlD range; hUl. heigbt- ^l 

31. BlBp&nla. -ae, /. (Eahcil), ais- 
panla, (his pa'ol-a). better, Spain. 2. 

occ&Btia, -da, m, [ocaldS, fail, set], 
talllog down, setting; wit/t gUls, sun- 

r, la a 

sol. * 

nftbUU, -a, aH). [nStoO, know], weU 
known, distlngulsbed, noted; ot noble 
blrtb. noble; at noun, & noble, ii 

dlTB*. dlylua, a4}., wealtbj, rieta. 
Sup.. dltlisimuB. 1. 

9. Orgetorlx, -Igla, m., orgetorlx 
(6E-jflt'6-rlka), a ehtef of the Belcitii. ^ 

H., aibr. for Mfcroua. (mftr-kOs), a 
Soman praenomen. j^ 

HaMtla, -ae, m., Marcns Valerius 
Messala (mfir'kDs T%-le'ri-Oa mS-si'l^). 
eoniuJ. 81 b.o. 9. 

PlaO, -Onla, nt.. Marcos Puplns Plso 
CailpoTDlaniis (mftr'kllB pQ'pl.Qs pI'sS 
kfil-per"iil-ji'nlts), eontul mifA Mtieala, 
aiB.o. 2. 

oaninl, -tilla, nt., a consul, orw ^ tft< 
tmo clutf magiitTatee ilecttd anaixdly b) 
tht Roman people, ^i 

rignmii, -I, n. [lix, king], kingly 
or royal authority, royal power. soTcr- 
elgnty; kingdom. :« 

enpKIlt&s, -tfttls,/. [oupldna.eageH 
eagerness, desire, greed, avarice. 3. 

12, ad HlEpinlam, "near Spain"; 
Ihe reference la to the Bay of Biscay. 

Inter oce&Bum . . . BaptentrlOnei: 
L e., toward the northwest. 

Chap. 3-4. The ambition and down- 
fell of Oreetorii. 

Chap. 3. Orgetorlx peisnadeB tbe 
Eelvetii to invade GaoL 

1. nablUnlmtia: caseFApp. IM; ISt: 
G.-L. -Xt,-. Sll: A. 283; 284; 288: R £83. 1, 
I; S»: H.-B. iU; 817. 8: H. SM. 

3. K. HessUt . . , cflniullbna, 'In 

tbe consulship ot Marcus Mes^ola and 
Marcus Plso." Case? App. 160; G -L. 

40S; 4 

: A. lis, a 

189, 1. These m«o were 
consnls In tbe year 81 B. c. Ibreo 
years before Caesai- went to Qaol. 
In giving dates tbe Romans dPslguated 
the year by naming the consuls of that 

rfignl: case? App. 98: Q.-L.3aS.2: Jk. 
34T; 348. note: B. 3U0: H.-B. 8Hi H. 4M t 


dit&te inductns coniurationem nobilitatis f^cit et oixHftti 

persuasit nt de fmibns suis cum omnibus cdpiis ezirent: 

■ Perfacile esse, cum virtute o mnib ua praggtarentf tdtius Galliae 

8. Indtket, -dfiesre, -dtkxl, -duc- 
iDm, (r. [dOcO, lead], lead or draw od; 
Induce. Influence. iDsUgaw : cover, 4, 

oonlltr&tlfi, -6nli,/. [conlUd, swear 

together), a awearinB toaeilier; plot, 
coDSidracy; secret league, conteder- 

B6bUltbi, -tttU. /■ MftblUl. weU 
knowiil. celebrity; noble birth, uobllll;, 
rank; tbenobUtty, tbe cobles. B. 

ftolO, boara, fiol, laotum, tr, and 
iiUr.: tr., make, coustnict. form, do. 
eiecnte icommandt, tic,}; give loppor- 
tanUg.ttc): untAut, bring about, cause: 
IMr.. do. act. Pat:, fill, Deri, 'ftetua 
■nm (App. a), ailA pohIm ^f abovt 
mtajungt, tatd, aatd impertoitaliv, TCBDlt, 

oItIUi, -titiB, /. [oItU, citizen], 
citizenship; the citizens (oi forming a 
KOmamBUii}, BtaM, city. 41 

4. p«nuftda9, -ankdiia, -lulit, 
-■vkinm. tr. and intr. [lukdet, odviwk 

adcite prevailingly; convince, persuado. 
pTBTBll upon; Inculcate; alU paisoi* 
dirl, be coUTlnced. i|i 

ut and uti, aiSv. and eoni-, (1> at inltr- 
rog. adv.. bow? (^ at rel. adv. and aoni., 
as, In proportion »s. Jostas; Insomuch 
as; as if : <3)(ueor^. (a) ailh ind., n-ben, 
after; <b) wttk tab}., that. In order that 
to; that, so Ibal, so as to; though, al- 
tbODKh ; ajttr vjordt of fearing, that not. 

I, a. 

OSplA, -»», f.. Bupplf, plenty, 
abundance, number; pi., resources; 
forces, troops. ^^ 

ezae, -Ira, -11, -Itnm, intr. [•<), go. 
App- 8t]. go from or out, depart from. 

5, parfuiUi,-a, OK/. [fholllB, easy], 

t. aoilllkTfcU6nBm: the real purpose 

of the conspiracy was to makeOrgetorli 
king, althongb the HelvetU, like most 
Gallic peoples, had no king. See Int. 
XL Uls Feat reasons for wishing the 
people to emigrate were (l) that by 
making himself leader of the emigra- 
tion be could get power enougb to make 
himself king: and (3) that a« king he 
wished CO conquer tbe other states ot 

OlTitltl: caser App. 115: Q.-L. S4B'. 
A. 8«: B. isr. II. a: H.-B. 313, footnote 
S. (A); H. 426, 2. Tbe list of verbs given 
In this rule should be committed to 

4. Ut exlrent: mode? App. 228, a: 
O.-L. M«, I: A. S6S: B. £W. 1; H.-B. fi02, 
3,(0): H. M3.1; MS. 

oOplil here Includes the women and 

B. perfftolle *w»t . . . poUrl Is indi- 
rect discourse, depending on a verb of 
saying implied In periaaiit. Indirect 
le (App 2St>) is very conmii'U in 

Caesar, and tor this reason its essential 

principles should be grasped as soon aa 
possible. No reference to details ot 
the construction will be given Id 1. 1-39. 
Tbe most esseotlal fact to grasp is thai 
when a declarative sentence Is turned 
Into Indirect discourse tbe verb ot the 
principal clause becomes an IntliiliiTe: 
App.2«e:0.-L.ett; «B0: A.Ga0.a: B. ai4. 
I. S: E -B. SSB: H. 042, 1. Tbls InOni. 
tlve, however, cannot properly be trans. 
lated by an English In&nltlve. tn tbe 
present Instance, what Orgetoriz said 
was, ptrfacile eil . . . potiri, "it is very 
easy to get control." The etl has be- 
come eiee, but the English equivalent Is 
'■(saying) that It was very easy lo get 

etim . . . praaiUrent, "since they 
excelled all In valor," virttlta: easel 
App. 149: Q.-L, 3»T: A. 4IB: B. SHO: H.-B. 
441: H. 4S0. omillbui: case? App. lie. I; 
0--L. 341: A. S70:B. 1S7. lU. I: H.-B. 370: 
H. 42B. piaeat4mit: mode? App. SW: 



imjierio potiri. Id hoc facilius iia persuuait, quod ondiqae 
loci na£ura Uelvetii co ntinep tnr; uoa ex parte flGmioe RhSod 
latisBimd atque altiasimo, qni agrum HelvStinm & Germanla 
diridit; alter& ei parto monte lurii altiasimo, qui est inter 

PTMste, -Btlra, -atltl, -■t&tum, 
Ir.and iatr. [itt. aUDd], sund or place 
before; show, exhibit, supply, runilsh; 
\» Baperlor, excel. Burpasa; bnptrt., 
pneitat, it is better or moie adTla- 

Uttu, -tL, -nm, fftn. totlni (App. 31), 

ati; lbenbole.tbe whole of; entire, all; 
Willi fora of ailT., wholly, entirely. * 

t. Ifflparlnm, -il, n. [Iiiipai6, com- 
mandl. command, order; amhorlly, 
away, supreme power, dominion, bot- 
ereigDty; snpreme military command, 
Ughesi official power. « 

potior, 4, (nir. [potli, powartul], 
become master of. get control or pos- 
■taslon of, obtain, capture. # 

ttoUa, adv. If&eUlB, easy], easily, 
readUy. Cornp. .tiLoaiUB; tup., ttolUimt 
(4pp. 411. w 

udlqno, adt. [nndB, whence] , Crom 
til porta ; on all BideH, everywhere, if 

7. locDB, -1, m. ipi. loca, -fiTum, «.), 

place,positlon, locality, situation; topic, 
object: condition, state: rank, family ; 
opportanlty; obBldnm loefl, as hoa- 
Uge*. * 

u&tlkra, -u, /- [niieOT, be bom), 
nature; natural dlspoilttoii, character; 
constitution. i|i 

< lonls litfort anuoiutnU), az il>^0T4 

oil,, origitiailf dawliitg (ncNon out o/; 
(1) of ptaee, oat at, (rom, away from; 
dtTioting poiition, <n lomt pkraiti, on; 
tkni ex put*, on one side: (t) of time, 
Irom. otter, since; BX Itlnar*, Imme- 
diately after the march; ISf variomlg 
tratulatid in etlur relatloru, [rom. out 
of, of, because of. In accordance with; 
t ngUae, opposite. i|i 

B. Utni, -a, -iiin.a(tf., broad, wide, 
extensive, 4. 

altua, -a, -nm,ai{f.. high, lofty; deep; 
luul. at noun, the deep, the sea. :|c 

kf«T. mcil. m.. Held, land; district, 
Mrrltory. * 

0, alUr, -BTKi-Bnun, pflk aJtorliu 

(App. 32) I the other (0/ Cuto); second; 
the one : altai . . . altar, the one . • . 
the outer; Kltorl . . . klUrl, the one 
party . . . the other, if 

Ur*. -ae, m. (Cg). the Jura Cl&-r»> 
fflounfniju. 8. 

tttlns . . . potlrl: L e., the Uel- 
wib were U. do what the Haedul and 
UieSe<iuanl were trying to do. See Int. 
». Impalift: caseF App, tM: G.-I, 407: 
B. EIS.1: H.-B. 49ft: 

I.-L.40I; A. 

6. Id . 

. peran&Blt, 11 

m^ed this (iO) to tbem more easily on 
Uds acconnt (A^c)" = "he peirsoaded 
Uem to this coarse tbe more easily." 
Ue: csseT App. 138; G.-L. 408: A. 404; 
B.nS: H-'B. 444: H. 475. 

Hi: ef. tivUm. 1, 3, 

quod eontlnantnr: moder App. 344; 

a.-L.MO; A. 540: B,£ffi. I: H,-B.fiM;M5: 
H. SK. I. See the map for the details 
that follow. 

T. loci: case? App. fiS: Q.-L, Wi: A, 
Ita: B. 108: H..B. VO: H, 440, I. 

n&tfiri; case':' App. 1 
4I»: B.iXf- H.-B. 433: H. t7(L 
e. ft Oarmbili: caseP App. 134; O.-L. 

3»a, [.2: A. 401: B. £14, J: H.-B. 408,1.0: 
H. tSl. We have learned In 1. 12-14, that 
Che Rhine did not prevent frequent bat- 
tles with the Qermans. Later In his work 
Caesar Implies that the pressure of the 
Germans was one of tbe reasons tor the 
emlsratlonottbeHelvetU. On the other 
hand, the certainty thai Qermans would 
occupy Helvetia was one ol the reasons 
why Caesar would not let the Helvetli 
emigrate. See Int. 3. 

B. alter& ex parte: "on a second 
Bide." Notice how often a monosyllabio 
preposition stands between an adjao- 
tlve and Its dodo. 



ID SSqnan53 et Helvetios; tertia lacQ Lemannd et flumine 
RhodaDd, qui proviociam noBtram ab HelvStiia dividit. Hii 
r^btis flebat ut et mioas late Tag&renttir et miuns facile fini- 
timis bellum infeire possent; (ju& ex parte homiQ^B belliuidi 
cnpidT magno dolOre afiiciebantar. Pr6 mnltitudine autem 

10. lacuB. -tki, •»'. lake. S. 

h^iatjimia^ -HfltA orwitAout lacUB), 
m. (Cg), Lake LemanEUB (iB-m&n'aB), 
bt'ler. Lake Leman, or the Lake ot 
Genera. 3. 

U, rSs, r»l,/-. oflnd^tMimtaiUng; 
■cariouily translated according to the 
context; thing, object, matter, event, 
affair, occnn-eiicei circumatauce, case; 
act, action, deed; reason, ground: rSl 
(uulU&rU, property; rSa ftiunen- 
Urta, supplies ; r is mlllUriB, warfare ; 
nova* tte. revolution; ris vtlbllca, 
aXMe; ria ftetu, deeds, achierementa; 
guBin Ob r«m. tte qui atui quli. :f 

mlniu, adv. comp. [parms, little], 
leas; not at all, loo little; qnO mlum, 
let quftmiaus. * 

l&U, adv. llklUB, irldel, widely, exten- 
sively ; longeUtEqu*, tar and wide, i. 

TBKOr, LifUrlTftgui, roaming), roam 
about, rove, wander. 1. 

finitimna, -a. -nm, adj. [finli, iimtt, 

border], bordering on, adjoining, neigh- 
boring; pi. at noun, neighbors, tf 

IS. InftrS, iofarre, Inttai.ilUtuin, 

(r. (f«r6, bear], bear Inlo. Import, inflict, 
cause, produce; cast Into; In equum 
luten*, mount on a horse; eauii 
lU&U, making an excuse; itgiia In- 
Terre. advance the standards, attack, i^ 
poisum, pOtM. POtul, , (App. SO). 

intr. Ipotis, able+nun, be], be able, 
can; to bave power or Influence, tun 
strength, b« strong; tcUk quam and 
lup., as possible, e.g. quam plftrlmii 
poMUQt, as many as possible; mol- 
lumpoiH, plfii pane, on^ plftrimnm 
posse, »• muitum. 4i 

horns, -Inla, m., human being, 
man, at dittinguiilitd from th» loteir 
animaUl in pi., mankind, bumanllj, 

bellB. 1. intr. [bellnm, war], make ar 
carry on war. wage war. 3. 

14. cupldui, -a, 'um, aii}. (euptt, 
desire], eager, desirous, zealous, fond. i. 

magnuB, -a. -nm, adj., great (is 
tin, qaanlity. or degrn), large, abun- 
dant, much ; Important, eitenslve ; load 
(.voice): high (tide): magni {gen. ling. 
s<u(. ), of great importance: magnlt 
Itlnertbas, by forced marches. Comp., 

malor; i«p.. maximui. * 

dolor, -Sm, m. |dole6, grieve], grief, 
distress, pain ( phytical or mtnta!), vex- 
ation, annoyance. 3, 

aDeU. -fleer*, -fScI, -fectnin, (r 
[ad-Ffacl&, do], do to, treat, aOsct; 
magttO dolfir* afllaere, to auiutf 
greatly. 3. 

pr6, prtp. wUA abl. [et. pi&e, beforel. 
before. In front ol; for. In 

, in 

10. terti&r sc. ex parte. The fourth 
boundary, not mentioned bere. was 
[ormed by Cbe Alps. 

11, liU . . . riibat, lit. "by these 
ibings It was brougbc about" = "the 


13. nt Tas&rantur: mode? App. ss». 

: G.-L. 6^3.3; A. 5«e,e: B. 297,2: H.-B. 
Ml, S.0: H. B71,t 
minus, "less" than they desired. 
!ase cf . omnibus, 1,5. 

13. qui, Bz parte, "and on thU 
ground": use o( relative? App, 173. a. 
G.-L. flIO, 1 ; A. 306, /: B. 351, 8; H-'E 



bomliidi . . . onpldl, "being men 
who were desirous of Sghtlug." bel- 
landi:canstructlon?App.ESr: 201: G.-L- I 
4!e; 428: A. E02: NM: a 339. l.b: H.-a 
eil; 6l2,I; H.«U; 820. 

14. prfi , . . bominum, "considering 
the great size of tbe population." 



hominum et pro gloria belli atque lortitudiois angustds g& n 
tinee habere arbitrabaotur, qui in loQgitudinein milia paasuum 
ccxL, in latitudinem clxxx patebant. 
3. HiB rebus addncti et auctoritate Orgetorigis permotl 

rEtnmtorjiia.lnthedlsgnlBeot: In place 
ot, Insceail ' of ; In proporllOQ to, accord- 
ing tiO; in compennai {wrUtm ptS, pro, 
onrfproi]), (or. before, forward, forth. 41 
maltlt&d6. -InlB,/. Imultni. muctil, 
a great number, multitude: tbe mul- 
titude, the common people, the popu- 

kQMm, con}., but <a tfiaJt advtri- 

IS. KlOria, -M, /., BloiT, renown, 
lionor, tame, reputation. £. 
fOitUBdft. -inli, /■ [fbrtte, tn«ve]. 

tpnTery, coura^. 1. 

uiKnitui, -a, -nm, wf- [uibS, 
sgoeeze], compressed, confined. sCr&it- 
ened, narrow; In uiBlinft, In a crlUoal 
condition, ^i 

IS. bsbeO. S. (r.. have. bold. posseBs; 
think, consider, regard; deliver (wM 
iii,i\6nemy, in utlmS baMre, intend ; 
TatUnem bftbfire, have regard [or; 
takecareor see lbs.t (/ollowid bg on ut 
tiaTitt); eeniUlum babSre. rorm a 
plan; tn numerO liostlum bBbCre, 
couslder as enemies: Ultet B^ liabire. 
be otherwlaB or dlnerent; for bKbir* 
ailh jtf. pais, part., t.g. TSctlgiUtt re- 

ddmpta babira, >« App. 2B(I, b. ^ 
ubltror. 1. tr. and intr. [aibUeT, 

omplre], decide: tblnb. believe. « 
longlttdS, -Inli, /. [lontuj, long], 

length, extent; long duration. 1. 
mills, indecl. num. atfj., a tbou- 

sand; pi. ainoun, mllltt, -tnm, »., thon> 
sands (uiualti/ foUoaiid ty gmUitt); 
mllla PMtuam, thousands ol paces. 

pMini. -Ill, m. [iHUidO, extend], a 
pace, tin dManei from where tht foot 
liavei Ihi ground to icAirc tht lam* 
foot itritn it again, a meature of 4 flit, 
10 1-4 inch4t tfvf Roman f let); mills 
paMbi or pftMutun, a Bomon mile, mm 
/«(. * 

IT. dUeantl.-M, -a(GG), card. num. 
attj. [duo, two+«uitUin, hanclreai. 
two hnndrad. 141 

qnadrtglnU (XL), oini. num. 04/., 

indeci., forty, S. 

ifttitndjt. -inu, /. Ultiu, wide], 
osntnm <a>. indtel, eard, itum., a hon- 

ofltOslnU (LZZZ), cartt. num. nU.. 
<»d«cJ. (oeU, eight], eight;, a 

pat«0,.-ire, -ul, — , intr.. He or be 
open, be passable: atretcb out, ez- 

1. addacB, -dbcere, -dnxl. -dno- 

turn, Ir. Idnc6, lead], lead or draw to, 
bring to; Induce. Influence. ^ 

KucUritia, 'Utli, /, lauotor, pto- 
diicer). lofluence. cbaracter, anthorit]r, 
reputation, t 

psrmoreO. -moTire, -mtn, -mi- 
turn. (r. [movae, niovel, move thorough- 
ly, arouse, InclM, excite; allect, Infiu- 

U. si: case? App. IBS; G.L.. M3, Z: 
A. W. 1: B 181: H.-B. 388: H. 415. 

tuguittl nuia, "(too) narrow lim- 
its." fin«B: caser App. IS4: O.-I- 330: 
JlIK; B.m: H.-B.SBO: II.4M. Caesar bos 
someirhat overstated the size of Helve- 
tia, because be bad to depend on the re- 

ports of theOaulB. Jt comprised ratber 
more thanbalf of modem Switzerland. 
According to chap. 39 the population 
was 203.000. while Switzerland now bas 
a population of about 3.000.000. 

16. mllla: case? App. 130: G.-L.SSt: 
A. 436; B. 181: H.-B. SSt, I: H. 117. 




efinstitngnint ea qnae ad proficiscenduin pertinSrent compaiare, 
iumentomm et carrorum quam maximum numerum coemere, 
Bementga quam maximae facere, nt in itiaere c6pia frumenti 
■ Ba])geteret, cum prosimTa cmtatibas pficem et amlcitiam cdn- 
firmare. Ad eae res conficiendus bienninm sil>i eatia esee diix£- 

3. efiostltuO, -itltMra, -itltal, 
-■tittktnm, tr. [statoO, set up], set up. 
erect, coDslmcc; appoint, decide, de- 
ci«[eTmliie,e9tabllsh.E«t,Mltle; (pf 
troept] draw up. sutlon: (of ihlpi) an- 
oboT, BtatlOD; raise (a Itgion). :): 

pioflolBDor, proaclsol, ptorMtni 

nm, intt. [cf- pr0flel6, odvaoce], 
out, start, depart; set am tor, s 
for; go. proceed, iti 

eompua, 1. Ir. |pat4>, prepue), pre- 
pare, gel ready: acquire, gala, secure: 
prepare tor. ^i 

8. lUtMnbun, -1, >l [Iniucfi, Join, 
rohe}, yolre or draft animal, beast ot 
barden. 1, 

Ckrrui, -l,n>.,cart. « 

anuu, (l> adv.. (a) inttrrcg,, how? <A; 
ref., as; with sup^ and v/iifl or wUhot 
poiie, as ... as possible, very; quam 
dlD, as long as: (2) conj. infA eomt 
tban; prlna . . . anain, before; poi 
. . . quam, poitefc . , . quam, 

maxlmuB, -a, -um, a<l}- ["tp. of mag' 
■ni.gieal. Appb 42], greatest, laiKeet. if 

m., Bumber. quantltr. 
amount: account: In naiiier6, unti 
grn., among, as. # 

eoema, -Mii*re, -tmt, -Imptnm. tr. 
Isms, buy], bur, buy up. i. 

4. rimMlUl, -IB, /. [itmen. seed], 
sowing. 1 . 

iMr, itlnaria, n. [bB, go], route, road; 
jonm.!y, march : passage ; faeer« itoi, 
march, travel; magnl* lUnerlbUB, by 
forced marches. # 

frftoMntuin, -I, n.. grain: pi, 

9, anppetft, -paMrs, •patlvt, -p«U- 

turn, inlr. Iiub+pet*. seek, obtain), be 
near or at handibe la ■(ol«. be supplied, 
holdout. 2. 

V&x.pidi./.. peace; favor. S. 

amlaltla, -a«, /- [amloua, friend], 
friendship. i|. 

eSnflRnd, i, ir. [ltTm6, streugtben], 
establlab, atrengtben. encourage, con- 

6. eOBflciO.-iic«ra,-ricl,-featniii,(''. 

tfaelO, make], make or do thoroughly, 
complete, accomplish, Bnlsh: Sulsh 

Other chlefb. 
3. adpTOfielBceniluiii: 

"tbey decided to get ready . . ., to buy 
. . ., to sow . . ., and toeEtabllsh ..." 

S. Ibmentflrum: especially oxen: 
caser App. 101; Q.-L. Sffi; A. MB. a: B. 
301, t: H.-B. Mfl; H. 410.S; 441. 

quam maximum nnmerum, "as great 
anumber as possible" or "as many . . . 
as possible." 

4. nt oOpla Buppeteret, "in ord< 
thatasupply might beat band": mod' 
App. S36. a.3: G.-L. U4. I; Glfi, I. 3: . 

B. euiB . . , «6allimbr«: aithougb 
the HelvecU were warlike tbey wished lo 
march peaceably while encumbered wltb 
their women and cblldreo and baggage 

110: Q.-L. S93: A. 413: B. 223: U.-B. Ilf; 

implellug these preparationa." Study 


rant; in tartium annum profectiSnem lege con6rmant. Ad eas 
rea conficiendas Orgetorix deligitnr. Is eibi 16gati6nein ad 
ciTitatgB anscipit. In efl itinere persnidet Cqatico, Catamaa- 
taloediB fllio, Seqnano, cnina pater regnum in SeqnaniB multos lo 
aonus obtinnerat et S. eenatu popull Romaiii amicus appellatns 

dp. exhaust, weaken; tnniiBb: dress 
(ttather), « 
bleanlnm, -nl, n. [bU, twloe+M- 

s&Ua, adv. and indtd. ad}, and noun; 
(IjModB., enougl), Bufflciently; ralher; 
very; well; (2) ai adj., BnfQclenc; (SJ at 
■oun. enouRh, * 

dficS, dacere, dfix], dnotum, (r.. 
lead, conduct, guide, draw; bring, tetch; 
trace, eonstmcc eileniJ; fleem, coQ- 
Afder,}udgB> protract, defer. 4 

T. AtmiiB, -I. m., year. * 

PIofiMtl&, -Snla, /. (piDflolBOOt, set 
out), a sett^g out, stare, depar- 

8. d«lK6, -llgtra. -Ugl ■ Itotum, 
I', (lasO. cbooaet pick aal, select, 
cboose. Ik 

UgfcU6, •Onla, /. [UkO, delegate], 
embassy, legation; commission, if. 

9. ■mBOlplO,-oliiar«,-c«pt,-Mi)timi, 

tr. (inCtDI-fOftplS, take], take or lilt 
np: undertake, assumft, lake on one's 
self; begin, engage In. it 

OftltiouB, -1, "1-, CastlcVB (kBs'tl- 
kQs). t, 

OatamuitalciedU, -li, m., Catamui- 
laloedls (kat"a-m&n''la-le'ill9). 1. 

10. riUui, -U, o>., son, 4. 

tathers, ancesuirs; paMr famlllaa, 
father or bead of a family, * 

multiu. -k, -mn, adS., mnch, great; 
pC.many; tolth obl-denotinQ limtwhin, 
laie; at nouit, many prrtont or tlUngi; 
iomp. pl&«, plltlll, more; at noun, 
more; pi., mare, several, many; tup., 
plfitlmui, -\, -mn, most; pi., very 

11. ■esfttui, -U, m. [bmux, oldl. a 
iodyofoldmm; senate; tip„lluadmin- 
itlratirt council of Bonn. 4: 

populus, -I, >»■, tbe people, the moss. 

carefully this very colnmon gerundive 
ooustructlon: App. 188; SOS: O.-L. VH\ 
m-. A. U3: EOS: B. 33t, 1, !: H,-B. 008; 
SID; SIS, in; H. 613: OSS, Comparewlth 
It the gemnd In L I. Notice tbat ad 
goTems Tit and tbat eSnjUlendSt Is an 
adjective In agreement with rit. App. 
16T: O.-L. S8B: A. S8B: tj. 234: H.-B. 3S0: 
E. 3M. But tdnJlciendSt musl be trans- 
lated as It it were a verbal noun (gerund) 
governing ret aa ita object. 

Ilbi: caseF App. 1%: G.-L. 3G0, i: A. 
SK: B. IBS, I: H.-B. SSS, a (or SOS, 1): H. 


Uennliun ... duenint, "tbey lodged 
that two years were sufDcleat." DucO 
with tbls meaning Is followed by Indirect 
dtsconrse: cf- S, B, The Belvetll In. 
tended to spend tbe years SO and SO In 
prejiaratlon and to leave home In the 

ent much more freely than English 
Idiom permits It to be used In translat- 
ing. It Is best always to translate by a 

B. •ibl niielpU, "he took on him. 
self." For case cf. omnOitti. 3, E. 

9. Oftltlcfi: coseF App. IIB; O.-L. 
3t8, R. Z: A. 38T: B. 187, H: H,-B. BK, I, 
footnotes, i: H. 1», S. 

10. flllG, Blquanfi; caseT App.K.B: 
G.-L. 9£0: A. ^1; 2eS: B. 160, 1, 8, 3; H.-B. 

obtlttutrat. "had held." Always be 
suspicious of a translation which 
sounds like the Latin word. It may be 


erat, nt regnnm in olritAte ena oo^aparet, quod pater ante 

habaerat; itemqae Dnmnorigt Haeduo, fratri Divicifici, - qal 

eo tempore princip&tnm in civitate obtinSbat ac maximS plgl)i 

5 acceptas erat, nt idem conaretnr persnadet, eiqoe filiam auam 

the crowd, a< oppoiid 
[leaplG or nation. * 
BAmknui, -a, -nm, oiV- [KOnA, 

Rome], Roman; at noun, B Ro- 

unlcui, -a, -vm, ait}. [unO, love], 

(rlendly, well disposed; duTOMd; oi 
noun, DL, a (rlend, an all;, i^ 

la. occupA, 1, <r. [ot+eaplO, take], 
labe poftsesalon of .selzA, occupy ; engage, 
employ. % 

Kit*, (I) adv., before, above, pre- 
Tloiuly; (I) pr^. to. aec., before. In 
advancs of ^ 

IS. lt«m, adv., in like maimeT, eo, 
also. Just so. 4: 

Omnnoilx, -Ifla, m., Dmnnorlz 
(dain'D6-r1ks}. a Batduan dii^aia, 
brothir o/Dividanu. if 

HMduuB, -a, -nm, ait}. (Cet), ol the 
Haedul (hSd'u-I); Haeduan; at noun, a 
Baeduan; j)[., tbe Haedul. jwhU'v Haed- 
naiis. ont of ihi taoit powerful of tkt 
OaUictribti. 4: 

ttkter, -tela, m., brother. # 

DlTlOl&aui, -i, m., DIvlclacus {AWI- 

rlgbt, but it Is very likely to be wrong. 
"Obtained" would be wrong bere. 

t lenltb: case? App. 1S7: O.-L. 401: 
A. 405: B. 210: H.-B. 406.1: H. 4S8. 

tunicua: an honorary title often 
xranled to foreign stales or chiefs by 
tbe Roman Senate In recognition of 
■pecial services or to attach tbem u> 

13. ut occupftret, "to seize." This 
clause is tbe objeclof perjuaiWln L 10: 
mode? App. 2Sa, a: Q.-L., MB, 1, 2: A. 
US: B.3B&, 1: H.-B. EOS, 3. a: H. M3. 1; 
H&. Ct. lit luppetatt, 1. 4, which la not 
Died as an object. 

IS. DumnoTlgl: Tonnger than Dlv- 
Idacus. and a bold leader of the antl- 
Boman parl^v amoUE the HaeduL 

(V Id lAt Somatu. 4: 

14. tsmpui, -oris, n,, a division or 

section of time, a time, time (fngnvroi); 
occasion, crisis; omnl. tampOTS, al- 
ways; in rellquum Umpu, for the 
future: tlnS tempore, at Ibe same 
time, at once. « 

princlpfctiu, -Ika, m. Cprlncepi, 
eblet], chief place or position; chief 
authority, leademhlp. 1. 

nuigla, adv.. comp. (maffniu, Breat), 
more, rather. In a higher degree; (up. 
maximj, especially, In tbe highest de- 
gree: mostly, mainly. * 

pifibi, piibiB,Drpiebei,-n,/.,pop. 

15. AoaeptDB, -a, -urn, ad}, {pf.part 
^AeclplG, accept], acceptable, beloved 
b)i (wUA daUve). 1. 

Idem, «aAem, idem (App. 58), dtm. 

■■ [ti, 1 

:, that 

very; IdeniKtaue, the same as- 4: 
cCnor, 1, iatr.. attempt, eudMnir. 

try. « 
fllla, ■«•,/-, daogbter. 4. 

qui: Le. Dumnorlx. 

14. tampore: caseF App. iss: a.-L. 

3»3: A. 4i3. 1: B. 230; H.-B. 439: H. 

' prlnclpfttnm, "the leading pan- 
tlon"; but he was not a maglslrate. 

plibl: case? App. 123: Q.-L. 3511; A 
tftl:B.lSS,l: H.-B. 362. rootiiote3,a: H. 

15. Dt Idam aCnbetnr, "to attempt 
the same thing"; i.e. atMmpt to over- 
throw the constitutional government 
and make himself king. 

al: caser App. 114: a.-L.34B: A. W 
B, 187.1: Q.-B-SOs: H.4S4ilW,l. 



in matrimoninm dat. Perfacile facta esse illie probst cunata 
perficere, propterea qnod ipse suae ciyitatis imperiiun obtenturiu 
esaet: Ndn esse dubinm quia totltis Galliae plurimnm Helvetia 
poesent: a€ sniB copiia sudque esercitu illie regua conciliaturam. 
cdnfirmat. H&coratioiieaddiicti inter se fidemetiusiurandiim ■ 

K. iD&tTlmSiilum, -nt, n. (mlMr, 

mother], marriage, wedlock, malilniony: 
In m&lTimOnluin data, to give In mor- 
rtage; In m&triinfiiiluiii d&ocra, to 
marry (laid of thi man). J. 

de, dura. dBdl. datum (App. K). fr., 
give, bestow, present, graot, tnmlsb: 
(Aeri field, give up: In fuftun data, 
pottofllgbt: dare manfii, yield; dwa 
MK&tlnin. wiCAdof., emplo;, engage, 
dlnct. (Sditu compounds of dfi iw 
dfrJFHl jTom on ohtoUU vtrt, dO, 

lUe. lUa, Ulud, gta. Ulliu, iat. Ull 
(App. BO), <l«n. pro™. {0/ tcAof ft remeU 
in tintipiaet, tAovglU,, Ibat. 
(bat man, woman, or tblng; lie, she. It; 
U« . . . m«, th« latter ... the 
tormer, itt App. ITO. a. i. 

probfi, [, Ir. (probiu, good]. ooDslder 
good, approve; prove, show, demon- 

etB&tDm, '1, n. [ofinor, try], attempt, 
nndertaltlDg, l, 
II. pSTDcifi, -Ocere, -Hoi. -ftotum, 

tr. IfttOli, make. do), make or do thor- 
ongbly or completely, complete, Bnlsb; 

construct, build; acblere, accompllsb, 

IB. nfill (App. 188. a), odB., not; no. * 

dubiua, -a. •um, 'xV., onoertaln, 
douDttuL ). 

anln, c9i^. [qui, wbo or how-f-n«, 
tugalivi], IbM not, bnt that; iVMr infft- 
tivi sDordi of douAt or Aindnince, but 
that, that. from, to; Qoln etlam, nay 
even, moreover, it 

multum, <yii. [ace. o/mnltiu, mocb), 
much, very, greatly, especially : conifh 
pIU, more; plfia poaM, be more able 
or powertnl, have more Influence; ntf, 
plfirlmuin, most, very; plftrimum 
poiie, be most powerful: bererypow- 
erTuI or Influential. «: 

19. exeraltiu, -Bb, m. [axwati, 
tralnl,<l traiiud or iftK()>lto<(l ttodt of 

eonellM, l, tr. (•oiicllliiiii,wsembIj], 
bring together; gain or win over, se- 
cure; reconcile, conciliate. 1. 

30. firfttlG, -ftnli. /. [6rS. spmkl, a 
spealilng, speech, laOKUagA, worda. ad- 
dress, argument, ik 

fldii, -el,/. (fldG,conade].taltb. con- 

It. parAcila . . . perficere, lit. "he 

shows to them to accompUsb the at- 
tempts to be v^T easy to do Ifaeta, the 
■opine)" = "hesbowed them that It was 
very easy to oarry out tbe Dndertab- 
Ing." esse: cf. 3, B. 

IT. propterei quod obtantftnu 
eiMt, lit. "because he was about to 
aeize upon" = "because he Intended to 
seize upon." Tbe clause Is causal, like 
propCcria gttod abtunl in 1, S: bnt tbe 
subjuDcUve Is used because It is a sub- 
ocdlnale clause In indirect discourse. 
Tbe Becood Important tact aoout in- 
e (ct. 3, S) Is that all 

subordinate verbs which In Che direct 
torm were eitber indicatives or sub- 
lunctives mnat be subjunctives in the 
Indirect form; App. Mt: O.-L. (BO: A. 
SSO: B.3I4, ]:H.-B.U4,IM;E3S.Z: H.MS. 

IS. nfin . , , quln, "(he proved that) 
there was no doubl that," 

1». IB Ulli eoncUlfttnnitn (sc. on), 
"that he would win Jorthem." Six Is 
usually omitted from the future Indn- 

Ulla : I.e. For CasUcus and Dumnorli. 
30. lite BrfcttOne, "by this argo- 

intar ti, "i 

; another." 


dant et, r@gnd occup£lt5, per tres potentiBsimos ac firmissimoB 
popnloB tdtioB Galliae &€sg potiri poBBe Bperant. 

4. £a res eat Helvgiiis per indicium Snuoti&ta. MdribnB 
aais Orgetorigem ex Tincnlis caDsam dicere coegerunt; 
damnatum poeaam Bequi oportebat, ut igni^cremoretar^ Die 

fldence; laitbtulneas. loraltr, trostwor- 
tbtnesB; alleglaoce. proMcUoo. de- 
pendence; pledge, asBnmice: Idem 
fftocn. convince, give k pledge; lldcin 
■equi, sorreDder. * 

IQa Urandum, l&rla Ittrmndl. n. 
[lU, rlgbt+tblO, swear], ui oatb. # 

31. par, prep, with aec; thinugli, 
thronghont; tj memu nt, ihroogli the 
Kgency o[, on account ot, tbroogh the 
eflorts or iDfluence oF: par iC. ot thdr 
own accord, on their own responslhiutj ; 
tomtUmn aUh inttiMiM force. In luelt, 
Uiemaelvea; In compotUien, through, 
very, thoroughly, completely. 41 

pattns, -entls, adj. [pru. part, of 
poiium, be able], powerful, Infiu- 

Tlgorous, Brm. 3. 

93. ipird, 1. tT. (ipSi, bope], bope, 
hope For, auticipale. >!. 

1. liidlalHm,-eI,>t- (IndloS.diBcioBc}, 
dlscloBure, Infonnatloo: par Indicium, 

jnfintie, 1. Er. IntlQtU. anDoimcel. 
report, declare, disclose, if 

31. rSgnfi occup&td potlrl potaa 
■p€tuit, "they hoped that atler They 
bad seized the royal power ieach in hla 
own land] they coold get control of." 
ZhfOA aaenp&U: case' App iSO: G.-L. 
4W; tlO: A. 419: B, 237, 2, a H.-8. 421.3; 

. n. [naelO, bind], 
bond. letter, chain, 8. 

c6gS, oSgare, ooigl, coftetmn, (r. 
[co+agB, lead], lead or bring together, 
collect, draw togetber, assemble: torc^ 
compel, coDstratn. * 

S. dajnnd, I. tr. (dunnnin, damage], 
declare guilty. Eeniecce. condemii- l- 

poena, -aa, /., punishment, pec- 

■aqnot, aaqnl, ■ectttni snm, (r. and 
iiar.. tollow, Follow aFi«r, pursue; ac- 
company, attend; Follow in point of 
iimr; with poana, be Inflicted; fidem 
aeaul, eeeli the proiecUou. :f 

oportet. -ite, -uit. , intr. im- 

pen., it Is neceesary. need lul. becoming, 
proper; wlieii tramlattii ai pertonal verb, 
joast. ought. i|E 

IfBU.-ta.m-.Dre. 1. 

crain6, !,(/■., burn, z 

dill, -tl, n. and /., day; time; In 
dies, from day to day; aUm ex dlfi, 
day after day- * 

n. I. d; - 

- 410, a 

B. IBS, t. Latin la very 1 

tlTe absolute: EugllsbTi 

Its corresponding Idlou 

tJTe absolute. Never translate an ab- 

iBtlie absolute literally "Tbe royal 

power bavlQg been seized" Is wretched 


per trti popnU^: l"- "■* Heivetii, 
the Sequanl, and the Hoedul. 
Sa. OaUlM: caser App. in: G-L. 

Chap. 4. Orgetorix is triad for con- 
Bpirai^, but eEcapes. His sudden 

1. aa Til, "tbls conspiracy," 

HelT«tltB: coaer App.l14.<:G.-L.34hT 
A, 3W; 3M: B. 1S7, 1: H.-B. Xa: H. tU. 
4ZS. I. 

mOrlbua: cose? App. 143. a: G.L,. 3»9, 
D. 1: A 418, a: B. 2!0, 3: B..B. •U.a: H, 
ITS, 3. 

3. ex Tlneulli. "in cbalns." Ct. 
note on I, 15. 

S. damnttum . . . cramftritur. ut. 

"It was neceftuuy for the puuisbmeDt to 



cOnstitata caa§ae dictionia Orgetoris ad iudiciom omnem 
BQam familiam, ad hominam mllia decern, nndique co€git, et • 
omuea ciientes ob&eratdaqne aude, quurum magnum numeram 
habebat, eodem conduxit; per eos, n^ canaam diceret, ai 
eripait. Cnm ciritas ob earn rem incitdta armia ius snum 
eisequi conarStnr, multitudiiiemqae hominum ex agria 

4. dlctl6.-eili«,/.ldIott,Mir].Bpeak- 
Utg, plefuUng. 1. 

Udlelum. -cl, »■ [iftdax. intee]. Ju- 
dicial proceedings, trial : oplnloa. Jiidg- 
meat: ladlelnm tuan, expreu an 
oplBlOD; Iftdlaie, b7 aeaiga. pur- 

t. f«lTltHM , -lUli f..hfHlB6hOia tlBclud- 

iiV ilofM) 1 reUrnie (IncJwUnff aJJ iJ(|MiH(- 

cMj): family. 1. 
dMam (X), itidtcl. card. •um.. ten. * 
«. oueni, -MitU.m.,/. [elUBft.beor, 

atteji, client, vasasl, dependent, re- 

abMr&tni, -a, •urn, at}- (kea, 
money]. Indebt: lu Rout, debtor. 1. 

t. •6d«m, ado. [»M daiivt of Idem], 
to the same place, tothe Bantepolnl(re- 
8iiIt,eDd, etc). * 

BondBcB, -d&cBta, -dutl. -dnettun, 
*T. [dtlefi, lead], lead or bring together, 
UBemble; coDdnct; hire. 4. 

B« <App. IBB, b). (I) sort/, ^th tm- 

that . . . not, so Ibal . . . not. In order 
that ■ . . not, lest; a!Ur vtrbt of fiar- 
(n^i CbaL lest: (S) adv.. not; nS . • 
QOldem {tmioititg tht emphatic iBord), 

S. irtpia, -tlpera, -Tlpul, -nplniii. 

tr. [iapl6. sslze], wrest or taUe away, 
extort, deprive; rescue, relieve, save. « 

Ob. pnp- aUh ace., on account of. For: 
in eompoutuiM, opposed to, to, tOTsrd,^ 
against: qukm ob ma, wherefore. 
why. * 

InelM, [ciU.put in motlonj.set 

ulaie: exasperate: aium isalMW, at 
full speed. iK 

■xma, -6niiii, n. pi., or 
meiic; by metonymj/. ]>attle. ^ 

IDi, lOTlf, n. ngbl, Jostice, law; 
rights : power, authority. * 

t. •xiequot, -teatil, -HoftCnt inm, 

Ir. [aeguot, follow], follow out, en- 


being boroed be tAfllcled opon blm." 
datnhitum: use at participle! App. 
»I3;0.-L. 687: A. «6: B.3»T, B.6: H.-B. 

SM, 3; H. 6SS, s. ut cremftrStur is a 
lubatanilve clause la apposition with 
potnam; It Is perhaps best talien as a 
■abstantlve clause of result. 

dU: gender? App. 80. a: O.-L. 84: 
A K, a: B. 53: H.-B. lOl : H. 135: case* 
App. ISS: G-L. BBS: A. 123: B. 330. 1: 
H..B. 438: H. ISA. 

dli . . . dlotlAnla, "on the day set 
for Uie pleading of ibe case." eauaae: 
caK'App gs: Q.-U S83. 2: A. »T: 34S, 

B. ad, "about. ■■ 

6. obaaifctOi: those who had become 
slaves on account of debt, 

7. paraBa, "by their help'' 

a«.. . dleerat, "to avoid pleading hla 
case": mode! App. »i. 6: O.-I. M&, 1: 
A. 531. 1: B. SaS, 1: H.-B. SOS. 1: H. 

8. eum c&n&rfitur . . . -qua mafla- 
tr&tfia eSgereiit, "when the state waa 
attempting . . . aod the maglslrates 
were collecting": modef App. sm: a4S, 
a: a.-L. liSS: A. 5M. notes 1. i, S: B. M. 
b: B.-B.SM: H. BOO, 11,1. 


magistratus cogereot, Orgetorix mortuus est; neqae abeet 
Bnspicio, ut Helvetil arbitrantur, quin ipse sibi mortem 
conacirerit. /■-■..^.^X'l l... 

y' 5. Post eine mortem nih ilo min ua Helvetii id quod con- 
stitaerant facere conantnr, ut e fmibua aula exeant. TJ bi iam 
ae ad earn rem paratos esse arbitr&tl stmt, oppida sua omnia, 
□umerd ad duodecim, vicoa ad qnadringetitds, reliqna privata 

1 aedifieia incendnat ; frQmentnm omne, praeterquam quod secum 

10. matlitr& imaglBtsr. 

maater], public office, maglatracy: pub- 
lic officer, majilstraM, if 

morlor. morl, mortuua 111111. intr. 
tluorB, death], die. 2. 

ii«au« (nao) (App. Iffi, a). eot0. [ns— H 
qne], aod not, not. nor; but not; 
neqns . . . nequs, neltber . . . oor. i\p 

11. tnipletei-Iinls./. [stispleorisus- 
peel), suspicion, dlslruEt; cauM for 
■OBplclon; Indication, appeziracce, # 

morB, -tlB, /., death; Bibi mortsm 
eBnielacsTe, commit suicide, i. 
13. cfinoelice, -lelscare, -bcItI, 

-aeltum, tr. [bcIboS. reBolTeJ, resolve 
upon; Blbl moTtam cSuboIbo are, com- 
mit suicide. S. 

1. poet, adv., and prep, viitft ace. {\)ai 
adv., laur, afterwards; (3) as prep-, be- 
hind, atter; post torgnm or post a<, 

nlllllO, adv., b3 no means; nUitlO 
jnlnUB, ncTGrtheleas; nllillO iStlUB, 

3. ^X1l\,allD.[\) of place 
where; &) of timt, whei 
Boon as; ubl prlmum, a 

by this time, at last; real!/. Indeed, 
BTen; neauB Iwm or lam nSn, do 
longer; ubl tun, assoon as. ifi 

S. pars, l,(r., prepare, get ready; pro- 
cure, acquire; prepare for, get ready 
for; pftT&tUB, pf- part, at a4}., ready, 
prepared; equipped- t 

oppldum, -1, n.. fortified town. town, 
stronghold, ii 

4. duodeclm, card. man. ixtj. [duo. 
two+dacem, ten], twelve. 2. 

Ticat, 'l, m-. hamlet, village. :f 
Quadrlngentl, -a,», -a, card. num. 
3(0.. four hundred. 3. 

prlT&tuB, -a. -uiii, o<y., private, per- 
aonal, IndlvldDal; (U noun, person, in- 
dividual. S. 

5. asdlBoltim, -cl, n- laedlficfi. 

buIM). building, house, if: 
IncendS, •eondera, -eendl, -efin- 

11. nt with the Indicativt 
meana either "as', or "when." 
Qnto , , . censolTorU, "tba 

.. _ _. Caesar thwarts the 

effOTtH of the Helvetii to cross the 
Rhone and march through the Bom^n 

efforts of ' 
Rhone an 

Chap. 5. The Belvetii burn thi 
dwelliogB and secure allies. 

1. niUlO: case* App. 118: Q. L. « 

lamely) to go forth. " la 
volltive (or purpose) 
clause In apposition with id. 

8. Mleamrem, "fonheenierprlse." 

parfctSB Is the adjective. 

eaae. "were"; Indirect discourse. 

oppldk, Tlefis, ■.sdlllcli,; notice the 
absence of conjunctions, and cf, note ou 

4. namsrii: ease? App, 119: Q.-L.EB7; 
A. 418; B. 3^: H.-B. 411; a. IX). 

ad, "about." 

11. Bieum: position ol cum' App.! 
G.-L. 413. R. i: A. 144, note I; B. 143. 4: 
H-a 4ia,o: H.175.7. 



" fiiif" 

portatnri erant, comburnntr, nt, ^domnm reditidnis ape snblata, 
paratioree ad, omnia pericula sttjiaiinda essent; trium m enai um 
molita cibaria sibi quemque domd eflerre iubent. Persuadent 
Raaracia et TulingiB et Latobrigis, finitimia, uti eddem usi 

am. It. [if. CMldea, ablne], set fire to, 
fire, bum ; Inflame, eiclte. i^ 

prftetarqoun, adn., besides, except, i. 

6. ports. 1, tr., cany, transport, 

flOmbftrG, -ftretB, -ubiI. -nitum, tr. 
(roDi(b)+arO, burnl, burn up. I. 

domiiB, -tM <App. W. iS>, /., bouse; 
home; native conntry. « 

reditu, -Onli, /. [iede6. return), 

■PSb. -Bl, /■. hope, anticipation, ei- 

tolia, tollerB, BUBtulI, ■ubl&tmn, 
Ir., lift, elevata; lake on boarfl; take 
BWif. remove; do away wltb, deBtroy; 
cancel; inUttUB, pf. part, at adj., 

T. parlcnlnm. -I, »., trial, teat, sv 
tempt: risk, danger, perlL i|i 

BnbeO, -ire, -11, -Itnm. tr. [eC, go. 
App. 84) , come or go unfler, come up to. 
come up; undergo, endnre. 4, 

miosli. -is, m., montb. 1. 

B. mold,, grind. 1. 

clUilni. -a. -um, adj. [elbUB, food). 

domum rBdlU&nli, "ot retnmlng 
bome." domtuu: case? App. 131: 
O.-L. S3T: A. 437, 1: B. 183, I. b: E.B. 
tM, 4: H.4ie, 1. 

fp€ BUbllU: translate tbe ablative 
■bsolQte b; a temporal clause. 

T. uA . . , anbennds: couBtmctloD* 
App.!SS;!»3; G.-L. 427; 4S2: A. SOS; 60«; 

tilum mfoBlnm oibftrla, "supplies 

lor three montbs."mSQalnm:caser App. 
100: G.-U3U,3; A.345. »: 9.303,3: H.-B. 
9b: H. mo, 3. NapoleoD III estimates 

pertaining to food ; noun, pro- 
visioDs: molita Blb&rla, meal, aonr. B. 

auHque, 4UtdauB. ant quliqna, 
qnaaqUB, quodqUB, uaiBtriat tndtf. 
pron. (App. Si), each one, eacb: every 
one. all. i^ 

effarB, affem, eztull, il&tum, tr, 
(ax+fer6, carry. App. 8i]. bring or 
carry out, carry or take away; raise; 
spread or publlsb abroad, make known; 
elate, puff up- 1^ 

inbeO, lubira. liusl. inMum, tr., 
order, bid, command, enjoin, ^l 
B. Sfturaci, -Onun, m. (Cs), (be 

Rauracl (raw'ra-sl). 8. 

Tullnd. -arum. m. (Cgb) . tbe Tultngl 
(tu-lln'jij. a QallK tribt tatt of tk* 
Bkim. *. 

LatobASl, -artun, m. (Bb). tbe Lato- 
br^ (l&t"fi-bn']l>, a Qallu tribt eatt of 
tluShiiu. 1 

tktor, Iktl, biua inm. tntr., mahe use 
of, employ, use. avail one's self of. exer- 
cise; bave, enjoy, experience, possess, 
Bbow; adopt, accept; Bbui, sf^ part. 
<(fttn tranilalid trltb. « 

t, e.UO wagons, drawn by St.dOO draft 
animals, were needed to transport tbe 
necessary provlslonB and baggageof tbe 
Helvetian host: even this is probably 
an DQderestlraate. 

S. Ilbl; case! App, 1!0: 0.-I» 35!: 
A. 37S: B- IBS. 1: H.-B. 366: H. 4SS.4. 

dcim6: case* App. I34. a: 0.-I> 390. 
1: A. 427. 1: B. 330. 1, bi H.-B. 451, a: H. 

4ie, 4. 

•. ntl . . . proflolBeantur, lit. -that 
bavlng used tbe same plan, theti towns 
. ..having been burned, tbeysetoui along 
with them" = "(o adopt . . bum . . ., 
and to set out." gaiuU16; case* App. 
14fi: O..L.4l)7:A.4ia:B,318,l: H.-B. 4S: 




■0 conailio, oppidis saia Ticisqne exostis, una com ila pro- 
ficiBCantur; Bolosqae, qui trans Rhenam incolaerant et in 
agrnm Noricum tranaierant Koreiaiuqne oppngnabant, receptoB 
ad se socida eibi aacisount. 

6. Erant omnino itinera duo quibua itineribue domo exTre 

10. oSUSlllum. -11, fi>. consul Cation, 
dellbeTatlon ; coansel, adrlce; plan, de- 
ment: prudence, wisdom; an assembly 
(or deliberation, counell. qouocU ot war; 
i wrntnflnl i;6natlld, by. or In accordance 
with. Kenerat actloo; pQbllcO cSnalllS, 
by action of thastate; c6nEUium cap- 
•» or tnlie, form or adopt a plan; 
oOntUlnill tWbteBi tblnk, oonald- 
«r. « 

exbre, -imrB, -obiI. -Uittun, (r. 
tftrfi, burn], bum np. 1. 

Onl, odF. [llnuB, one], (1) of place, to- 
gether, along with, In one place; (2) lif 
«m#, together, along with, at the same 

11. BoU, -Uiruin, m. iCe). the Boil 
(bO' yi>. a CiUic tribe onct eery powerful in 
touthem Qermany and Citalpine Oaul. 
Thoti aha Joiaed the Httnetii ictre after- 
tcardi uttteA Ajf Collar ai indicoled on 

la. irBrlaul.-a,-UIII, O'tl.. perulning 
toNtiTinniaifacOTinlrfDeltiietiitAi l?anu6* 
and l?n Alpi}. Norlcan. Z. 

trluaa, •!», •U, -ttnm, tr. and tnlr. 

(aS, go. App. Bi], go across or ovec, 
cross; march throofth, pass throosb; 
move, migrate : of lime, pass by. « 

II6Tfila,-as,/. (Ck}. Norela (nS-rgiyfJ. 
a totm in Noricam, noa Neamattt- 1. 

oppugns, I, Ir, [oIH-pivnOi Ssbtl. 
Dght against, attack, assault, stomi. 
besiege. i|[ 

reclpifi, -elpflre, -cipl, -osptum. er- 
(re-+aBpli, lake], taJie or get back, 
recover; admit, receive, receive la sur. 
render or submission; admit of. aUow; 
viith ti, withdraw one's self, retreat, 

seir. * 

la, Bocliu, -fli, in. [fif- laqnor, fol- 
low]. compaQlon; confederate, ally. « 
wiaiBaS. -BOUoara, -boItI, -Boltum, 
[&d+BCtBo6, approve), approve; ad- 
<r receive {at iiKf<t). £. 
omnliifi. adv. [oinnlB, all), at all: 
'haleveri altogether, entirely. wboUy; 

duD. dUAB. duo (App. 49). card. num. 

11. B016i Is the oiject ot BBDlBCuat; 

App. 134: O.'I.. 380: A. 3S7: B-lTi: a-B. 
SVO: H. 404. 

13, TBeepMi . . , aieliauut. lit. 

"the BoU, rei^eived to themselves \ad 
#3, they admit to themselves \iibi] as 
allies" = "they received among their 
people and Joined to themselves as as- 
sociates CSe Boll, who had," etc. 
13. Blbl;casef App,116,I:Q..I..347: A. 

SIO: B. 1S7, 1 

: H-B. 3 

is eiplalned I 
oltbemostcommoa principles of syntax 
is referred to three tlmea In the notes on 
I, I-3B. At Ibe end ot the chapter In 
which the third reference to any con- 

called to the fact: and If th 
not yet mastered the cons 
should do BO Immediately. 


Direct Object 

Ablative of ipicffleatioa 

1. erAnt. "there were," 

qulbui ltlneTlbua."hy which." Cae- 
sar sometimes repeats the aotecedeut lu 
the relative clp^use. where Engilsb usage 
requires Its omission. CaseT App- 144: 
Q.-L. 3HS: A. 420, a: B. 218. S: B.-B. US. 
a: H. 478. 

qulbiiB . . . poHBiit. "by wblch they 

■, Google 


poaaent: unum per Seqnanos, angnstnm et difficile, inter 
montem liiram et flumen Rhodannm,/vix <\a& singuli carri 
ducgrentiir; mona autem altlBsimus impendebat, ut facile 
perpauci prohib^re poseent: alterum per prfivinciam nostram, t 
mnlto faciltiis atque expeditius, propterea qaod inter fines 
flelvetiornm et Allobrogum, qui nuper p&cati erant, Rbodanns 
fluit, ieqne nun nulIlB locia vadd tr&nsitar. Extremum oppidum 

3. dUBolUl, -B, (UV. (boilU. uay], 
not easy, bard, troublesome. dUBcult. 'a. 

B. viz, (Xfr., wllb difficult;, barelf, 
hudlj'. Bcarc«l7. i, 

qni, adv. [abl, fern, of qui], by wbkb 
war If road; la wblch place, where. * 

tlnfull, -««, -*, MtMl). num. adj., one 
aacb, one; one ac a time, single, sep- 
uau; each, eyery; tbe several; In 
unte slnKuli*. annually. # 

*. ImpendeB, -pendBro, — , — , 
"'''. [In+S*iida6, bang), overhang, Im- 

(. p«rpaiioI, -u, -a, adj. [panel, 

few], very few, but verj low; at 
•eim. very few. 4. 
I. iauIt5,(uJi. [o&i. (^miiltiu,mneh]. 

by tar, much. 1- 

hellil, •«, aOj. [fKoU, do], easy. 

expedttna, -k, -urn. adi. [jif. pari, of 
•XPSdlS, set rree], unimpeded. rr«e, un- 
obstmcled; wlibout baggage; light 
armed; lU noiM, a Ugbt' armed eol- 

T. Allobrogil, •tun. m. (Dtg), Ibe 
Allobroges (ftiebrS-Jez), a pmtwful 
Qailiejttopli in tlu Prorinee. * 

nap«I, adv., recently, not long aga 

Plod, 1, tr. [p&z, peace], mafae peac«- 
lul, Bubdue. pacify; p&o4tUB, pf.parL 
08 aii}., peaceful, quiet, subdued. # 

S. flu9, Duere, fl&zl, — , (sir., flow, 

TKdum, -1, »., ford. Bbalkiw. t 

cottld teave borne," is a clause of cbar- 
aclerlatlc: App. sa0:O.-L.(Bl,l: A.En.a: 
asa. 1, S: H.-B. Ml, I, a: B. Wl. I. 

daaS: case? App, 131, a: O.-L. SM, 
t: A. 427. 1; B.3», I, i: H.-B. IM, a: O. 

2. tumm (ileri and altaraui [Iter) 
are apposltlves of iltiura duo; App. BG, 
i:Q.'I^^a: A. 2S1;3SZ, a: B- lis, 1,3,5: 
B.-a 311. 2: 319, I. a: E. 193, 4. Study 
the two ronlea on the map, p, TO. The 
one tavolved pausing through Pas de 
1' ^clnse, the otber loTolved croBaing 
Ih« Rhone. 

S. Tlx: notice Its emphatic position 
before the relative, and et. note on irua< 
pertinml, 1, S. 

4. dtlcareiitnr. "could be drawn." 
This 1b another snbjnnctlva of charac- 
loistle. but It dlOi^rs from potunt in 
Uiat here the subjunctive mode has the 

potential meaning "could": App. KK),c: 
G.-L. «3I. 2: H.'B. SIT, 2. The place re- 
lemd to Is Pas de 1' ^luse: see map. 

I: H,.E 

T. BQper pftc&n erant; 

after a desperate struggle 
their Independence- 

S. nen nfillls loola, "at several 
points," Why Is the prepoaltlon in not 
usedF App. l&I.D: t}.-I> S8e, n. 1: A. 42t. 

TAdA trinsUnr, ut. 

ford" = "Is tordable." 
extcimum: I.e. it ii 

"is crossed b 



Allobr ognm est proximumque HelTeti&rum finibas Genark. 

10 Ex 80 oppido pons ad HelvetioB pertinet, Allobrogibus b€b6 
tbI persuasuros, quod noadum bono animo in populnm Rdtni- 
nnm viderentnr, ezistimabant, vel vi coacturds nt per suds 
flneB eos ire paterentnr. Omnibus rSbus ad profectiQnem 
compar^tls, diem dicunt qua die ad ripsm Kbodani omnSa 

u coTivepiant. Is digs erat a. d. v. Eal. April., L. Piedue A. 
Gabinio conaulibus. 

a. OanaVB, -H, /. ICg), Oeaava 
(liQ'a-T&), a tityof tht Ailobroga, ftow 
Geneya. 3. 

10. peuB. pontU, m.. bridge, * 

11. n6nduin. atJc. [u6u, noH-dum], 

bOiLQB, -»., -am. aii} . good, beneBi^lal, 
profltable, well disposed; (leilli iJiliiiO) 
IrleDdly; as noun, honum, -1, profit. 
kdTantage; tOna. -fiTUm, Rooda, prop- 
«TCy. estate: bonl, -firum, ibe good, 
good men or olUzens. Comp., mUlor; 
nip., optlmuB tApp. 42]. :tE 

13. TldeA, TldJTB, Tidl, Tlsnin, tr.. 
see, perceire, ooaerTe, examine, nnder- 
Btand : see to. take care i f n pott., be seen ; 
■eem. appear; seem proper, seem best. * 

BzlBtlmA, 1. (r. [kaatlBiei, eaClmate. 
reckon, tblnli, consider. « 

TBI, (onj, and adv. (1) at con}., or; Tfll 
. . , TBI, either ... or; (S) at adv.. 
even. « 

«B, Tit (App. 27),/.. force, might rai- 
ergy, strength; violence, severity; an- 
tfaoiity. power; a rorce, a great nunh 
ber; pi, vIrtB, strength, force; tIh 
facers, use violence. # 

IB. e6, ITB, 11 (ivl), Itnm (App. 9H, 
InCr., go, proceed, march. pasB. if: 

patlOT, pati, pasBUB Bum. tr, a«l 
intr., endure, wilhatand, suOer: permU. 
aUow. « 

9. SBt migbt more naturally have 
itood before Oenava. 

10. Allobrogibus . . . p«rau&BD- 

fSb exlBtlmftbMIt, "they thought they 
should either persuade tbe AUobroges." 
perBUfcB&T6a (<•«] is the principal verb 
In Indirect discourse; ct. note on per- 
facile iiH, 3, b. In direct discourse 
their thought was fHriuSdfBtniM, "we 
sball persuade. " 

11. quod TldfiTentni Is a subordi- 
nate clause In Indirect dlsconrse. App. 
W»: Q.-L. BbO: A. 680: B. S14: H.-B. fOi, 
I.I; 635,3; H. MI. 

bone anlmft. "of 'a rrlendly dlspoai. 
tlon"or ■■well disposed." Case? App, 141 ; 
O.-L.4(l0: A. 415; B.224.I; H.-B. 443: H. 

13. TBI oo&ettrdi {eut 
eompel tbem": in the aai 

ttoO aB IMTfUOfWO*, 

>r should 

ut paterautur Is a Bubstantive roll- 
live (or purpose) clause, the object of 
both pfrtuOiSrilt and coaiilarSt. 

19. omnlbuB ribua eomparltlB. 
"when they had made everything 

14. qu& die: cf. note on quibu* M. 

auk die omnes conTaulant, "tn 
which they should aU assemble." 
Moder App. Sffi, a, \: G.-L. 545, 1; A. 
5B1. 8: B. asa, 2: H.-R MS. I: H. 500. 

IB. a. d.V. Kal. ApTll.^<in^ (fum 
qvvUutri Kalfndat Apritet = dii guirUo 
■intfSalendSt Aprilei. The former phrase 
la idiomatic but can not be parsed. In 
alt such reckonings the Romans count- 
ed both ends, while we count but one. 
The date bere meant Is the twenty- 
eighth of March, wblch we Bhould 
consider tlie fourth day befora Um 


7, Gaeaari cum id nflntifitum eeset, egs per prSvinciam 
noBtrain iter facere coiiarT, maturat ab urbe proficlscl, et qLtam 
maKimIs potest itineribua in Galliam ulteriorem contendit et 
ad Genavam pervenit. Provinciae toti quam maximum potest 

tonal, be conveDleDt, suitable, neces- 
lary. * • 

quIntUB, -A, -tun, ord. num. a<^. 
(qulniiu*, live), aitb. a. 

KaL, abbr.foT E^sndas, -fcrnm, /., 
ibe Calenda. thi firtt day of Iht Soman 

Apiil.. dAAr. /or Aprllla. -«, adj., ot 
AprU. AprlL 3. 

L., aiibr. /or LIketUI. Lni^lua (lu'- 
BbfOs), a Somaa pratnonun. « 
' PtaS, -enll, m., Lucius Calpurnlns 
Plso (lu'abyds bOl-pSr'iiMlB pi'95), 
Cohot'i /caher - in - law. convl B8 
B.C 2. 

*,, aWr. /or AulUi (aw'lflB), o ifoman 
fnunotntn. 1. 

IS. O&, AuluaOablnluB 

Erst, or April. ilaaa& ot the Qlth. 
L, FIb5u« . . . oOniullbUB: at. note 

THIRD Refbbiiicis : 
PuTpoie clanttt 

Chap. T. Caesar hastens to Qaul 
uid delays the HelYetU by a xvetezt. 

1. OaMUrl: be bad been oonsol In 
the year M. and at the end of bis year ot 
oHQce he had Immediately become pro* 
coDSQl of QauL See Int. 11, la. Heiras 
at this time near Rome, preparing to 
leaiTe (or bis proi-lnce. The news merely 

poslUve. the clat 
they were planning, etc." tit: • 
App.m; O.-L.303,R. 1; S4S, 2: A. 3 
B. IM: H.-B.3C8: HAib. cOnkTl: cons 

-arif, ™.. Qalua Jullne 

ir (ga'yfla Ju'11-ils se'a»r>, con- 
r 0/ Qavl and aufAor o/ tht Com- 

aDntie. 1 

'. [nOntlnB, 

, report, mate 
. and intr. [m&tUUI, 

known ; order, dl 

3. mfttOTfi, 1, < 

Hpe], rlpea; qulolten 

nrbi, orbit, /-, city; tipteiaUs, the 

city, Bom«. i, 

B. ultetlor, -liu, ad]., eomp. [nltri, 
beyond. App. IS] , tarther, more remoM. 

4. pervaulC, -Tanire, -vinl, -Tm- 

tum,lntr. |T«nlO. come), come through; 
come 10, arrive at, reacb; o/ jiroperty, 

tlonT App.3M:a.-L. «0: A. 680: B.914, 
I: H.-B. 6ra; Nl: E. M2. 

3. ab Ufba, "trom [near] ihedly." 
Instead of tx urbi, because one who held 
a military command could Dot legally 
be lb the city. 

qnuii "■fTimTt potait Itlnerlbna, 
lit. "by (as great) day's loumeys as tbe 
greatest he can" = "by as long day's 
loumeys as possible." truam mnxiBiit 
itlturibiu would have meant tbe same 
thing. These two Idioms are very com- 
1 In Caesar. We learn from Plu- 
tarch that Caesar traveled about ninety 
mllesaflay. itlnerlbUB: case? App.WB: 
Q.-L. SW: A. i\%: B. ISO. 1: H.-B. U&, 2: 

i, 473. 3. 

5. ultailBism = trStnalplnam, " be- 
yond the Alps" from Rome. 

i. ad OsnaTam: use of preposition r 
App. 131, a: Q .-L. 8S7. R. 4 ; A. 42S,a: B. 
m. 3: H.-B. ea, v. H. 418, 4. 

vrOTtnctae impar^t, "he levied upon 
the provlDoe." 


6 militum nnmernm imperat (erat omnind in Galli£ alteriSn 
le^ una), poutom qni erat ad Genavam iubet rescind!. Ubi 
da eiua adventu Helrgtli certiores facti sunt, leg&tda ad emu 
mittunt, nobilissimde oIvitatiB, cuius legationis Nammeios et 
Verucloetina principem locum obtinebont:, qui dicerent sibi 

1 ease in an imq. sine ullo maleficio iter per prdvinciam facere, 
pro^terea quod aliud iter babe rent nullum; rogare at eiug 

B. mllea. -IUb. "•.. aoldler, prlTau 
soldier; lufoDiry (oppotid to «qiilU*); 
mlllU* Imper&re, ler; saiaiers up- 

luiperft. 1. Ir. and tntr. [In+pftrO, pro- 
cure], demanil [rom. eujoln or levy up- 
on ; command, order, lastmct. rule. « 

B. leBi6, -6uli, /. [Jet6, chooaei, a 

reaelndS, -iclnder*, -iddl, -Mil- 
ium, tr. tt«-)-ielIidG, cleave], cut 

away or down, break donn, destroy. 2, 
T. advantui, -&•, m. ivenld, come], 
comlog, arrlTal. approacb. * 

eartua. -a, -um. mU- [/ 

part. o/cemB], decided: certain, sure, 
fixed; eertlSrem faosre. to Inlorm 
(ace. and inf.); order |ut or nfi and 
lubj.); cBrtlor flerl. be Informed. ^ 

lisiXoB, -1, m. [ligA, delesaie], o» 
with iKlejattd pmcera; ambassador, en- 
Yor. legale: lieutcnaDt, legaCna. * 

8. mlUB, mlttare, mlal, mlsinin. 

tr., send, send ofl. dlsmlsB. let go. dis- 
patch; hurl. dlBcharga. « 
Nammilui, -I, m., NammelDe luK-me'- 

tmt to Cottar. I. 

pilncepi, -IpU. aij. [primus, Qm+ 
aapl6, tahel, taking thtjlril place; chlel. ' 
most prominent, first: at noun, cbtet 
or principal person, leader, ohleL * 

10. line, ptYp. vi'A'ifi^, withont. :(: 
ailui, -a, -um, Qtn.. Ullui (App. 3i), 

ad}., a nlnele. an;; at noun, any one, 
anybody, if 

nwleQclum, -oi. ». (malum, evu+ 

fa0l6, do], evil doing, mlachlef, barm. 

11. at)llui,-a,-um.7flL.nUlIus,a4f. 
[Da— l-tllUI,; at noun, 
DO one. none; nfin nUluH. some; at 
noun, some. Home persons. i|i 

rogd, I. (''..ask; request-aslifor. ^, 

L. SS3; 284; £86: B. 233, 1,2; 234; 

H.-B. 317.8; 320.111: H. S 
8. neblllsBlmOs: i 

= '-tosay"; arelatlveolaoseof purpose. 
■Ibl aase in anlmS, "that they had in 
mind" or "Intended." ilhl: case? App. 

InQallU: case; App. IRl: G.-L. 38S: 

117: G.-L, 34»: A. 873: B. IKO: H.-B. 3T4; 

A. 426, 3; B. 228: M.-B. 483: H. 483. 


B. legU: this was the tenth, after- 

wards Caesar's favorite legion. On Che 

clause tn Indirect discourse. Ct. a. 17. 

organization of a legion see Int. S3. 

roKfcie (so- •^- "tlia' m^y asked." 

I. eaKier«i faoti aunt, lit- "were 

Tbe speakers said to Caesar rogSmut, 

made more certain"^:: "were lotormed." 


oortlftrfia: oasef App. IM; ISJ: O.-L. 

ut »IM Ucaat. "ihat 11 be permitted 

them" or "that they be allowed, 
mode see App. 221. a: G.-L. 546, 1: 
B. 2»:m: H.'B. A30. S: H.M3.1; 5i 
eiUi; Le. Caesar's. 


Toluntate id sibi facere liceat. Caeear, qnod memoria tenebat 
L. ^BiuDi consulem occi^m esQrcitnmqne eiuB a b He lve tj is 
pujsum et snb iugom miseum, coDctidendum non putabat; 
neque homines inimico a nim o, data facultatfl per provinciam ii 

la. TOluiitis,-UitU./. (T0l0,wi9b1. 
wish, will, desire, InclluaUon ; good will, 
liTOii consent, approval. * 

llMt, llefite, Ueult and lialtnm sat, 
iatr., impert., U 1b lawful, one baa per- 
mission. It Is permitted, one may, one Is 
illoRed; Ifeet ml&l, I ma;: petaie ut 
llCCJlt, to asli permlaBlon. 4e 

uumotla, •»,/• [mamoi. mindful], 
[Ae faculty of memory; recollection, 
memory, remembrance ; tradition ; me- 
nuirla Mndra, remember; p&trumme- 
morijt, Id the time o( our tatbers. « 

linee, tenSto, tanul, teutum, tr.. 
buld, keep, oecupy, possess, bold posses- 
BiOQ of; bold in, restrain, bind; e< 
teoire, remala; mamorU tm#ie, re- 
member. :fi 

19. OaMlUB, -ll, BL, Luctna Cassius 
Longiuua {lu'stayOa kasb'yliH I5D-gl'- 
niisl, contal 107 B.C., (loJn inbatUtb!/l/u 
l^iirinL 3. 

Mcld6, -oldere, -Qldl. -clinm, tr. 
Iob4-raed5, cut, slay], cut down. miJ. . 
slay. « 

It. peU6.peIlere, p«pull,pnl*iim, 

U. TOlunUte is ui ablative of ac- 

tenitwt: modef Ai>p 244: Q.-t. 640: 
A, 540: B.SBS.l: e.-B.S54; B65: E.aSS.I. 

IS. ooelgnm, pnlium, Imlsgnm are 

perfect passiva IntlnlUves In Indirect 
disconrse, and depend od memoriS tent- 
hat, wblcb 1b equivalent to a verb of 
knowing. Tbe perfect toBnltlve repre. 
Bents ibe acltoa as past at tbe time of 
imeliat; "tbat Lnclns Cassius bad been 

Kb H«lT<tiIi: case? App. 1S7; G,-L. 
401 : A. 406; B. SIS; H.-B. 400, 1 : H. 488. 

14. Bnt> lugnm, "onder the yoke." 
Tbis "yoke" was made of three spears, 
two planted In the ground and tbe third 

tr.. beat, defeat, r 
pel. * 
■nb, prep. V 

) IFiM 

w6« 0/ m 

(b) <^(fnw, JuslBt.atioui. 
toward. (S) WilA Ml., (a) nf poiition, 
under, beneath; toward, near U>: at tbe 
foot nr base of : |b) o/ ((f?M. during, .with- 
in: in compoundi, sub or BUbS, under; 
up, away; from beneath; lecretly: in 
Buccesaion; allBlilly. * 

lugum, -1, n, [IuukA. ]oin], yoke; 
ridge, crest. * 

oonetdfi, -eMan, -««Bit, -oeBitim, 

(r. and intr. (oedft, go], go away, depart, 
withdraw; Brant, yield; allow, per- 

pntt. I. f r.. think,'coDsldeT, believe, if 
ID. iDliiitoiu,-a,-tim,<i(ti.(lii-+Mnl- 

CUB, frlendlyl. nnfriendly, hostile; (U 
noun, an enemy {ptrional), rival, to bt 
iHttinfpiiihed /Tom hMtll, a public ene- 

raoult&B, -tfctls, /. [Old ad}., tacnl 
=faolIlE, easy), power; opportunity. 
I, supply. * 

fastened across them at a snllable 
height. Under this .the soldiers ot tbe 
captm^d army were compelled to pass, 
in tokenotBubmlssiouanddegradatlon- 
eonoedendom (*<««). "that permis- 
sion ought to be granted-" 

IB. homlneB t«mperfttfir6B («><<), 

■'that men would refrain. " The future 
InQnltlve shows tbat a. future indicative 
was used In the direct form. Caesar 
thought nSn limper/Onini, "they will not 

(mime: case F App- 141: G.-L. 400: A. 
115: B. i34. I: H,-B. 443: H. 473. a. 

dtlt& facUlUM may be translated by 
a conditional clause ; "if an opportunity 
should be given." 



itJDeria faciendi, temperaturds ab imuria et maleficid exTsH- 
mabat. Tamea, ut apatium iutercedere posset, dnm militeB 
quos imperaverat conTenlrent, legatis respondit diem se ad 
deli beran dnm Bumpturnm; bi qnid vellent, ad Id. April 
10 reverterentur. 

IS. tempers, i.u>fr..res(raliiorcon- 
(rol one's SHlf. retrain ; tMnparUUB. p/- 
pari. a( oitf- , <«mpera(«, mild. 3. 

Inlftrlft, -&«, /. [lii-+ltki, rigiit], 
iTTODg. Injustice; oulroge, Injury, hann, 
rtolenoe. ^ 

IT. t* 

apatlnm. 'tl, »,. sitace. distance, ex. 
tent, lengtlm/ipow; period or length 0/ 
timt, itnet time, opportunity, i^ 

InteroedO. -eidere, -oesal, •oeB*um, 

inlr. (cM6, go), go or come between, He 
between, intervene, be between; pass. 4. 
dum, Mttj,, while, aa loog as: till, 
unill. * 

IS. deilbBrt, 1. tr. [libra, balance], 
weigh well; consider, deliberate. Z. 
BfimGi i&mSTBi B&mpsl, BOmptum, 

tr. [Bab+BinA, take!, takeaway, lake; 
assume ; aith BUppllClnm, Inflict : uiM 
labor, spend. « 

Bl, aH\l., If. U perchance: (o sea 
whetherup If ; whether; quodal.butit 

qnli, anld, and qui, auae, quod 

(App. 61 and B9), (]) interrog. prQn.,v)ui! 
whIchF wbatT quam Ob rem, wtayr 
quemadmodtim, howC i&ind^.pnm., 
eipteiatly nfter bI, nisi, nt, niun, any 
one. anytbtng, any; somebody, some. 
thing, some. i|e 

ToW. Telle, TOlnl, — (App. 83). tr. 
nndi»(i-.,wlsh. be willing, want, desire: 
prefer, choose : Intend; mean; quid Blbi 
Tellet, what did he intend or mean? « 

!d&B, •\ixaa,/ the Ides; tht isthof 
March. Hay. July and OdObo', taid Uu 
Ulk of otIuT montht. 1. 

30. roverta, -TerMre, -Tertl,-' 

iied almt 



It lAe It 

B. 339, 1; H.-B. 812,1: BIS; H. tBS; I 

ad deliberandum; 

App. as;; WS: Q.-L. 136; 4EZ. R: A. fiOS; 

19. Bl quid vellenl, "tt they wanted 
anychlug.-' Why quidf App. 174; Q.-L. 
SIB: A. no, a; B. VI, 5: H.-B. £?«, I: 
H. IBS. 

30. reTerterastur, "they ahoulii 
come attain." This Is a principal clause 
In IndirecC discourse, but the sub- 
Jonctlve Is used Instead of the inflnltlTe 
because on imperative was used In the 

direct form. Caesar said li quid mtlUt. 
nvertSmin*. "ttyouwBiicanythlng,come 
again." The third (cf, 3, B and 8, 17) 

tsthatalllmperattvesof the direct form 
become sntijunctlves In the indirect 
form; App. 287: O.-L. Wi: A. 588: B. tit: 
H.-B.»t, 3; E3g: H.612. 

Thibd Riferbnces ; 
Predicate nouni and adjeclieet 
Agreemtnt of aOjecticee 
ParlUici genitive 
Subject of infinitive 


luod. e 
. indirect dieoourt* 

:. Google 



8. Inter6& ea legione qnam sDcmn habebat mllitibasqae 
qui ex proviucia conveiieraDt, a lacu Lemanno, qui in flumen 
Rhodantim influit, ad montem luram, qni iines Seqnanornm 
ab Helvetils dividit, milia pa^Bum xix murum ii> altU^dinem 
pedum sgdecim f oaaamque perducit, E9 opere perf ecto praesidia f 
disponit^ castella communit, quo facilina, ai B e in vito transire 

Ibe I 

formed on Iht prti/nt 

1. Inlersfc, adv., 1 

meaawblle. 4. 

t. laflad. -lluera, 'fl&zl, — , tntr. 
[OnB. flow], How Into, empty Into. « 

4. llaaSTig;Jntl(XIX).CTr.i.ntim.oiO., 
iiuUcl. IttjiuB, one+di, from+TlBlntl, 
Iwency], nineteen. 3. 

morui, -1, m.. a Trail. * 

UIltlLdS, -InlB,/. [UtUB.hlKb.deep], 
belgbc; deptb; tbtcknesa (0/ lim- 
tar). * 

E. pe*. p«dll, m-i tbe toot; a toot. 
tlti inchea in length; padlbua, on foot; 
padsm referre, retreat. -^ 

ledeclmCXVI), cam. num. ad}., indecl., 
alxUwn. 3. 

fOBsa, -•a,/. [nf.jx'Tt.fen.of toAib, 
dig], trencb. dlwb, ^ 

P«rd&c6, -docsra, -dbxl, -ductum, 

tr, [dOeS, lead], lead throngb or along, 
conduct, bring over, bring: coostruct, 
extend; tnBueace, win over; drawont, 
prolong, t. 

opua, oparfs, n-. work, labor; mlU- 
Cary work or works, (orclflcatlona. ds- 
feusee; a work of mglnttrin^ or. arc/U- 
tecttirt;jil.WitX Opete, by nature and 
art; opBr», crads. ^ 

praetldlum, -dl. n. [piaaBldeS, 

guard], guard, garrison; sareguard. pro- 
tection; rortiacation.Blronghold; help. 

4. dUpBnB, -pSnare, -poiul. -poii- 
tum, Cr. [p6d6. place], place apart or 
abont; diatrlbule, arrange, elation. 9. 

oftiMIlnm. -I, n. [cutmni, tort], 

(ortress. redoubt, i^ 

eonunftulS, 1, Cr. (mftnU, lorUtjr], 
lortlCy atrongl;. Intrencb. I. 

qua, eoni. [flSi. coif /ormo/qnl, wbo, 

1. legldnamnitlbiuquaicaBeTAp: 
149: a.-L. 401, R. 1: A. 409: B. 218; li 
H.-B. 4S3, a: H. 476. 

3. k l&cb , . . ad montam: see ma; 

4. mllU: case* App. 130: Q -L. 3Sfi: 
A. 425: B. 181: H.-B. 387; H. 417. 

mllla paAsnum SIX = about n% 

English miles. This Is tbe distance 
trom tbe lake to Pas de I'^cluse, fol- 
lowing tbe windings o[ tbe river. Cae- 
sat'a plain statement la that he con- 
Btructed a wall and a trench nineteen 
miles In length. Napoleon HI believed 

■teep [or most of the distance that no 
■rtlflclal FortlScatlons were needed, and 
the map on p. 73 shows the only places 
irbere be believed that Caeaai con- 

structed the wall and trench— a total at 
about three miles. Napoleon's view la 
generallf accepted, but tbere are good 
grounds [or doubting Its correctness. 

In altlt&dlnem pedum aMeelm, lit. 
"of sixteen feet Into height" = ''sixteen 
feel high." pedum: App. lOO; G.-L, 
S0j, 2: A. 843, b: B. £03, 3: H.-B. Xa: 
H.440,S. The"sectlonofCaeBar'BWall," 
set into the map, p. TO, makes clear tbe 
method of conslmctlng this wall. Tbe 
(op of the bank was cut down so as to 
make a steep front sixteen feet hlgb; 
this was tbe mOrui. The earth which 
was dug out was slnfply thrown down 
tbe hllL A line Of palisades was set on 

Roman soldiers. 

6. dUpenil, 

Caesar had i 


conarentur, prohibOre posset. Ubi ea dies qnam cdnstitnenit 

cum legatis venit et legatl ad eum reverternnt, negat B e mo re 

et esemplo popali Kdmjiiii posse iter ulli per provinciam dare; 

10 et, si vim facere cunentiur, prohibiturum ostendit. Helretii 

Wblch], In order tbat. bo tbat. that, i): i 

iDTltiu, -a, •uiii,aifJ.,ag&liiEt one's 
vlsh or nllli ODwUUng, reluclanl; ■< I 
Inritfi, aKalnBthlsvrllL in 

B. Tsiiie,T«nlr«,TeiiI,Tantiim,fn<r., 
come, arrtre, go, advance; in ipein 
TboItb, haTe hopes; pat>. ofttn imper., 
at Tsututn ait, tbey came. 

nafO, t, tr. and itUr., say no. relose. 

>. •zemplum, -1, n.. example, prece- 

10. oit«nde, -tandera, -t«ndl,-t«n< 

tnm, tr. [obi4tande, Htreuh). Btretcta 

I beCure; present, show, brlnic Into Tlew. 

reveal; tell, declare; point out, men- 

Uoned' delachmeDts Ijiraaidiai In cat 
tttla, at suitable points, and of com» 
had pickets all along the Una. At ai 
alami the nearest detachments were tt 
run to the threaianed point. 

O.-L. K»: A. il». a; lao, 1: B. KT. 1 
i.a: H.-B. 43t, 1: H. 4B9, 1. 
B. nagftt U poMa. "he said that bi 

mCra at examplft: case? App. la. a 

qnfi faelllua poiMt: when la ffuS used 
In purpose clauses? App. S2^ a, 2: O.-L. 
MB, 2: A.fai.i.a: B. 9S2, a : H.-B. BOZ. 3, 6 : 

O -L. 8M, n. 1 : A. 418. a: B. BO, 3: 1 
iu.a: K.ilt.S. 
10. ■! . , . oCnantnr, "it (her si 

problbltnrum («. » . nte). • 



eit Bpe dC'iecti, navibns iiinctia rstibnsqne compluribiu factis, 
alii vadis Rhodani, qua minima altitudo fluminia erat, dod 
Biunqaam ioterdia, Bsepias noctA Bi perrampere poBsent con&ti, 
opens munltione et mllitum coQcnrdu et t^lis repulai hfic 
conata destiterunt. ii 

9. Eelinqnebatar una per Sequanoa via, quS SSqnania 

11. dfilclfi.-loere.-ifioi.-leatnm.'r. 
[UelB, throw. App. 7], hull or cost 
down: dislodge; Ull; lou, dtsap- 

niTlB, -ii,/.. ship, boat: u&vla lon- 
|ft, galley, ship ot war; ufcTla oue- 
lirlSi, transport. * 

lungO, Inngan. lOnzI, lOnotnin, Ir., 
jolD or unite together, att&ab, oon- 

ntlB, •!■,/., raft. 2. 

eomplBrft, -a, aai. [pill 
■ereral, man; ; a great many. # 

13. p&rmi,-a,-Ulll,a(U.,Uttle,aiiiiill, 
Insignificant 1 eomp.. minor, mlnnt. 
lewar, BmaUer; shorter; minus. <m 
tioan, less; lap., tnlnlmul, -k, •TUD. 
least, very Bmoll. * 

13. nuMQUftm, <i^D. fn^—fmniiuun, 
«vHr],notevar, never; uOn Uumquani, 

IL «k ipB delBOtl. lit. -cast down 
fniin this eipectatlou" = "disappointed 
In this expectation." aiit: caseF App. 
IS4: Q.U3K>.a: A. iW: B.214. 2: B.-B. 
MB, 2. footnote; H. 401. 

n&Tlbai lOnotlB, "by Joining to- 
gether boats," and thus making a pon- 

13. alll: we Bboald expect rome cor- 
responding word In the previous phrase, 
nSvOat . . . fattit. Themeanlngls that 
most of the Belvetli tried to cross by 
boats and rafts, bol others by fords. 

18. •! poiHnt, "(to see) whether 
tbey conld/' For this use of H. 
App.»4.i:0.-U 180, l,b; 407; A. B7 
B. 3D0.S; E..g. G82, », a: B. MS. II. 

U, conoiiiafi: ct.note on dlspSnlt, 

[nox, night 1 br 

pamunpft, -rompare, -rfipl, -rup- 

tum, tr. anii Inlr. [rtunpA, break], break 
throngh, force one's way through, fore* 
a passage. I. 

14. mlUiltU, -tall, /. [mOnlft, for- 
tify), fortifying; (orUflcatloQ. raiDparw 
works. intreucbmenlB. t 

eonouimia, -Da, m. [aoncnrrB, run), 
a runnlDg together, attack, onset; niA- 
llxlon. 3. 

Mlum. -I, n., a tueapon/arjlghtbtg at m 
ditCanee, missile, dar(, Javelin. # 

repellO, rapallare, rappull, tapnl- 
■um, fr. [re— hpallft, beat, drive], beat 
or drive back, repel, repulE:^ 4. 

IB. ota&tnt,-U,i».[i)Bni>T,tfy]. at- 
tempt. tinderLaking. 1. 

dBiWO, -lUteTe, -aUtl. -lUtum, 

in'''- ItlltCi standi, abandon, cease, 
givenp. 4. 
1- TellnanA.-linquere.-lIqul, 'llo- 

TaiBD BiTEBEnos: 
Acaualitie of txUnt of tpae* 
Mlalive of aeparafJoA 
SblatUn afnuaiu 
Mlatlm abJDlKla 
Chap. 9-lB. The Belvetti march 
ont tnronsh ttie tomtory of the Be- 
q.aanl. Caesar, with a reinforced 
army, cnts to Dieoes a fourth of them 
and follows the rest. 

Chap. 9. The Helvetii obtain per- 
mission from the 8equaul to pass 

1. dna Tla, "only the way." This 
was thiongh Pas de I'^use, the way 
mentioned in t, 2. 

qok, "and by this." Case! A[ip. 144: 



invitis propter angustias ire Don poterant. His cam bq& 
epoate persn&dere noQ po gaen t, legatos ad DamDorigem 
Haednum mittnat, ut e o de orecatore a Sequanis impetrareut. 
b Dumnorix gr&tia et largitioue apud Sequanoa plunmnm 
poterat et Helve tiis eratamicns, quod ex ea civit^te Orgetorigis 
filiam in matrimdnimn duxerat, et cupiditate rggDi adductus 
noviB rebuB stndebat et qnam plurimaa civitatea auo benefieift 
habere obstrictas volebat. Itaque rem snaeipit et a Sequania 

'Vl», -B*. /.. way, road, touW; Jour- 
ney, marcb. ^ 

9. propter, prep, vrtth ace. [prope, 
near], on aooounC of, because of, In 
consequence ot if 

KUKUHtlae, -brum,/, pi. [ftngnBtm, 

pBBB, strait, deaie; Gtralls, dUDcuItlea, 
perplexity. * 

8. Bpontla. gen,, and aponw, abl. (ob- 
loltCi nom.. ipOns), /, □[ one'a own 
accord, wllllugl;, voluntarily; by one's 
sert. S. 

for), m 

. aiprecator, n 

[dtpiecor, plead 

Unpetrfl, i, Ir. (In+patr8, accom- 
plish], obtain {byrequfBt. entreaty, exer- 
tion), accompllsb. succeed Id ubCalnlng 
l,one'iregutitj; ImpetrliTe ft (ab), e^tn 
permission from, persuade, i): 

B, grtitla. -as,/, [giiitui, pleasing). 

favor, goodwill, gratitude, esteem, In- 
Buence. popularltyi grfctlts Biar*, 
thank; fi&ttain habire, to (eel grate- 
ful. gr&tlunreferre.torecurnalaTor: 
banc giftUam rafane. to return a 
favor In tbl9 way; gr&tlun Inlie, to 
gain tayor; gratlft /oUowing a gen., for 
the purpose of. In order to. t 
larglUS, -finli. /■ (larKlor. bribe]. 

B. noTiia, -a,-tim, 14/', itew, novel, .un- 

revolutlon; (up.. dotI*- 
■Imni. -a, -urn, latest, last; a> nutin or 
vrUh rngman, cbose In tbe rear, the 

■tUdaS, -jg^-aX, . tnlr., be eager 

or zealous; desire, strive after, devote 
one's self to; pa; attention to; accns' 

beneflcium, -cl, n. rttane, weii-f 
IkcIS, do], well-doing, benefit, favor, 

i. abBtrlngO. -itrliigeTe, -•trlnxl. 

O.-L. aea: a. 42». a: B. tl%, B: H.-B- 420; 
H. 476. 

84<iauila laTlUs, "ir the Seqnanl 
■hould refuse-" Ablative absolute. 

9. cumpOaaBIlt;mode?App.239;Q.-L. 
MS; A. M9: B. 288, S; H.-B. B2e; H. 

■aft aponte, "by their own efforts" or 
"by tliemselveB," The pbrase usually 

S. Dnnutorlgem; cbis is the Dum- 
Dorixwhols mention £d In a, IBasbaving 
conspired with Orgetorli, Althougb 
(bat plot bad failed be was still seeking 
a cbauce to make hlmaelf ktng. 

4. ut Impetrtient Isaclaoseotpnr- 

e6 dfipracfttOra, lit. "he being media- 
lor" = "by his mediation." 
6. grfctU: case' App. I38:a.-L.4ae: 

S. a: H 4S4, 3. 
B. r«bna; caaer App. lU: G.-L. 3M, 

R B: A. 3ST; B. I8T. II: H.-B. tSl. foov 
note 3, b: H. 426. 1. 

an&. . .obatrlelft<.ii(."uihoid bound 
by bis kindness" = "to keep under olr 


■, Google 



impeCrat at per fines snos HelTetios ire patiantor, obsidesque » 
ati inter Beeg dent perficit: Seqnani, ne itinere HeWetioB 
prohibeant; HelTetii, ut sine maleficio et iniuria transeant. 

10. ' Gaeeari renuntiatur Helvetiia ease in animd per agrum 
Seqoanorum et Haednornm iter in Saatonnm fines facere, qni 
Don longe a Tolosatinm tinibus absunt, quae civitas est in pro- 
Tincia. t^IA bi fieret, inlellegebat maguo cum pericnlo provinciae 

r. tatilngS, tie), bind, hoia 
under ebligationi, pled):^. 2. 

ItaanB.coiO. !tta. sq], and so. tbere- 
Eore, accordlDgljr. 41 

10. Ob«eB. -IdlB, m. and f. [obtldaO, 
blDcfaadeJp ttne thai u guarded, hoatsi^; 
pledge, security, ik 

1. TeilfiIlU0,l.'r.[Te-4'II1UltlUI,me»- 
gage), brlDg back won), brlns news, 
report; declare elected. iK 

3. Bftntont, •4rum, or SuitonM, 

-nm. m. (Dcd), (be SanUnil oiu'td-ul). 
or Santonea (ain'td-noi). S. 

8. ToUstiMi, -Inin.m., ttie TolosatM 
(tWo.aS'cezl. thepeopli of Toloia. 1. 

4. lntelI«B6,-leK«re,-14zl,-ISetuiii. 
tr. (Inter+legS, chooae, select], select 
or dlstlnguiati between; understandi 
know; see, perceive, realize; Bod oat. 

10. Obaldte: all throagb Caesar's 
narrative we &nd that Btal«B were 
obliged to btcd tbemsalves to carry ou( 
tbelr agreements by giving bostages, 
Tbe bostages were usually the cblliilren 

and were liable to eoalaTement or deatb 
Ir tbe state tailed to fulfill Its agree- 

11. eiquuil. H«lT«tU: sc. obnda 

dent; I.e. the Sequanl bound themselves 
not 10 sop the Helvetli. etc. Theclauses 
are substantive volilird clauses, objects 
of tbe Implied phrase "bind themselves. " 
Third Rbfh 

Satice vMA 1 

Chap.10. Caesar brlngsmore troops 

I. 0»e8wl: caseF App, 114. e: Q.-L. 
34S; A. m-, 309: B. IBT, 1: H.-B. SSS; H. 
4S4: 4M, 1. 

TMIBgtIfttar: tenser App,IM,(i:Q.-L, 

SSt: J 

: H.-a Ml, 1: 

It spies and 
scouts to report the movements of tbe 

KeWatlls: caseT App. 117: Q.-L. S4«: 
A. nS: a 190: H-B. 074: H. «a 

aiH« Is thesubject of rmiZBfiaiur. 

3. fttcareia the subject or «>i<. 

S. nOn loDgC: the dlatauca la really 
about 130 mUes, but tbe HelvetU would 
be more dangerous in tbe terrllory of 
tbe Santonea than lu their own country, 
because they would no longer be hemmed 
in by natural barrlera Caesar had rea- 
son to fear that either tbe HelvetU or the 
Sauls whom tbey should drive from 
their homes would raid tbe Provlncej 
and since it was bis duty to protect the 
Province be was Justified in forcing tbs 
HelvetU to remain at bome. He does 
not choose to add, bowever. that tbia 
movement of tbe HelvetU gave blm an 
excellent opportunity 10 tnlerlere In the 
aOalrs Of Qanl. and thereby fitted in 
with his plans for the conquest of (he 

4. Id si fleret. "If this should be car- 
ried out," is a subordinate clause in in- 
direct discourse, depending on/utarum: 
modeT App. £«: Q.-L. BGO: A, bSD: B. 
314: H-B. 584, 3, II; H, 643. Caesar's 
thought was, "if this shall be carried 
out [future Indicative), it will, etc." 

mtgiiO . . . Cnttkrum. "that it would 
be (attended) with great danger ta the 
province," prBTlntdae Is a genitive. 



6 futfirum ut homings bellicoaoe, populi ROmiini inimlcos, locia 
pateiitibus maximcque frumentariis finitimSii haberet. Ob 
eas causes ei_munitioni quam fiicerat T. Labieniim leg&tnm 
praefidt; ipse in Ilaliam magniB itineribua contcndtt doasque 
ibi legiones conscribit, et tres, quae circum Aquileiam hiemA- 
10 bant, ex hibernte Mucit, et qua proximnm iter iu ulteriurem 

B. beUlc6aui,-a, -um, adj. [bellum, 

war], of or lull of war, warlike. 3. 

a. paUnB, -antis, aiU, [ptMO. be 
open], open. uiiobBtrucl«d, accGa»<lbl«. 1. 

(tUnuitirluB, -a.-iim, a<ii- (framen- 
turn, grain], of or pertaining to grain; 
0/ placet, fruitful, producllTS of grain; 
tia frtiment&rlk. suppl; of grain, prcj- 

7. T,ae6r./ijrTltua(ti't(is),o*oinan 
praenomen. ik 

Lablinna, -1, in., Tltua AtlUB Lable- 
nus (ti'tiia a' ahytts 15"bl-i'nfls), Ca/iar'i 
moit trmted lituteruml in the Gallic War. 
In tht Civil War he aided Pompev and 
11XU tlain at MuadaiR -B.C. * 

8, praaficie, -flcsra. -fiel.-ftattun. 

It. [faclB, make], make before; place 
over, put In command of, put at tbe 
head of. place In charge of. 4. 

italia, -M, /., Italy, tometimft (in 
Caeear] tneluding Citatpitu Gaul, but luii- 
allf iactudtng onjy the rett of the penin- 

S. Ibl, adv.. thero, In that place. :» 

a6tiiarIbS. -acTiiwra. -aoripBl. 
-Bcriptuin, (r. iBorlbft, wriifi],tBr«( W- 
gelher in a lilt; levy, enroll, enlist: 

tixwim, prep, with ace. [elrcnB, a cli- 
del, arouQd, abont, near. i. 

AquUUa, -ae, /., AquUeia (lLk"wl-le'- 
ya], a dxy of Ciialpine Oatil, 1. 

blemB, 1. inlr. [blema, Printer], pass 
Ibe winter, winter. « 

10. blbaiDk, -Snun, n. iK. cftBlra, 
camp], win ler camp, winter quarters. « 

U&C6, -dScera, -dikxi. -auotum. tr. 
[dtkcB, lead], lead oat or tonb; draw (a 
laard). t 

InimloOB Is bere used as a Qoaa. and 
a genltlTe depends on It. If 
.s an adjective It would goTern 

i.-h. H7: A. 310, a. now I: B. IBT, III. 2: 

consular CO 


A, *ll. B. S 

9. oBoBcrlblt: he did ttils witbout 
authority from itome. He hod been 
given only four legions,— the one In 
Transalpine Qabl and the tbree at 
Aqullela. But the«ituatloa was more 
Herlona than the Roman Senate realized. 
He tberefore Increased his army to six 
l^ona, perbaps M.OOO men. With these 
legions and some auxiliary troops be 
bad Co oppose 02.000 Qghtlng men. ac 
cording to tbe Oalllc records given In 
chap. SB. 

10. UbamlB: case? App. IM. a: 
Q.-L.SSO.l; A. 426,1; B.2S»: H.-B. 106.1: 
H. 461. 

quIl proxlmnm IWr arat, "where 
there was the shortest route. " Hechose 
the pass of Mount Qenfivre, and tbe 
route Is shovm on the mp.p facing p. 43. 
He did not wish to return to Qenera. for 
by this time the HelvetU bad left tbelr 





Galliam per Alpgs erat ciim his quiDque_legi5iiibas ire con- 
tendit, Ibi Ceatrones et Graioceli et Catnriges, locie snpe- 
rioribuB occnpatis, itinere exeroitum prohibere cooantur. Gom- 
pluribuB^biB proeliia paleiB, ab Ocelo, quod estoppidumciterioriB 
provinciae extremnm, in fings VocontiOrum nlteridris proviuciae u 
digseptimoperTenit; inde in Allobrogum fine B, ab All obrogibuB 
in SegusiATos exercitum ducit. Hi sunt extra proTinciam 
tr&ns Bhodanum priml^ 

I I. HeWetii iam per angastias et fines SSquanorum euils 
cOpiuS traduxerant, et in HaeduOnim fines perveneraut 

II. Alii«B, -Imn, /. pi. (Cgbi). thi 

Alpea {Al'pozv btfter, tbe A1p»ir # 
qulaque (V), card, num. a<t/.. tmitcl. 

11. Catitronis,-um,'n.(Dg), tbeCen- 

anlaetll, -Sruin. m. (Dg), ibi 

loceU(Brft-rOs'*-ri). 1. 

OfttU^giB, -llln, m. IDs), Cbe Calu- 
rtges (k&t^-ri'Jez)' 1. 

•npartoT, -lii». adj- [i^omp.of aup«' 
nu.hlgli. App.«l, (1)0/ piaM, upper. 
Uglier, superior: <?} of lifot. previous, 
earlier, lonner. % 

li. 0Mlum,-I,n.(Dg),Oceliun(0s'a- 

alpina), Clrolplne Qaul, on U 
tllaliat) tide o/ihi Alp: * 

16. VooonUI, -4rnm, m- (Di 
coiiUi(v<>-kOD'BliyI), 1. 

a. adj. 

(leptMll, seven], sevenlb. « 

Inde. adv., from that place, Iheiice; 
men, (taereapon. * 

IT. BasndiTl. -Snim, m. (Det), tbe 
SegosluvliBfgva-Bhl'&Ti), 1. 

eztirft. adv. .and prep, with ace., out oF, 
ontaide ot. beyond, without I. 

18. prlnmi, -a, -um, a^-. tup. (App. 
13). flrsc. roremost; Brat part oC: pi. oi 
noun, the first, the rront rank or ranks i 
leaders, chlelB: In prlmlB, especially, * 

3, trUftofi, -dftcne, -dDti, -dne- 
tmn,tr. [tt&iu+dfteft, lead), lead across. 

, leilOnlbus: case? App. 14 

U. complfiribna. . .pro«IiiB:E:ug' 

llsli order, Au palta (ablal^-e abao- 
inte) tomplSriImM prodiu (ablallvB of 

IS. pravtnclaa: case? App, 9»: G.-U 
3<B: A.»3: B. IW: B.-B. 139: H.MO, 1. 

IT, in BegUBlft*«B: i.e. Into that 
pan ot their territory which lies between 

Thirli R 
PoihiHm gtnitiv 
Indinct objict 
Dativ* toCIA eotapoviut verbi 
Ablalini of place from vihieh 
Ablative of accompaniment 
Bittorical priient 
^ auborainate claxite in iiutireet dit- 

Chap, 11. Three e 
' — roteotthem — 

1. lain,"bythiBtiine."_ 
ansustlfts: at Pas de I'Eduse. 
3. pervBnarBut: I.e. tbe bead of 
their column had crossed the Arar, 
though Its rear was some miles from 



efirumque agros popnl&bantur. Haedui, cnm 8$ BDaque ab He 
defendere ndn possent, legatds ad Caesarem mittmit rogMnm 
• ansilinm: Ita Be onrni tempore dg popald Bdm&nfi meritos esse 
nt paene m cdnspectu exercitas Dostri agn vftet&r!, liberi in 
Beiritutem abduci, oppida expugnari nou dsbnerint. EOdem 
tempore Ambarrl, necess&rii et coneangDiDei Haedndrum, 

lead over; take across, transport; trana- 
ler. convey, pass on; wtnover. 4: 

i. popiUdt. 1. 'r.. devastate, ravage. 
la]' waste. 4. 

«. defends, -tandar*. -fendl, -tta- 
■um, It. [fandfi, strike] , keep or ward 
off, repel ; defend, protect, ^f: 

B. auxUlum,-ll,n.[aiiEM>>°ci^^e]. 
belp, BBslstaDce. aid; pi., auilllar; 
troops: relofonsments. t 

Ita, adv., so, thoa, In ibis way; as 
follows; nt . . . Ita, In proportion as 
... la anch proportion, as ... so; ttBn 
Ita, not BO very, not very; Ita . . . Ut, 
Just . . . as; BO . . . that « 

merefi, and tasreor, 3, tr., deserve, 
merit, be wortby of; vrin, earn. Incur 
todlltm); serve a* a tolditr {i.e. tarn 
jwv). a. 

6. paane, ode. nearly, almost. i|[ 
cOnspeoIiu, -U.m. [ctinaplolfi, look 
at), stgbt, Tlew ; presence. ^: 
Tilts, 1. tr. iTtstDI, waslej, lay 

IIb«rI, -Srum, nt., [Ubar, treet, tht 
free mtnOtra of Ihi houithold [o» oppottd 
to itacM) ; children. i|i 

7. lemtQa, -fitu, /, [lemu, a 
slave), slavery, servltnde. 4: 

RbdBcS, -dtkOAre, -dQzI, -dnelom. 
(r. [dDeS, lead], lead away, draw or 
carry off, withdraw. I. 

expngnS. I, tr. [pufllS, flgbt], take 
or carry by storm, capture by assault; 

deb«S. a, (r. [dS-fbabeS, have), ftoM, or 
kttp from mm on*; owe; wttA inf.. 
ougbt. must; poll., be due. i|i 

8. Ambarrl, -Srum. m. (Cr), tbe Am- 
barrl (ftm-bftr'i), elUtUi of IKe Bat- 
dui. i. 

nec«u4rluB, -a, -nm, adf- CnaceBia, 
necessary], necessary, requisite, press- 
Ing; tciili tempni, critical; ai noun. 

oSnianKQineoB, -a, -um, 04}, [•an- 
gulB, blood], ol the same blood; ainoua, 
kinsman, relative.- 3. 

that river. They had traveled only 
about a hundred miles during the two 
montbB ol Caesar's absence. Macb of 
tbls time, however, hod been spent la 
negotiations with the SequanL Tbelr 



ty miles In lengtb.and their progresB was 
necessarUy slow, especially at the pass. 
For tbelr route see the map facing p. IS. 
8. oumpoBsent: causal, 
■uaque, "and their property." 
t. rag&tum: form and nse* App, 
: 0,-1., tSJ. D. 3: A, 5W: B. SU. I. a: 

I.-B, 81 r. 

]. t3£, 1 : 

B. omnt tempore, ' 

meritSl sbm depends on the Ideaot 

"saying" which Is implied in rogStum. 
About sixty years before, the Haedal 
had been called "brothers" ol the Roman 
people, and ever aioce that Lime 
their relations with Rome had been 
friendiy: but we do not know that 
they had ever been of assistance to 

e. at agri T&at&rl nfin dfbusTliit. 

"that (li«r lands ought not to have 
been devastated." dibuerlDt: mode! 
B. SM, I; 

I. KTO, 

, It agrees with a 





Cusarem certiorem facinnt sSbS depopa Utia agris non facile 
ab oppidis Tim bostinm prohibere. Item AUobroges qai trana i« 
BhodaDum vic^ poBseBsidneBqiie babebant ingi se ad Caesarem 
recipiont et demonstraut eibi praeter agri. solum nihil esse 
reli^ai. Q oiba B rebus addactna Caesar nOn egsp eotan dam s^bi 
gtatait dum, omnibtis fortunia socidrnm consumptiB, in Santonds 

HelrSti! pervenirent. 4^ u 

12. Flumen eat Arar, quod per fTnEa HaeduOmm et 

t. dApopnlor, 1, If. popular, lar 

wastel. lay waal«, mvage. 2. 

10. lioBtfB, -l*, «*../; ipvblU) eiiem7 
n- toe in dUtiruMon from Islmloal, a 
ftrtonai erumy; pt.. Ihe eaem;. 1^ 

11. pasMiBia.-BnlB./. [poMld«fi,po>- 

■Kak possesBloD. oocnpntlDu; » pesseg- 
slon, propertf. 4. 

fncSi, -Ke, /.. oigbt; la fagam eoai- 
Hn or d&ro, put to iliKbt. * 
IS. demSiiitr&,l.'r.{mBnatT6,aboiT], 

pnlat out. ibow, axplKln, describe; de- 
clan, siaie, say. « 

PTMtST,pr<p,iiFltA(icc.|pru, berorel 
MTore; beyond, paat; contrarr to; In 
tddlUoD to. except, besides. * 

lolnm, '1, n., botuwa; groood. soil, 

nUill. indeel. noun, n., notblus. xnith 

; tor, a 

: nSn nlUI, some- 
. tr.iipeoW, lookat], 

all, by u 

aiitlclpai«. apprabend. # 

14. itatuS, tMtnftre.itetnl.itattk- 
tuin, It. (itatul, position), pat In posi- 
tion, set up. place; del«rmlDS, resolva; 
Judge, pua sentence; tMnlc conald- 
er. * 

fortutk, '*», T. Ifora, ehanoe], for- 
tune, luck, cbance. opportunity; lot, 
condition; good tortune. euocess; prop- 

eOnttunO, -aiuner*, -itkmpsl, 
-■ftmptuin, (r. [atunS, take], ink* 

destroy; use up, waswi, pass. i. 

1. Ar«i,Ar»rla(fl«.-lni),m.(CiKg), 
the Arar (Crar). On modfra Saone. 4. 

9. aiiS dipopul&tla agrlt, "tbat 
Ibelr lands bad been laid naate and that 
tbey," etc. In a number of deponent 
'erb9 the perfect participle Is used with 

10. AllobrogSa, qui , - - babibuit; 

most of tbeAllobrogee were south of the 
Rhone and were not troubled; but the 

rlier and on the ronle of the HelvetU. 

11. BlU nlHU cBsa rellanl, "tbat 
lo them tbero was nothing of a re- 
mainder" ="that they had nothing left" 
Hbl: case? App. 11T; O.-L, Wt: A, 3TS; 
B, 100: H.-B. 37»:H.430. rellqollsnsed 
ua noon and Is aj>artltlTe genitive: 
App. lot, a: Q.-L. 3SB. R. S: A. 340. a. I: 
B. an, S, a: H.-B. 34S, a: H, 440. E. noUk 

U, qntbiu: use ol relative? App.' 

m,o: a.-i:„010.RI: A.aOS.i; 
H.-B. !S4. 0: H.510. 

nOii exapectandum (sc. «<<«) slbl, 

"that It vas Dot to he waited by hlm"« 
■'that he must not wait." exapao- 
tandnm: construction? App. 2»i. U. 01 
0.-L.2SI.I; A.1M.A: B.m.T.M: H.-B. 
AM. a; 102: H.SSr. aibll case? App. US; 
G.-L. 31B, 3; A. 374, a: B. ISO, 1: B.-B- 
87S.I: H. 4S1. 

It. dum perTenlrant, "until tbey 
Bbould arrtTe." 

DMite ofpoiMiior 
Relative iniltad of deawnttTOlive 
Chap. IS. Caesar destroys the Tig- 
urini, the renrgnard of the Helvetll. 
y 1. HQinsiiaBt Arar, "thWisaii^to 
.toamed) the Arar." 



SSqnandrum ia Rhodannm infiait, incrgdibill lemt&te, ita at 
OGulis in utram partem fluat iudicarl non poesit. Id HelvStii 
ratibas ac lintribus iunctis transibant. Ubi per esploratorSs 
e Caesar certior factns est trea iam partus copiarnm Helvetioa 
id flumen trad^xiase. quartam fere partem citra flumen Ararim 
reliquam ease, de tertia rigilia cam legionibas tribus e castris 
profectus ad earn partem pervCnit qaae Dondam flumen trans- 

a. IncrMtbUlB, -•, a*. (U--t-ere- 
dlbllli, credible], iDcredlbte. unUkely; 
eitraordluarf. t. 

Unlt&a, -t&U«, /. QSnli, smooth], 
smoothness. gBntleness. 1. 

S, ocului, -1, m. . eje. S. 

uter, Dtra, utrum, gm. ntrlni (App. 
SS), aiij. (1) (U interroi/.. whlcb one or 
wUoh of tvm; (S) a» r/i.. the ons who. 

4. llntW, -ttU. /., aklff, rowboal, 

•xplBi&tOT, -ftrla, "L CwpIBri, 

■eorcb out], explorer, scout. Bjiy. « 

6. aulrtUB. -R. -um. ord. num. aaj. 
[gnattnat, toia], ronrth. t 

eitrt, pr^ MiA aee., on this «lda 
of. 3. 

7. TlxlUa, -M, /. tTlgU, awakel 
wahefuluesB, Hatching: a, w&tch. mu 
of Uu four equal diciiiotn of Vu niglit, 
uttd by tlu Bamaiu 

cutmin, -I, n., lort; pi., OKBtra. 
OUtrSrum, forttBed camp, camp; eu- 
tra Acei« ot pfinere, pitch camp; 
Oliitra lnaT>r«, break ap camp. * 


Whr Is thepreaent tense used > Slrlcllr 
because Caesar tneant "cau," not 
"could." Every BnbluncllTe tense has a 
meaning and Is used because that mean- 
iDgls needed In the sentence; atthesame 
time, hovever, ibey are almost Invaria- 
bly used Id accordance with the rule tor 
sequeaca of tenses. I«ara once for all 
this very Important rule, and the dis- 
Uoctlon betKeen principal ana blstor- 
tcal lenses: App. 202; SIS: Q.-L.Sa9;&ia: 
Gil; A.4S3. 1, S; 483; B. 268, B: 267, 1,2, S! 
H.-B. VK, loot-noleS; H. 108; US; N4; 

S. In . • . fluait, "In which direction 
It flows": TOodeF App. 289: G.-L. «7: A. 
E73; SH: B. 300, 1, a: H.-B. 5U. 3. Ill; 
m.b: H. 949,11. 

4. ratlbni, llntrlbai: abiatirea ot 

lOnetli modifies only titUHbui. 

tr&utlbani: at a point about twelve 
miles norlb ot Caesar's camp. Eicaia- 
tlont Id tbis vicinity hare brooKhl lo 
light numerous graves which glveevl- 
deDce ot hasty IntermeDt. aa It atler a 

B. tria...trUlkxUia,''tbattbeHel- 

vetll bad already conveyed three-tonrtlis 
ot their troops across this rlvor." The 
verb iTSduxiiM governs two objects.— 
parlH depending on the meaning ot the 
simple verb ducB, flumen aependlng 
on the meaning ot the preposition 
IrSrU! App. I2T: G.-I, SSI, B. I: A. 
888. A:B. 17Ii.2, 0.1: H. B. SBl, 1: S. lOB. 

6. cltr& : i.e. on the east. 

7. dStertikTiglllL. "Justafter(tbs 
beginning ol) tbe third watch"— "Just 
alter midnight." 

leglfinlbUB: how many men In a 
l^louF lut. 33. 




ierat. E5b impeditoB et inopToanti^s aggresans maguam 
partem eurum concidtt; reliqui sese fugae nm pdar ant atqiie in ii 
proximas Bilvas abdidgrunt. la pagua uppellabiltur Tigurinue; 
nam omnis civitaa Helvetia in quattuor pagus divisa est. Hie 
pagus unus, cum domo esiaaet patrnm nostrOruRi memorifi, L. 
Cassium cdnsulem< interfScerat et eina exercitnm eab iugnm 
( njiaeratj tl Ita elve c5au "aive oOnaillO deonim immortiilitim, u 
quae pars clvitiitis HoWetiae insigneoi calami tat em populo 

». Impeiinua, -a, -uni,a<{f. CRT. port. 
o/linpedlS,hliiiler], hindered, burdened. 
Impeded, delajed; blDdered or bur- 
dened by bagsage; occupied or engaged 
lai at a, dlsadvaatage : of plactt, dUB- 
cultot patisage. iK 

ludplnlnt, -antla, aiJ. [In— Hopl- 
nins, eipecUngl. not eipecUng. not 
anspectlog. unawares, oflone'Bguard, 2. 

aggrvdtor, -Kiedl, -gresiui inm, tr. 
IMt+RradloT, step], advance to or 
against; attack, i, 

10. eoncids, -oidera. -cidl, -ciiuni, 

Ir. (caed9, cnt], cut down, slay, 1:111; 

maado, 1 

r. imanna. band+dB, give). 

11. lUTk, -M, /.. a wood, forest, 

&bd«, -dsre. -didl. -aitiua. ('- ' [dO, 

put], put awair.remove, withdraw, bide, 

p4giu, -1, m-. Tillage; district, pror^ 

1. TlBurmi 

TlcurlnuH, -a. -tun, oi 

to the Tigurlnl: pi. at nn 
tCg). the Tlgarlnl (tlg'^ri 

13, nun, <>»(/.. for. * 
quattnoi (ITJ, card. stun. oi^.. iiuleel., 

14. InWrfleift, -Saer«, •Hoi. -fee- 
turn, Ir. |fiu;14, make], make awa; 
wiLb. kill, destroy, if; 

16. ■lT8onrfBeu.toiU.[il,ll+¥e,iirl. 
or K, It; or; wbetber; itre . ■ , bIt«, 
either ... or, whether . ■ ■ or, to «e« it 
, . , or. f- 

cSsna, -na, fn. leadft, tall], w/mt bt. 
/alU; accident, chance ; misfortune, 
ta(«; crisis; cftlH, by chance, « 

d«US, -i (nam, pi., dll; da'- pi., dll), 
ffl., god. deity, i. 

ImmoTUtlli, -e, a<i/, [in— t-mortUla. 

mortal], not mortal, ImmortaL i. 

16. Inalgnls, -a, a<l}. iilgnB, mark). 
marked, remarkable ; n. ai noun, mark, 
sign; ornament, trapping. 4. 

ealamltLl, 'ti,tla, /., misfortune, 
disaster, defeat, ^c 

10. mknd&rant = nimdilTltunt: 
tonat App. 12: a. -I, 131, l; A, 181, a: 
B. IIS. 1: U.-B. IBS, 1: H. 238. 

IB sUt&b: from the English point of 
Tlew we might expect tbe ablative 
Cplacfl where), but the verb Implies mo- 
ll exiHet: mode? App. zw: 

342, 1 

tnamorU: case* App, 161: a.-h. 3B3: 

A. liU: B. -.31: H.-B. 139: H. JB7. 

14. Caasium,anbluEiim:cf-T, R11. 

\9. quae pan . , . ea, 'that part 
which." Not Infrequently the anl«- 
cedent Is thus expressed In th^ relative 
clause Instead of the principal clause, 
and the relative clause then precedes the 

0, II. 1 

■, Google 



Rfimfln& intnlerat, ea princepB poeoas pereolvit. QnS. in' ri 
Caeaar non Bdlum publicas sed etiam priv&t&e iniurias Dltus 
est, quod eius soceri L. PisoiiiB aTum, L. Pisonem Iggatum, 

n Tignrlni eddem proelio qa6 Cassinm interf^ceraDt. 

13. Hoc proelio facto, reliqu&B capias Helvetidrum nt 
cdnseqai posset, pontem in Arari faciendum carat atqne ita 
exercitnm traducit, Heketii repenting eius adventn commoti, 
cum id qnod ipei diebns xx aegerrimS cOnfecerant, ut fliiroeD 

s trfinsTrent. ilium &n6 die fficiase intellegerent, l€gatdB ad 

IT. periDlTS.-BDlTeie.-sDlTl.-BOltL- 
tum, Ir, [tolTS. pay], pay Inlull: suffer 
ipuniiRmeiUj. 1. 

IB. aSluin, oiiv. [bGIos, alone], only, 

pfibllcui, -a, -Din, a^. [populus, 

peoplej. of the state or people, lom- 
moD. public: ■>. <u noun, public, pub- 
Uc view ; tit pdbUcm common ireal, 

Md, eonj., but, but yet (a tlroofitr ad- 
vertaihe than autsm or bX). « 

nlelsoot, nl^iDl, nltiu auin, ir.,' 
avenge; punish, lake Teogeuice 

19. aacer, -ari. •>>., father-in-law. 1. 
ftTUS, -I, m,. gr«Ddratber, 2. 
Plafi, -Bnla. m., Lucius Calpumlus 
Plso (lu'sbyila kil-per'nl-fis iM'sSf. 

IT. pTlneepa pwsolvit, ' 

flrst to pay-" 

IB. Note the accumnlatlon of apposl- 
tlves. — Pli&nls with toixTi. FlaOnam 
with ODUfn. Ug&ttun with FiiSiitm. 

wtMTl: IntheyeariSCaesar hHdmai- 
ned Calpumla, daughter ot the Lncios 
Calpumlus Plso mentioned In 4, 15 as 
ooe ot the consuls for tbe year 5B. 

ao. qnO Okulum: the same verb fn- 
ler/aeraHt belongs In the relatlveclause 
and In the principal clause . 

THnm Rbpkbehcbs: 
Jblalief of time 
Baull claute 

Chap. 13. The i 

tilted in the defeat of Caitiufi army ty 
theTiguTiiH.\(flB.c. 1. 

3. oO&Hiuor.-teqnl.-BeeiltuasniB. 
tr. (leqnoi, follow), follow up: go after, 
pursue; reach, ovenake; gain, attain, 
accomplish; ensue, succeed, ii^ 

cuft, 1. (r. (clkra, care], care tor, 
take care of, provide for: teilh gcnm- 
dice <App. ZMB. n, b). hare, order. 4. 

S, repentlnni, -4,-iim.aiO'. [reptna, 
sudden], sudden, unexpected, hasty. 3, 

commoreS, -mov$ra, -mOTi, -mC- 
tllia, tr. [moves, move], moveoreiolle 
thoroughly, rouse, agitate, alarm. « 

•. TiClatl (XZ), card, nuin- niV-, 
ktdtet., twenty, if 

mtgii, adv. [Mgar, ill], Uardly, with 
dlfflculty, scarcely. Comp., &a^liu; 
np , aegerrlme (App. 10), 3. 

I. lit "Would usually stand before 

3. pontam fttaiesdnni ofiTAt, "be 
had a bridge made" : constmcitOQ f App, 
S85. II. t>: G.-L. «ao: A. BOI». 4: B. 337. t. 
a.S: H.-B, eiS. ni: H. fits. This bridge 
was probably Of boats, and was made 
by the cblef of engineers : aee Int. 40. 

In Antrl, "over the Arar." 

4. cum IntelleKArant, "since they 
saw," or better -seeing." Tbe object of 
iniflltgerent is illam fecitte. Id Ls ithe 
object ot fednK. Qt tranalrent, 
"(namely) the crossing ot tl 
In apposition with id: mode? App, VSH. 
a: G.-L. 563, 1; A. G(H: B. SOT, 1: B.-B. 



enm mittant; ctiins leg^tifinis Diyico prmceps fnit, qui bellO 
CaBBiSDd dQx HelTetioriuA faerat. Is ita cum Oaesare Sgit: Sf 
v^cem populns Romanus ciim HelvetiTs faceret, id earn partem 
ituroa atque ibi faturos HelvStids nbi bob Caesar cAnatituisset 
atque esse voluiseet; sin beU5. perseqai persevgr&ret, remi- lo 
nieceretnr et veteris incommodi populi Rdmani et prlBtinae 

6. DiTlcB, -6tlls,»i..DlTloi>(dlT'l-he), 

aa Silvelian e/iifftala. S. 

T, o&HBitnui.-a.-niD.a'V-.otCasBiaB, 
tffi Ouilua. 1. 
agA. &KBrft, egl, ftotum, 

«oi.); 1 

1, aflTance {of miliCari/ ; 
tnnsact. carry on (of buiintii) ; discuss, 
Bposk; bold (ooilTeiltllin) ; give, render 
tgratUi); plead (aftuiMn or rem); 
vxai agHni, cbe matwr la band; iH 
ifltur, something Is at stake. i|: 

Si, iKiH/., If however, but 1(. 1. 

10, mwaaor, -lequl, -aeciktua 
■um, Cr. [iBaaor.tollow]. follow through, 
continue Id; pursue, follow up; 
Bveoge. 2. * 

parisTlrft, l, Intr., persist, perao- 

remlnlieoT, •!, bUr. [mjiu, mind], 
call to mlhd, remember. L 

11. vatuf. -eTli. adj., old. anctent, 
tormer; wifAinllueB, veteran. « 

Inooinmodnm, -1, ». [InconmLodna, 

6. Dlvico was an old man. for tbe 
batUe was fought 40 years before. 

t. The rest of this chapter and the 
whole of the neit are In Indirect dla* 
coDTse. If the teaeher wishes the class, 
SI thla point, to make a more detailed 
nndr of the conslmctlon than la called 
for bj the not«s. be will Snd help tn the 
direct form ot tbeM speeches as iirlnled 
liter Book vn. 

Remember the Important facts al- 
rsadj learned,— that in every deolara- 
Ure senlence the principal verb will be 
an Inanltlve, aad that In ever; aubordl- 
uate clause the verb will bo a subjunc- 
tire. Usually the future Infinitive 
sbows that the speaker oaed a future 
Indicative, a present Inflnlilve shows 

perfect infinitive shows that he nsed a 
pist Knse of the Indicative. But note 
Uiit not every Infinitive stands for an 

lolned unchanged In the Indirect, Note 
ibat every sabjonctlve follows the rule 
of sequence of tenses: App. mxi; SeS: 
Q.-Ii. SW: BIO: Ml: A. 182, I, 2; «3: B. 
!M. B; aCT, I. 2, 3: R..B. 476, foovnote 2: 
E.IK; MS; Ml: b^. 

iratber than apresent, and tor 
an ma lea tire rather tlion a subjunctive. 
e. BelTnUi la the subject of ita^i 

eSi Is the snbject ot eiie- 

ubl ofinatltnlaMt, "where he should 
have declded"="where he should de- 
cide" or "wiere be decided. " The plu- 
perfect can aland equally well (or 'ibe 
perfect, the pluperfect, or the fntore 
perfect ; but Uie Helvetll do not promise 
Ui return to their own country, and 
Caesar had not yet decided to settle 
ibera anywhere else : therefore eCn- 
aUtuUiet most stand >or a future per- 
fect, a tense rarely used In English. 

10. perieverkret stands for a future, 
UkB faceret, L 8. 

rnninlscer jtnr, "he should remem- 
ber." Since tblsisaprinclpalclausethe 
use of the subjimctive shows that the 
sentence Is not declarative. App, 367: 
8..Ii.Stl2: A.GSB: B.SIS: H.-B.534, 3; 538: 

11. et , . . at, "both . . . and." 
luoommodl: i.e. the defeat ot Cm- 

«ius: casef App. 107: Q-.Ii. ITB: A, 

I tioiwlc 


TJrtwtia Helvetidrnnir Quod improviso unum pilgum adortoa 
eBBet, cain ii qui flumen tratisiseent suis auzilium ferre non 
poBBent;, ne ob earn rem~ ant suae magnopere virEuti tribueret 
Ii aut ipsoB dSspiceret; selta & patribos maioribusque suis 
didiciase ut magJB virtute contenderent qaam dolfl aut insidiis 
uiterentur. Quare ne committeret ut is locus ubi cunstitissent 

iDCOUvealent], luconrenlence. disadvan- 
tage, trouble; dUaswr, defeat, loss. 

pristluui, ■«, -mn, aOJ. [for prl- 
OBtlnua, from prior, former], former, 
original; previous, precedlne, *. 


foreseeu], imexpecudly. wlthouC wara- 

IS. ftr6,hrr«.tiiIl,Utniii(App.Bi), 

(r. and (ntr,; Ir.. bear, carry, brlog; en- 
dure, BuDer. support, withstand; re- 
ceive; lell, report; give, render (aid); 
oiler, propose ((mn»); gravltei or mo- 
lant ferre, be aunoj'ed or angry at: 
pati. (lomelimei) ruBb: tnlr. atmoit = 

14. nutsnoparSiOifti. ti>i*«iius, great 
+opnB. wotkl. with great labor; espe- 
cially, greatly, exceedingly, earnestly. * 

teibnS, trlDuere, Irlbnl, tTibfitum, 
tr. (tribUB. a irlbe or dlvlsloDl, di- 
vide, distribute: attribute, assign, al- 
lot, ascribe; grant, do tor. the sake of, 

IE. <UBpicie,-apleeT0,-spezt.-8pec- 
tum. 'r. iBpecie, look 1. look dowu; look 
down upon, scorn, despise. :, 

3G0. c: B. 2^. S; H -B. BWi H, 454. 1. 

13. qvod adortua eaaet, "as to tbe 
tact tbathebad attacked." 

14. nt ma* magnopere vlrtatl 
tribueret, lit., "he should not greatly 
ascribe to hlB own prowess" = -he should 
not overrate hla owu prowess." Por 
miHlect. rrtniniic/Tffur. 1. 10. 

IB. Ipaea, Bi: I e, ihc HelveiiL 

malor, mains, a^. [comp. of mag- 

HHb, great), greater (in dtgrrt. lizt, limf 
etc.); older, elder: ai noun. m&l«r«) 
n&tb. elders, old men: mitSrea, an- 

16. dlaoS, dlsoers, dldiei, — ,tr.ama 
inlr., learn, be tauglit. 1. 

dolue, -I, m-. cratt, nick, creach- 
ory. 2. 

iDBldlae, -krom, /- pi. [BsdeO, sit], a 

sltiiDg or lyitig In vralt; ambusb. am- 
treacbery ; artiflee, crafty 

qn&re, odo. [aul, whlob-)-rS«, thing], i 
(1) iaterrog.. why? wherefore? (B) ret.. -. 
wherefore; on this account, there- 

eommltW , -nlttere. -mill, -mlasuia, 

tr. [mltte, send], Join, splice; commit 
(d crime), do; allow, permit; entmsi: 

preellum oommlttere, Join or begm 
cOnBlaU), -lUUre, -Mltl. , nur. 

[BlBte. stand], take a stand or posiUoD. 
Iieep one's posltloD. stand, torm {of 
lotititrt); stop. halt, remain, stay: (o/ 

iftj;w)ride at anchor: consist in. depend 

: A result cl 

16. ntcontenderent:!! 

maglB quam, "rather than." 

do 10: case f App. HS.a: G.-L. 401, m 
S: A. 431: B. SIS. 8: B.-a43a, 1; H.47a.3. 

IT. The meaning of the last sentence 
Is. "Do not let the spot on which wa 
stand become tamons as the scene of 

censtltlBBent stands for a perfecllik' 


azcalamitate popnl: RomfiDi et intoniecidne exercitus nomen 
caperet ant memoriatn prdderet. 

14. His Caesar ita respondit: Ed aibi minus dnbitationis 
dui, quod eas rga quia leg&ti Helvetil comtnemor&esent 
memoria teneret, atque eo graviua ferre quo minus merits 
populi Bomani accidissent ; qui ei alicui ua in iuriae aibi couBcius 
Enisset, dod fiiiase difficile cavere; aed eo deceptum, qnod s 

18. interneclO. •CnlB, /. [nacfi, de- 

ttroyl, ezl«nulimUuD, aimUiUaUoD, 
Qiier destfocUoD, i. 
nfirnen, -lull, n..iiame, title! repuu- 
lion, prestige; nfimlne viitli gm., In 
iheDame or. w; BuO n&mlne, oQblsor 

1>. pTdde.-dere, -dldl, -dlttun, (r. 

[dS, glTBl. give fortb, reveal ; belray. give 
up; transmit, hand down; iiiemoil& 
rTidltOm, Iclil In Iradlllon, hajided 

10 mindj. remlod one of; sutte, men- 

llOE. * 

1. grftvltBT, adv. [gr&Tti, hear;], 
beartly, with great welKbt, with loroe ; 
seveieir. BeriouBly; gTATltorrene, taks 

to heart, be snooj-ed or vexed (at) ; er»- 
vlter prsniBn, press bard. :» 

marltum, -i, n. (msrear, deserve], 
desert, merit, servlcei laror, klndneas, 

4. AoeiAb, -elAeiB, -aidi, , intr, 

[4d+C«di, Ia,U], tall lo or upoa: befall, 
happen, fall to the lot ol, occm': ao- 
Oldlt, It happens, it 

•lldula, -quid, ond allqnl, •qua, 
-quod, ind/if. pron. (qull, who. App. 
ta, a], some one. something; anyone, 
aufthlng, any. * 

cSnsclDi, -ft, -um. o^. [sctO. knovl, 

5. oftreQ, earSre, cfcvl, centum, 

(n(r., be cautions, be on one's guard: ah- 
■Idlbus cSTira, eiuhange hostages aa 

dealplft, -cipers, -cipl,-aeptum,(r, 
raapU, lake], mlrap; deceive. 1. 

L Ua: I.e. tbe envoys. 
•6 Is an ablative of cause, explained 
by the causal clanae g^nd , . . ttnirit. 
mllilil dubtt&tlfinls, "less hesita- 
dubltttlOnla: partitive gent 

3. «&■!> 

■ : i-e. the defeat of Casalua. 
. qud; ease! App. 148, a: 
tU. a: B. 22S: H.-B. *M: H. 

mBrltft; ca: 
1. 4 IS, a 

• App.1«, o: G.-I 


*. qui It, "now It they." Caesar 
usea the glognlar In reteirlDg to thecoi. 
lectiva noun popvltu, but English pre- 
fers tbe plural. 

tnlOriae, •■of wrong doing-: case? 
App. lOe.a; Q.-L.374: A.SlS.u; 0.2^,4,1; 
H.-B. 354, footnote 1 : H. 451. n. S. 

■ibl, Ul. conscious -to themselves," 
should not be eipressed in translating. 

S. nfin fnisie difficile, "it would not 
have been dllBculi." 

•B, is an ablative ot cause, explained 
by the clause {rund . . . putSrel. 

populum SomSnvm . . 


neqae commissam a Be intellegeret qnare t upere t, neqne sine 
causa timepdain pataret. i^uod si Tete ria cop tnmeliae obliviaci 
rellet, nam etiam recenti mn ini uriamm, quod eo invito iter 
per proriaciam per Tim temptasseot, quod Haedaos, quod 
ID AmbarroB, qaod AtlobrogeB rex^Bsent, memoriam deponere 
posse? Quod aua^iotoria tarn iasoleuter gloriarentur, quodque 
tam diu Be impiitie iniurias intultsse admirareatur, eodem 

6. times, -*rB,-nl,- 

with dal., 1 

nihil timCre. bave ao fear. % 

T. oontnmUla, -a*. /.. affront, In- 
dignity. Insukj injury, violence. 3. 
obllTlMor, obllTliel, oblltni sun, 

Mr. [obllTU, for^ettulness], lorgeu I. 

8. num. Inierrog jmr'.icU imptffinff tAe 
txptctaiioa of a ntgative replu. 1. 

rscSna, -•ntu, ni^.. recent, laie; 
fresti, new, Tlgoroua. S. 

9. tempts, 1, Ir., make hd attempt 
upon, try lo gain possession ot. attack ; 

10. Tex&, 1, tr. [in 

KATTf], carry or drag h', 
barasa, plunder, waste 

« of vehS, 

depfinft, -pan era, -poiiil, -poBltnn, 
Ir. [pOnO, place], lay down OP aside, pai 
iway.glveup; place, station, deposit. 3. 

11. TlcUirlA, -M,/. [Victor, vlcuirl. 

IniolantBT.odc. [lBaoliiia,unwontedl 
unusually; arrogantly, insolently. 1. 
glOrlor, I, nnr. [gl6rl», aloryl. BloiT. 


13. dlD. adv.. tor a long time, long: 
anain aid, as long as: a>mp., dlfitlna. 
longer, loo long, any longer; tup., did* 
tlislme, tor thelongest lime. 4: 

Impune, adv. [lii-+pDena, ponlsfa- 
meul], vi-libout punishment. 1. 

Admlror. l, Cr. (mlior, wonder at], 
wonder at, be surprised at, admire, l. 

6. oommtasuin <sc. gui/iquam . . . 
MM), "tbal anylliing had been done." 
tk »i, "by them": I.e. tbe Boman 

qu&rS tlmfiret, "because ot which 
they should be afraid." For mode see 
App. 280, e : O.-L. flai, 3: H.-B. MB, 2. 

Ieared"="lbat they need tear": con- 

■ App. a 

A.m,b: B. 317, 7,6. 1: H.-B. 600, S; 103: 

qnodil, '-but 11." 

contumSIlaei caser App. 107: O.-L. 
m: A. 3B0. ft: B. S06. S: M.-B. 350: H, 

8. vallat: i 

1 subject la still poputut 

num poiaa. "they could not. could 
they," or simply "could they." This is 
a principal verb, but not In a declarative 
. EVir mode see App. XS, U: 

G,-L. OSI, R 1: A. 658: B. 31: 
ia\.a: H. 612,2. 

Inlbrljlnun depends 
App. W: O.-L. 303. 3; A. 3<8: B. 20U: H.-a 
3b*: H. 440. 2. 

aued, "the tact tbat." Tbesearesub- 
Blantlve quod clauses. In appoaitlon 
with fnfuriarum. In direct discourse 
such clausesemploy tbe iDdlcatlya: App. 
S4S: O.-L. 524: 535,1: A.5n: B.tW.l.a: 
I1.-B.UJ,I.H. 583, 11,3. 

^=populo BomJtno. 

11. quod. . .admlrkrantnTaresub- 

stanttve guod clansas. subjects at ptr- 

TlotOrUl: I.e. tbe defeat ot Casdua 
For case see App. 138: O.-Ii. 408: A. 4M: 
B. 210: H.-B. 444: H. 4T5. 

13. •« iDtilUtaa, -that they Itbe 
HelvetU] had lnaicl«d." 

•fidam partlBen, "Mnded to tbe Htune 




pertinere. CoDsaesse enim deos immort&l^B, qn() gravius 
bomineB ex commutatidne rerum doleant, quoa pro Bcelere 
eorum nlciscl vellnt, his secnndidreB interdam rea et diutumi- is 
orem impuoitateia coQcedere. Cam ea ita eint, tamen, si 
obsideB ab iis sibi dentur, uti ea^guae_pplliceaiitur_factur5a '' 
iDtellegat, et si Haednia d6 inioriis quaa ipeis sociiaque edrum 
intulerint, item ai Allobrogibua aatiafaciant, aSae cam ilB paccm 
ease f acturam. Diti'cd respondit : Ita Helvetioa k miiidribna m 
auis Inatitutda esse uti obsidGe accipere, noa dare, odnBuSrint ; 

13. cOnsuiscfi, -Buesaare, -■ulrt, 
-niitnm, intr. [suAici, become used], 
become accLuu>med ; Tif, (App, las. I, a), 
be accusiomed. be wont; cfinauStua, 
pf, part, at aiH; oceaaunaed, usaal, 

enlm, conj., In fact, really; for; led 
•Dim, but In fact, however. « 

14. commautlO, 'OnU, /. [oom- 
malO, change), a, changliig, change. 2. 

dolaC, 2, inir., leel pain, be dlslreased 
or annoyed, grteve. 3. 
■celiu,-erii, »., crime, wlckednesa. I. 

15. teauuduB, -k, -nm. a<ij. [Manor, 

loliow], [oUowlng, rieiti second ; favor 
able, Buccesstul. prosperous; Baonido 
flfimlne, down the river, ii 

InWrdum, adt. rdnm, while), in the 
meantime: at times, sometimes. 2. 
dlBttuniu, -%, -um, aiij. [dllt, long], 

1«. Impftnltki, -tfttla, /. [I11-+ 

pMn&i punishment], Impnnltr.lreedom 
from puhlahment, 1. 

17. polIlCMT, a, Ir. and Mr. [prt+ 
llceoi, hid, oBer], hold forth, offer, 
promise, pledge. ^ 

19. istlafltcie, -faoere, -fficl. -fho- 

tum, intr. [BatlBienongh+fKCia, make], 
make or do enough (or; give satlsfao. 
tlon, satlsff : make amends, apologize. 
%Bk nardoD. 2. 
*1. iBBUtuO, -BUtDns, 'BUtnl, 
BtlttttunLi <r. and iaCr. [BtatnB, set np], 

IS. eOnBii<SBe=co>w»ci(M. 

quB; for use see 8, 6. ". ■. , ■ "^ 
U. doleant: so farihe snbjancdn 
i«Dses have all been Imperfecls and plu- 
perleoiSi becanso the Indirect discourse 
depends on the past verb rttpondit. 
But It Is nulte common for (he writer of 
Indirect discourse to use clie tenses that 
^ere nsed In the direct form Instead of 
tollowlng the rale of sequence of tenses. 
Tbns presents and perfects are used to 
tlie end of the chapter. This Dsage, 
called ripratttntatio. Is doe lotbesame 
desire (or vividness which leads to the 
ose of the historical present for a past 
cense. It Is usually better to translate 
as If the regular past tenses were used, 
just as tt Is better to translate the his- 
torical present Indicative by a past. 

15, SBCQiiaiOrAsriB/'aoonslderable 
degree of prosperity": dtatliTnUrem, 
"quite long." The comparative may 
often be rendered by sucb words as 
■'too," "rather," "quite," all of which 
Imply comparison with some unei- 
pressed standard. 

16. eoncUere depends on nBntulaM. 
OUm Bint, by itself, might be either 

caasal or adversative, Notice that the 
tamen which follows shows which It Is: 
App. 339: O.-L. fiST: A. 540: B. SOB, 3: 
H.-B. bM: H. MS. 

IT. ablU: case? App. 137: O.-L.401: 
A.4a>: B. 219: H.-B, M&l: H. MS. 

faetorOi: sc. <> . . . «>«. 

18. Bl Haadnli: so. laU^aelafit. 
IpaU: I.e. theHaeduL 
IB. u6b6: I.e. Caesar. 


eius rei populnm Romanum esse test«m. Hdc respdnsd daUi 


Postero die caatra ex ed locd moVent. Idem facit 
Caesar eqnititumque omnem ad numerum quattuor milium, 
qnem ex omnI pr5vinciaet HaeduiBatqneedmm aociis coactnm 
habebat, praemittit qui rideant quas in partes hostes iter 
faciei. Qui cupidius norissimum agmea insecuti alieno locO 

set up or put In order, flraw np; train, 
educate; procure, prepare; build, con- 
struct; b«^n, determtoe. decide upon, 
adopt; ImtltDtuB, pf. part. « aiij.. 
UBiial, cuauiinary; flulsbed, in addUlon 
to dtfiniiioat atiove. 4: 

acelpl6, -clpere, -cipl, -ceptam, ir. 
■ ltA+aa.vib, take], lake or receive to 
one's self, accept; experience. sulTer; 
leam. hear. take. «r 

aa. t«itll.-ll, m.ond/..wliaeB3. 2. 

respfinsum, -I. n. [reBpondea, &u- 
smerj, repi;. knawer. 2. 

9S. dlioede. -ojdero, -ceul, -eas- 

■nm, 'nCr. [cedft, go], go away, depart, 
reilre; leave Itipcdally atUk ab or 
•X). * 

I. pDsterui,-a,-niii,a<V'Ipi»t,after], 
alter, following, next; in m. pi. ae naun, 
posterity; lup.. poitrSmut or poatU' 

witk caitra, move camp j 
to anol/itr. or break camp, if 

3. egulUtiu, -Ika, fa. iSquItS. ride: 
AqQul, horse], cavalry, horsemen. * 

4. prasmitlfi.-mltter*. -mill, -mil - 
■lun, '''. imlttt, send], send before or 

B. CUPiae, adv. [cnpldUl, desirous), 
desirously, e»gerly. S. 

aguiea, -lull, n. [ogS, move], a moF 
ingiody; a marcb lug column; army; In 
agmlne, on the march; prlmom Ag- 

tremum airman, the rear. «; 

InaequoT, -leqnl, -ssc&ttia ram, tr. 
anaintr. [aftquor, tollovr], follow up or 
after, follow close upon, pursue. » 

alltavii, -%, -nm, a^. [allut, other], 
ot or belonging to another, another's; 
strange, alien, mitamltlar; unfavorable; 
foreign to the purpose; aai Ult- 
anm, debt; klUnlaslffit, entire straa- 

Abiotic* 0/ agmt 
Ablatitnof caait 
Ablalim of dtgree of dlfermet 
Advtriatlve cum claiut 

Chap. IS. The Helvetii march on, 
followed by Caesar. His cavalry are 

1. caatra moTsnt, "marchon." The 
map facing p. Ai shows the route fol- 
lowed by the Helvetll. They could not 
march due west toward the Santones be- 

They therefore marched north, then 
nortbwest. Intending to reach the Llger 

(Loire) and march down Ita valley. 

3. equltfctum: see int. 4g. 

3. quani eo&ctnm habjb at, "which 
be had collected," almoHi^yuem eoeie- 
rat: App. 38S, b: G.-L. 238; A. IST, b: B. 
837. 6; H-B. BOS, B, a: H. MO, 2, 

4. qui Tldaant: a purpose cianse. 
qui is plural, agreeing with the collec. 
tlve noun igaltatum. 

qufta . . . raeluit, "in what direction 
the enemy were marcblng." fMluit: 
moder A pp. 382; Q.-Li. 4117: A. E73; Sit: 
B. 300, 1, a: H.-B. «34, S, HI; SSt. 6; H. 

B. cnpldlna: cf. note on it, it. 
locO; caseF App,lBU&:Q.-I,3S6,iLl: 
A.t2S, 1: B.!3«,I,A: H.-B. «a: H. 486,1 



cnm equHatu Helvetiorum proeliDm committnDt ; et paaci dS 
nostris cadant. Quo proelio snblati Helvetil, qaod quingentis 
eqnitibas tantam mnltitadinem eqnitam propnlerant, audacius 
Bnbeiatere n on n mnqnam et Dorisai mo ^ mipe proelio DOBtroB - 
laceBsere coepenmt. Caesar saos a proelio continebat ac satis lo 
babebat in praeBentiS hostem rapinis, pabnlationibus, popa- 
lationibasqne probibere. Ita dies oirciter qnindecim iter 
(ecernDt, uti inter noyissimum hostium agmeti et nostram 

B. pauc!, -a,9, -m, oA)- (ua«j rarely in 
nmg.'i, few; da noun. lew periont or 

T. cs.dO, oftdere, oaoldl, aisnm, 

wIr..faU; fall in baule. be slain, die. a. 

qnlDgsiiti, -Ae, -% (D). card. num. 
adj. [qolnqiw, Sve+oMitniii, hundred], 
five hondred. 3. 

t. oqnti, -1U», nt. laquu, Iiorae]. a 
horseman. & rider; p!„ cavalry. rA*n 
(u eri^iuilly lerving on lioriebaell), a 
knight (DIM d/ tht mooe^d cbiH at 
BonUt next in rank to the tenate). Aieo, 
■ knlghc (0/ Oaul. of a correipondiag 

tantn«, -a. -un, agj. [cf. tain. £o]. bo 
much, so great, bo powerful, such; 
gntuUt . ■ . tuitO, leUh eomparativtt. 
i«qiuuitO. * 

iiTSpBlldi -pBllara, -pull, •^ulBttm, 
(r. [pellfi, drivel, drive forward, put to 
flight, rout; dlalodge, drive back. E. 

aad&ot«r. ads. [andtx, bold], boldlji, 
fearlessly, daringly. Vomp., and&OlnS; 

tup; and&elialmfi. * 

a. lubalitfi. -ilitero, -Btlil, — . 

intr. [bIiU, aumd], halt, make a Btoud; 
beatroug enough, hold out- 1. 

10. laoMiO, -«i«, -ITI, 'Itiun, tr., 
arouse, harass, provoke. Irritate, at- 

ooept, ooapiBM (App, 86 and a). 
tr.. began, commenced, undertook; 
OOOptUB, Vf- part., begun, coni' 

11. piaeMDtU, -as,/. IprsABins; 

proeinm. be presenij, presence; the 
present moment; In pTkSHntti, tor 
the present; then. 1. 

raping, -m, /. [raplS, selzel. plun- 
der; pi; plundering, l. 

ptbnUUA, -ftnU. /. [ptbnlor, ' 

agel, getting fodder, foraging. I. 

popnUUfi, -6iili, /. [popoIOT, 

age], ravaging, pillaging. 1. 

13. olrolMi, ado. [olrena. clrele], 
about, near, t 

aolndeatin (XT), card. num. ad)., in- 
decL [qtOnqne, Bve-f-daoam, tec 

t. panel de naitna, -a few of our 

men." The 

■est fled : 

l^ the InstlgatloD 

of their cor 

e. noTl«lm6 . . . 

UcsBsara, "to 

battle with their 


Both asmlne aodproeliO 

10. Mtll 


. . . prohlbflra. 

It sufflcl keep" 

large an arm; or met so strong an 
enemy. His army was outnumbered by 
an enemy whom the Komaos bad long 
dreaded. Defeat meant the tola! de- 
struction of his army. Notblng was 
lost by postponing the battle. There- 
fore he wisely decided to wait until 
ha coald choose bis own time and 

la. Itantl, "insuchaway Uiat,"lii* 

troduces a result clause. 



priffium non amplina ( qni niB ant_ senial miUttos pasBaum 
» iote^easet. 
U'tQ. Interim cotidie Caesar HagiliadB f ru^entumy^uod essent 
publics p(^ioitl)fla^tare. Nam propter frigora, quod Gsilia 
sub septentridnibus, ut ante dictum est, poaita est, n5D mode 
frumenta in agris matura noo erant, Bed {i?)pabuli qntdP"* ^atk 

14. Mnplui,-a,-niii.a<tf..otlargeei- 
teul, spaclona. large: iUusuloDs. splen- 
dtd, noble; Keneroas. mBgolficsnt; un* 
pllDS, eomp, ai noun, more, a grealer 
number, a greater distance, is 

qntnl. -a«, -a, dUtr. num. adj. [qaln- 

qua, QveJ.aveeach, fireatatlme, five. i. 

■^nl. -as, -a, <U*tr.num.a4j.,sls.eai(ih, 

15. lnteniiim,-MBe,-fDl.{nfr.[aiuii, 

be. App. W]. be or lie between. Inlervene ; 
Iw present □(, take part in; imperi., 
IntBrBdt, it concBras, it is Important; 
theie is a dinerence or an loterval; 
magnl Interrat, It Is ol great Impor- 

1. Interim, ade., meanwhile. In tbe 
meantime. « 

coUdlfl, adv. [quot.bow mauy+dlSB, 
day) , daily, every day. ^c 

3. pOblloS, adv. [pbbllcuB, public]. 

publicly, In the name or tba state onbe- 
halr or tbe state. 3. 

fl&Slt6, 1, tr., demand. 1. 

D'lgUH, -oris, n„ cold weather, cold; 
pi., filgora, ciild seasons, I. 

3. pfin6, pfinare, pmul. poaitnm. 
(r.. place, put. place over; lay down. s« 
a^lde; station, post; regard, consider: 
make, build; tsilA oastra. pitch; pan., 
be Kitoated; icitn in and abl., depend on. 
in aiiftUion to aSoM meaniagg. ip 

modo, adc. [modus, meanui«]. wiU 

]usc, at least, but: of timt. just now. 
recently ; n6ll modo ... Bed ettMn, not 
only . . ■ but also, i^ 

4. mfttftrus, -a, -um, adj., ripe; 

ptbDlnm, -I, n. [qf. pfcioS, reed], red- 
der, provender. 2. 
qnldem, adv., indeed, at any rate, at 

1*. primum: sc. agmtn. 

ampllua is the subject or interiseet. 

qulnls aut sSnis, "QTa or six [each 


mlllbuir case? App. 139: Q.-L. 388: 

A. 108: B. 217.1: H.-B.41B.<i: H. 471 

OQ an accuaatlTe and infloltlve. It is 

App 2T3: G.-L. 028. A- W2. 3. D.: B. 3»: 

Abtalvvi of place 

H.-B. fi3S. 1 a: H,S;fl, ■ 

Chap, 10-20. Caesar learns that 

a. S.i.Bi'\AXt=JlSgUSbat. Note Uut 

Dunmorix ia troaoherouslythwartinB 

its subject is a nominative. See App. 

his plans, but pardooH him. 

281: Q-L.W-; A.«3: B. 336; H.-B. WS: 

Chap. le. The Haedol fail to fur- 

nis& supplies to Caesar. 

8. aubaeptwitrtenlbut, lit. "under 

1. intsrlm: i.e. during the fifteen 

days of marching. 

4. frwntntai the plural means grain 

Jects see App. 126, o: G.-L. 339, a: A. 3»«: 

sunding in the fields. 

B. 178, 1. a: H.-B. 888. footnote: H, <ll. 

mfctftra ain arant: It was now late 

quod M*m\ polUclH. "which [as be 


■aid] they bad promised." This subor- 

p&bull; for the cavalry horses and 




magna copia snppetSbat; (v6 «Dtem (trtjiWitCt qaod flumine s 
Araii n&nbna BabTexera^i ffop i efo ftliti niinna poterat, quod iter 
ab Antrl Helretii fiverterant, S qiiibas diacedere ndl^but. 
Diem ex die dQcere KaeduL; cOnferri, comportaii, ftdesee 
dioeie. Tfbi a6 diutins due! intallgxit ec diem inatare quo die 
Mmentnia militibna m€tm oport€ret, ooDvocfttiB eornm to 
principibuB, qoornm magnam cSpiam in castris habebat, in 
Iu'b Diviciaco et Lisco, qnl snmmO magistratui praeerat, qnem 

«, truly; on the other h: 

t vibTtiib, -Taliaia, -Texl, -tsd- 
tDm, tr. [vellS, cany], bring or canr 
op: convey. 1. 

7. iverUt,-T*rt»re,-TartI,-Tennm, 

fr. [T*rt6, turn], lum away (rom or 
nrey. turn aside: turn back, repulw: 
p/.poM.o* <K((., with hack tamed. * 

n«ia, n«ll«. noiul, — (App. K), tr. 

and inOr. [ne--)-T0l6, wlsb!. not wlsti, 
M nnwUUng; retuae; imp. nftll Or 
lUIIIte, iM& inf. (App. 21S), do not. * 

a. c6nfer0,a0nf«rre,aoiitiill,coiu- 

tum, ir. [ferS, bring. App. St], bring or 
gel togeLber. collect, gatlier, carry. 
bring; crowd together, ascribe to; put 

off, defer; compare: ai oSnftm, be- 
take oaels self, take refuge. ^ 

oomportc, 1, Ir. [ports, carryl, carry 
together, collect, bring, it: 

Adanin, adaai*, affnl. (nfr. (■tuo, be. 
App. 7T), be near or preeent, he at hand, 
appear. S. 

9. liiite,-iUn,.itltl,-*t&tiiin,i>Kr. 
[•tS, atandj. stand npoD or near, be at 

hand, press on ; ebreaten. i. 

ID. tnitlOT,metlTl,minBUB>aiii,(r., 
deal or measure out, distribute. I. 

OOBTOOO, 1, tr. [TOCS, call], call to- 
gether, flummon. assemble. 1. 

13. Llacni, -l.Fn., Usciis (lIs'kBs). a 
chiff magiilrale of the HaeduL 4. 

<., -um. ad], {tup. of tDp«- 

ilmals. The cactie of th« ] 
had swept the ooDntry clean. 
frAmenti ftti: caseP App. 
407: A. 410: B.318.11 B.-B. 429: 

^ fltUUlxa: case" App. 144: G.-I^ SW: 
~A.429, a; B. SI8,B: H.-B. 428, a: H. 478. 
S> n&vlbiu, "inBhlps,"isanBblatlva 

Itar aTWtarut: see map facing p. 

8. dlun: accusative of duration ol 

dtteara, "put him on." is an historical 

eftntartl, eomportail, adaaia (sc. 
frSmaUum) are the objects ol tbe his- 
torical iDtlnlllve Oieer^, 

t. nbl iutellixlt; mode? App. tS7: 
O.-L. Ml: A.M3:B.SST, 1:H.-13.S»I;M7: 

se dlfitlui docl, -that be we 

put oil tochlong." 

QuOdU, "on which." Ct. 6, 1. 

10. tmnantum jnitlrl oporUrat, 
lit ■'for him to measure out grain wag 
rtgii."='*be bad to distribuie grain." 
TbUwasdone twtceamontb. oporU- 
ret; bubordlnate clause la indirect dis- 
course. Its subject Is /rOnienlvm 

coiiToe&tli prlndplbiu, "Hnmmon- 

lDg,"etc. Remember that the ablative 
absolQM must not be translaied liter- 

13. DiTlcUeO at LlBoO; in appod- 
tlon with priflcipfSu*, 

■umm6 . . . praeerat, "held iheblgb- 

auam vergobratnm; for tbe two ob- 

]ecM see App. Ill: Q.-I. SIO: A. tm* 
B, 177,1: H.-B. 8W,<>: H. 41ft 1. 




▼ergqbretnm appellant Haedni, qui creator annnTis et Titae 
necisque in bugs habet potestatem, graTiter efia accu eat, qupd , 
G ciim neque emi neque ex agris sum! possdt, tarn ( necasBarJo^ 
tempore, tarn propinquis hoetibus, ab iiB non soE^etur; 
praesertim cnm magaa ex parte eornm precibuB adductua 
bellnm sosceperit, multo etiam graviuB qnod sit deatitutns 

1 7. Turn demum Liscus oratione CaeBaris adductus qnod 

nU, biEt>- App.«l.Wg'jest. very big! 
the blgbest part ot, tbe top or; pr 
grealest, cti',et, sapremi 



■- (M 


App.TT], be before or 
mand of, rule Orer, be at the hPad of; 
prftMim, prtt. part, ai adj. , preseDt. In 
person; for (be present. 41 

18. Targobretui. -I, ">-, vergobret 
(T6r'g6-brSt), lite tUU eftht chUf mogit- 
tratt of the Haedai. 1. 

enO, 1. (r., create; elect, cboose, ap- 

annuuB, -a, -tun, aO}. tuuiDi, year], 

Tita.-M./.ty.TlTB, live], lifer ma.n- 
»*r of UvlQa, living, i. 

14. nex, BMli, /-, TloleDt deatb, 
death, eiecuiion. I. 

poteitii, -t&tli, /' rpotflm, power- 
tul]. ability, power, antbortty ; control, 
away, rule; ebauce, opportunity, poEsl. 
bllity: pataBtfttem Dtoare, grant per- 

ncaBsA. 1, 'r. [ad+canBa,canse.casel, 

bring a out or charge agu^n. 

16. ema, etnere, 6lJ, dmptum, tr., 

lake ; buy, purchase, 2. 

16. pTepinquus,-a,-um.a(t/.|pr<ipe. 

neuri, near, nelgbborlng, close ai btkad; 

■ubleTS. 1. tr. [Ht8. lift], lift from be- 
neath, lift or raise up, support; assist, 
aid; lighten, lessen. S. 

IT. praaaertlm, adv., particularly, 
especially. « 

prex, pracla,/- ('« tiig. only in itat.. 
acc.and atil.)\,pnooT, pray], prayer, en- 
treaty; Imprecation, i 

18, ddstitnO, -BtitueTe, -•titui, 

-■tltfttum, tr, [status, set Dp], set or 
place aside, forsake, desert. 1. 

IS. qusror, quell, queatDi aum, tr. 
and inir., complain, bewail, lament, i^ 

1. turn, adv., then, at tbls or that, 
time; then, secondly; then, also , oum . . ■ 
turn, both . . ■ and, not only ■ . . but 


1 fellow-cill- 

quod n6ii ■nbleritnr, "becaiue [as 
besald] he wasnot aided," Tblalaan- 
olbercaaeot Implied Indirect discourse; 
cf. 1. I, and see App. SI4: O.-L. Ml: 
A. MO, 2; B. £86, 1: H.-B. MS, 2, a: B. 


IB. poiHt: ac-frSmtntum. 

IS. tempore may be either ablative 
kbsolute or ablative ot time ; hoatlbua 
la au ablauve abaolute. 

17. Wltb y 
always causaL 
magnft ex pkTta, "in great part." 
IB. quod Bltdfiatltfiliu: ct, 1. 14. 
Third Rbferences: 

AUatiet of the way {route) 

Ablaiive icUA Star, etc. 



antaft tacuerat proponit: Ease nun nulloB qnonim aticturitas 
apod plebem plurimnm valeat, qui privatim plus poaaint qnam 
ipsi magiatratua. Hob Beditidaa atqae improba dratidne miil'ti- 
tudinem deterrere ne frumentum confenint quod d^beant : » 
Praeatare, ai iam principatnm Galliae obtinere ndn poesint, 
Gallomm qnam ROmaudrum imperia perferre; neque dubiture 
quin, ai Helveti&a super&rerint Bom&ni, una cum roliqug 
Gallijl Haeduls libert&tem ai nt ere pturi. Ab isdem nostra 

t. antai, adB- {utta, b«[or«-l-«k, 
italsl, formerly, betore.'prevloaBlf , tmci! ; 
alaayi icitA a ttrb, S. 

tacoO, S. tr. ana inlr.. be silent; keep 
sUent, pass over In silence: tMitUi; 
Jtf. pari, at oAi,. slleat. S. 

IittfpAn6, -pazwre. -poaiil.-paaltiuii. 
tr. [peaS, place], place or put (orwanl. 
present, oner; relate, tell ot. explain; 
propose, purpose; eipose. it 

3. Tale6. 2, inlr., be Blrong/w vigor- 
ous, bave weight, lafluence. or strengtli ; 
plOrlmnni Talf ra, be very powerful. * 

prlTfctlm. adv. [prlTfttua, private), 
privately. Individually, as private clt- 

4. aedimana,-a,-iim,Rtf.[aiaitU, 

sedition), seditious. 

Imprabni, -a,,-xaa.a^. [lii-+pTobni, 

goud]. unprincipled. 1. 
B. d«tana6, s. 'r. [tarred, ftigni- 

enl, frighten away or oO, hinder, delar, 
preven% I. 

T. p*rtarit,-tem,<tDli. -lfttnm,(r. 
[farS, bear], bear or curry ihrougb. con- 
vey, deliver; announce, report; submit 

to. end ore, suffer, if 

dubltS, 1. inlr. (dubluB, doubtrul], ba 
uncertain, doubt; hesitate, delay. * 

S. supaTO. 1. Ir. and intr. [lupar, 
over], go over; overmatch, be superior 

prevail; be left over, remain; TlUt au- 
parfcra, survive. * 

e, llbarUs, -Utla, /- ilibai, free], 
freedom, liberty. ImSependence. if 

i. The direct to 


qiuuu mftglatTtttta: the ablative 
vlthont qvam might have been used Id- 
stead of this nominative; App. 139, a: 
0.-L> 2BS, R. 1: A. 4M; Vtt: B, £17, 1. i: 
C-R4ie: IL#Tl.l, 

4. Improbi, "reckless." 

B. detanSra ne adnfaiuit, "were 
preventing . . . from bringing.'' 

B- praasUra . . . slut iraptnrl, 

"(aaylng) thatlt was better," etc This 
la the indirect form of the malcontents' 
tldiliQKa OrSSiS. The subject of praeatSre 
al (sc, HatSMi) lam obUntia n6ii poa- 

■Int. "11 they could no longer bol 
The Eaedul claimed the leaders! 
among the Gallic states. See Int. 29, 

T. naqna (sc m) dnblttra. 


doubt. ■ 

B, qubiBaadulialntflTaptttl,''that 
they would wrest Irora the HaeduL" 
Haaduls: dative with the compound 
verb of separation; App. lis, I: a.-L. 
315. R. 1: A. 381: B. IBS, a. d: H.-R 8TI: 
H. 12», S. aInt Sraptbil: tormf App. 
TS: O.-L. m: A. m, a: B, US: H.-B-IB^: 
H. 330. Mode* App. 2se, d: 0,-L, SfiG. r: 
A, 653. a: B, 998; H,-B. GS1,3,A: H-HC, 1- 

■nperkTailnt, "should conquer." Is a 
perfect subjunctive, for a future pertaot 
Indicative la tbe direct form. 

auk; \ 



10 c&nailia quaeqne in caatris gerantnr hostibns SofintiftrT. HOb ft 
se coerceri non poese; quin etiam, quod neceBe&rid rem 
Goactus Oaeaari enuntiarit, intellegere sese qnantd id cum 
pericnlo fecerit, et ob earn cansam quam dia potuerit tacuisse. 
18. Caesar h£lo 5rSti5ne Lieoi DomDorigem, DfTiciaci 
fratrem, deeignfiri sentiebat; aed, quod pluribtts praesentibnB 
efi:B res iactari ndlebat, celeriter coDcilium dimittit, LiBcnm 
retinet. Qaaerit ei Bolo ea quae in coDTentu dixerat. DTcit 

( liberias atqae andacios. Eadem secrgtd ab aliis qaaerit; 
reperit esse vSra: Ipsnm esse DnmnorTgem. Bum ma su dacia. 

neeaisbrlO, mfv. fabl. of neeeiafcrluB, 
necessar;}. neceBsorll;, of necesslt;, un' 
•TOldably. * 

13. qukiitna,-a.-iim,iKV.[^.quuii, 

liowf as], (1> inteTTaa., how mnch I bow 
gnat! taoir larger wbat? qQ&ntuin, 

as; quuituitt, at adv., as mucb as. as; 
quftntft , . , tBJltO^u^i'A comparativeay, 
tbe . . . tbe. * 

S. dealsnS,],fr.[ilgiiO. mark], mark 
out; mean. Indicate. 1. 

MntIO, Hntlra, ifiiitl, ■Ininm, if., 

perceive, be aware ot, notice; eiperlence, 
undergo; realize, know; decide, lodge; 
sanction, adbera to. i. 

throw or hnrl repeatedly, toss about; 
talk about, discuss. S. 

ealerltar, <u2n. [oeler.swirt]. quickly, 
rapidly, speedily. Cemp,, oelarlUB; 
»up..OBlerrlBie(App.«). « 

eonoUlum, -U, n., gathering, assem- 
' dluiltto, •mltMre, -mlsl, -mlMum, 

tr. [mlttt, send]. Bend la diOerent dlreo- 
UoQS, send'away or off. dismiss; bi«ak 
op; let go. let slip, let pass, give up, 

4. tetlnaS, {raH-tenaa, hotdi 
hold back, detain, keep ; reatralo, hinder, 
decalD lorclbly, seize; retain, preserve 
maintain, t 

qnfterO, qnaerare, qnaeBlvI, quat- 
■Itum, tr. and iatr,, seek or took for; 
inquire, ask, ask or Inquire about. lp 

■Bins, -a. -nm, gtn. afillua (App. aq, 
<!((/,, alone, only; theonly. st^ 

eonventna, -da, rl [convenld, come 
togetherl, a coming together, meeting, 
asiiembly; court. 1. 

E. Ilbari, adv. [liber, tree], finely, 
vlthout restraint, boldly. 1. 

liCTiUi.adv. [aeaanA, separate], sep- 
arately, privately, secretly. 3. 

6. nparlS, rapaiire, repperl, ra- 

partum, tr. [rs-^-pailB, procure), pro- 

I. Llscns, the chief magla- 

8. plUlbni praeaentlbua, "when 
many were present, " 

4. ax aOlB, "from him In private." 
Most verbs of asking may take two ac- 
cusatives (cl. It, I), but tbe person la 
more commonly erprensed by tbe &1>- 
lative with a preposition: App. lis. a: 
0--L. 330,0, R 1: A. B«, o: B. 118, i, o: 
H.-B. ESS, c: H. 411, S. 

6. raparlt aaaa vBra, "he learned 
that this was thetmlh"; 


ma^ft apnd p]3bem propter llberalit&tem gr&tii, cnpidnm 
r eram norarum. Complures anndSkportoria reliquaqne onmia 
Haednorum Tectigaliaj^>ar TO pre ti^ rodgmp ta ha bere, proptereA 
qnod illo licente^ontra licerl andeat nemo. His rSbns et suam to 
rem familiarem anxisse et facultates ad largiendain magn&B 
com|i^aBBe; magnum nnmemm equitftt^ and samptQ semper 
alere et circnm se habere; neqne solum domi, eed etiam apud 

core: Bnd: Dm] oat. discover. 

TBriu. -Bi, -nin, a^-. true; »■ at not 
Ibe truth; T«rl almllls, llkel;. prol 
ble. 4. 

auO&ala, -aa,/- [andAx, bold], bo 
nesa, ' daring, courage ; preaumptlon, 
eOrontery. 1. 

7. llbBlUlIkB, -t&lU,/. [llbGT, tree], 
frudam in gicing. ttr.; generoxli;. 2. 

B. porUnum, 'Ft, n., toll, tarllT on 
InrpoHi or exporU. S. 

». Tectlgal, -Ulfl, n. [rectlglllB, 
trlbataryl, tai.trlbuM; ;j[.. revenues. 2. 

Dretltun, -tl. n-. price. S. 

ledlnLQ, -iiaers, -Ami, -Smptmn, tr. 
[red-+em6. buy], buy back; buy np, 
parcbaee. i. 

10. llOMT, 2, Mtr., bid (Of on amy. 
Iton). £. 

contrfc, odd. aadprfp. with ate.: (I) ai 
a^v. , against blin or them ; on tbe olber 

hand: eontrftatque, conirarytowbat; 
(it) <u prep., against. ooDlraiy u>; ap- 
posite, laclDg. :* 

ftndee, auders, inauB •um (App. 74), 

ititr., dare. Tlsk. venture. iIe 

nSma, ace ntmlnam. m. andf. (Iie-+ 
bomG, man], no man, no one, Dobodr. * 

11. OuulUlrii, -a, adj. (fuaUla, 
houaeliDlil], personal, private; at f»i«». 
Intimate Mend; ria hmlll&Tl*, pei^ 
SODttl property, estate. 4. 

augeS, kugSre. anxl. uiatam, tr., 

IftTClor, 4, tr. [Ikigiu, latge}, itlTa 
largely or freely : bribe. 1. 

13. IQUiptaBi-U, m. [ilUlia, spendL 
expense. I. 

aampar, adv., always, ever, con- 
tinually. I. 

IS. AlS, ftIaTe,^nI, altnm, tr.. noni^ 
Isb, teed, support; promote, roster, en- 
courage. 4. 

the indirect dlscoarse whlcli follows. 
Ipaum eaae Dumnorlgam. "tbat 

It was. In tact, Dumnorlx." By putting 
togetber what is said ol Orgetorii In 4, 
i, 8. and the followiug description ot 
Damnorlx we are able to appreciate the 
extraordinary power ol soma ot the 
Gallic nobles. 

■ummt aud&clk, "(a man) of the nt- 
mosl recklessness." Fur case seeApp. 
141: O. -1^400: A. 41Bl B. K*: H.-B. 443: 
H. 473. S. 

8. rSnun; case! App. lOS. a: G..I/. 
St*: A. 340. a: B.»>4,1: H.-B.».i4: H. 4IW. 

porUila . . . TadSnipts kabSia: In- 
stead ot collecting the duties and taxes' 
by its own agents, tbe state farmKI 

them; Le. It sold at auction the privi- 
lege ot collecting them. The successful 
bidder collected all he conld, paid to the 
Btatetbeamountolblabld, and pocketed 

"He dUterence. 

e. parrO pratlO: 

, Port 

e App. u 

: H. 4T8. 

a habire: differs bow from 
imitaer App, 186, b: Q,-L. ICSS: A. 
6; B. B37. fl: H.-B. «», B, a: H.«40,2. 
D. Ulftllceata, "whenhebld." 
I. oompar&iBe: form! App. 72: 
: B. 116. 1: H.-R 

J. 23a 


■, Google 



finitimas cIvitateB largiter poaae, atque huina potentiae caasS 
IS mfitrem in Biturigibue homini illic ndbiliasiino ac potentissimd 
coUooaiae, ipsani ex Helvetiia usorem habSre, sororem ei matre 
et propinquas Buas nHgtum in alias civifcateB collocaese. Fav^re 
et cupere Helvetiia propter earn affinitatem, ddlsee etiam e.n6 
nomine Gaesarem et BdmanSs, quod eoram adventu potentia 
u eios deminuta et Divioi&cuB frftter in aDtiqnnm locnm gratiae 
atqae hondris sit restitutos. Si quid accidat Kdm&niB, sum- 
mam in apem per HfllvetioB rggnl obtinendi venire ; imjfirio 
popnll Bomani non modo dS rfignO, sed etiam d6 e4 quam 
habeat grfttia desperare. Beperigbat etiam in qiiaerend5 

14. l&TBltei, adv. CI&rgnB, large], 
haeelj, Ireel;, mucb; iBTcitar POIM, 
to have great iDBueuce. 1. 

potentia, -mm, f. (ixitins, powerful], 
power, aucborltf, Influence. 2. 

IB. m&tai,-tTU,/.,inoUier:mktrfii 

* place. 

BlturlKiB. -am, tn. (Cde), tbeDlturl- 
ges (bli^-ti'Jfe). 1. 
Ullc, ado. [Ula, tbat]. In 

16. ooUoea, 1, tT. [oon+iooS, place], 

place, set. Blatlon: arrange: nftptum 
oollockre, to give In marriage. * 

uxor. -erU,/., wife. 8, 

BOror, -6i1b, /. , Bister. %. 

IT. nfibO. nfibars. mipbI. nitpium. 

in<r.. Tell one's self /dt tht nmrriagt cirs- 

RtTsS. fgivera. flvl. fftutmn. incr.. 

favor. 1. 
18. cupl6.0DperB,cnplTl, cDpltum, 

tr. andlnti:, long or be eager for, dealMi 
wlab well to, (aror. * 

ofllnit&a, -titls, / . alliance bj mw 
rlage, relallonsblp. a. 

MI, MlH« <App. 8S), (r., Kf. «m 
meaning ofprtt.^ bate, detest % 

30. UmlnuO. -mlnn«r«, -mlnnl. 
-mlnQtnin, tr. [miiiu6, lessen], lessen, 

antiquaB, -a, -um, a^. [ante, ti» 

re], f, 

31. iLOnSa. -SrlB, m.. bonor. regard. 
glory, distinction ; honorable posllian. 

loitltuB. -Btltuere. -Btltnl, -Btltn- 
tnm, tr. [r»— t-BtBtua, set up], sec np 
again, rebuild, renew, restore. 4- 

34. dJBperfi, I, iiitT. [Bper&, hope], 
despair, be hopeless, laok confldence; 
diBpSr&tUB. at •part., from trmtUivt 
mtaning, despaired 01; at aiy., despo'- 

14. oanai: see vocabulary. 

15, coHoc&bm: sc. nSptum. 
IpBUm; Le. Dumnorlx. His wife wa: 

thedaughterotOrgetorli: c(. 8, IS. 

Bor6rem ex m&tre, "suwr on his 
mother's side"; I.e. his hal(-slsfer. 

11. nDptUm: construction F App.Z95: 
G.-U 4K: A. SOB: B, SW. 1, b: H.-B. 618: 


e Implies 

IS. Belvetlli; Indirect object with 
verba meaning to favor. 
19. nAmlne: ablative of cause. 

30. demlnlkta: sc. lU. 

31. Bl quid: why guld/ At^ 174: 
G.-L. 316: A. !«), o: B. 01, 5: H.-B. SflC. 1 : 
H. 189. 

■ummamutapunTanlTO. "beenter- 
talned tbe highest hopes.'' 

93. Imperii, "under . the sover- 
eignty": caseT App U2. b: Q.-U t»: 
B. 221 : H.-B. 423, 1 ; H. 4T1, 1. 


Caesar, qaod proelinin eqnestre adveream pa ncia ante die buaaa 
esset iaotam, iaitiam fugae factum a Dumnorige atque eius 
equitibu3 (nam equitiltal qnem aazilid Gaeearl Haedui 
miBerant Dumnorix praeerst) ; eOmm fug& reliqanm eeee 
eqnitatnm perterritum, 

19. QuibuB rebas cognitis, cum ad has suspiciones 
certissimae res accederent, qupd per finSa SeqnaDOram 
Helvetids tr&d^xiaBet. qaod obaides inter eoa dandoB cur^sset, 
quod ea omnia son modo iniuaau and et civitatis, aed etiam 
inacientibcs ipals fecisset, quod a magiatratu Uaeduorumk 

3S. *<iaeBtsr,~tTia,-trB,aiU' [equss. 
liorsemanj, oC or belonging to B borse- 
man. equestrian, of cavalry, caralr;. :* 

WtTereuH, -a, -um, a4J, [tif.part.i?/ 
adrerte. turn to], turned toar against; 
opposite, [routing; attverae, unfavor- 
abla; nnatlcceBarul ; adTeiBO flamlne, 
np the river; tn adTanum 6a, luU la 
tbetace. 4: 

89. partarrBfl, 2. ir. [terT«8, fright- 
an), Irighlan thoroughly, lerrlty 

1. MsnaseO, -nOaesre, -nSTl, -nl- 

tuin, (r. (eo-Ks)nBBOS, Intrii], team, 
ascertalD; study, Inrealigala; p/., I 
hate (AirrMd, I know (App. 1SI3, 1, O). 4e 

3. aeojdB,-<iMers,-iMHl, -OMinm, 

to, arrive at, come to: be added; as- 
afid«bBt, It was added. * 

4. inlUHtl, abl. o/ InluiBUB. -Dl, m. 
[lubeO. order], without command or 

6. liiscieiu.-e]itli,<>4f.Flii-4-BcUnB, 

knoniug], not knowlug, ' 

36, quod . . 

, . eBB«i taatnm, "as to 

an unsuccessful cavalry 
id been (ought." el<!. = "as 
ji the ■ . . ei^ageiuentvrlilch," etc. See 

panelB ante dlSbni, lit. "before by a 
few d»ys"="afewday8 before." diSbua 
ts an ablative or degree of dlOereuce, 
with the adverb ante. 

37. aoxlllO CaeBarl, "as an aid to 
Caesar." For the two datives see App. 
ilB: G-L. 358, 3: A. 388,1: B.ISI.2.A: 
H.-B. 960. b: H. 133, 2. 

TBIBD Bifebencks : 

CortiTOcttd vfTifarmt 
DetCTlptivt ailalivt 

Caesar consults Dlvicia- 

r^B accedB' 

facta were added." These (acw are 
stated In the loUowlng guod clauses, 
which are in apposition with rh. For 
tensa see App. SOS; 203: O.-L. fine; 510; 
Ml- A. 482, 1,3;483:B.M6, B: MT: H.-B. 
470: H. IS8; 513 

3. 4U0dtr&dDxUa«t: klndofclauseF 
App. £18: G.-L. 524; 525, I: A.5TS: B.2IW, 
l.n: H.-B. 553, I: E. 588, 11. 3. Modet 
App. ZJU Q.-L. eas: A. 593: B. 2M,2: 
H.-R taS: H.tBZ. 

3. quod . . . ottT&Baet, lit. "that ha 
had taken care of boscages to be given 
between thein"="that he had caused 
hostages to be exchanged." tia—B^ 
ttliSi tt SlgvanBi, 

dMidfia: constmctlonF App. 28S. II. bi 
Q.-I, 430: A. 500. 4: B. S3T. T. 6, 2: H.-B. 
eOfi, 2; 012. Ill: H. OO. 

4. aa6 = Caeiarii. 

9. Ipsls: 1 e, Caesar and the RaednL 


accuB&retnr, satis esse causae arbitrabatnr qnfire in earn ant 
ipse animadverteret ant ciTitatem aDimadTertere iuberet. His 
omnibns rebus unom repugnabat, quod Divici&ci fratrie 
Bummum iD populom EomaDtim studium, Bttrnmam in se 

10 v^Iuntatem, e^agiam fidem, iustitiam, temperantiaui cognd- 
verat; nam ne eius anpplicio Dlviciaci animum ofE ende ret 
verebatnr. Itaque priuaqiiani qnicquam conaretur, Diviciacnm 
ad se Tocari iubet et, cotldianis interpretibns remotlB, per C. 
Valerium Troncillum, prlneipem Galliae provinciae, familidrem 

IB snum, cui summam omnium rurum fidem ha beba t, cum eo 

7. »nlmailTert6, -Tertera, -vertl, 

-Tersiim, Er. and intr. [uilmuH, r"'"'1+ 
al+TBrta, turn], tum thamind to; no- 
tice; aiiiiii&dT«rt«Te In, punisb. :|i 

B. repugns, l. intr. Ire-fpusnS, 
fightj, BghC back ; resist, oppose, 2. 

a. atudlum, ~dl, n. [Btude6, be zeal- 
ous], zeal, eagemeBa.entbuBla^m. desire ; 
good will. deTotloQi pursuit, occnpa- 

10. dgraglna, 'a,-iim,attl-[S+Kraz, 

herd], ouf of the eemmon herd; eicelleub. 
BupBrlor, eminent, remarkable. 3. 

t&sUtla, -ae, /. [Ibitus, Just]. Jus- 
tice, !alr dealing, upiigbtness, a. 

tatnperantla, -ae, /. [tempers, con- 

oSsDdO, -fender*, -fendl, -finsutn, 

tr. [ob+fendO, strike], strike against. 
hurt, harm; ftulMiun offendere, burt 
the feelings, offend, 1, 
13. Terenc, Terflrl.Teritns Bum, tr., 

prlu«quM]i or priiu . . . auatn, 

qulBquam, quieqaam, indef, pron. 
(App, 82). any; any person or thing, t 

18. TO00,l,fr.[T&X, voice], call, sum- 
mon; tnTlte. 3. 

Inlerprei, -etU, m., /., lnt«ri>reieri 

remoTsSi -moTire, -idOtI, -mOtum, 
''■- [re-+mo¥e6, movej, move back or 
away, remove, wHbdraw, ruuStiu, fl/. 
part, ai adj.. remote, tai- away. 4. 

14- ValerluB, -rl, m, <l] aalus Va- 
lerius Trouclllus CsS'yOs va-le'rl-fls irn- 
sll'fla). a Oallic Interpreter imd tortfiden- 
lial friend of Catear. -ir 

6. I 


: partltlre genitive \ 

B App. 

qu&rd animadTeiteret, 

Bhouia puQlBh," For modi 
MO.e; a.-L.eai,2; H.-B,5IB.B, 

8. IkDUm, "one thing," is explained 
by lis appusltive, the clause guod cog- 

%, Note the lack of conjunctions, ana 

10. coguSTBrat, lit. "had learued"i^ 

11. nS offanderst, "tbat be should 
oltend." Mei^lng of n^, and mode ? App. 

129, h: O.-L. £50. 1, 3: A. SU, B. SM. 2: 
H,-B. G02. 4: H. MT, 1. 
elus; Le, numnorlx. 

13. pilusquun . . . a6niritur. "be- 
fore be Tentured on anything," 

IS. per . . . Delloqultur: Engllsb 

14. prinoipem: not necessarily a 
cblel. but a prominent man- 
IE. out . , , liabtbat, "In wbom he 

had tbe nimost confldence In all mat- 
ters." oul: caaet App. 115, o: G,-L. S4e, 
A. sei. 1, n. 2; H.-B, S63, footnote 


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colloquitur; simnl commonefacit quae iped praesente in con- 
cilio de Dnmnorige sint dicta, et oetendit qnae separ&tim 
quisqne de eo apud Be dixerit. Petit atqne hortatar ut sine 
euLs offensione animi yel i^e de ed cauBa, coguita etatuat, 
Tel ciTitatem atatuere iubeat. m 

20. DiviciacuB miiltla cum laorlmis CaeBarem complexuB 
obaecrfire coepit ne quid graviua in fr&trem statneret: Scire afi 
ilia esse vgra, nee qnemqnam/ex efi]p)uB qaam se dol&ris capere, 
propterea qnodifcum ipse gratia' plurimum domi atqtie in 
reliqufi Qallia, ille minimum propter adulf'scentiam poBBet) h 

16. eoUoquor. -loqnl, -lacQtiu 

nun, intr. [CIII1-+1DI1U0T, speak], speali 
Mth, converse, confer, have a conter- 

■Imul. adv.. ac once, at the luimetime, 
tbereiipon; almul . . . slmut. both . , . 
and, partly . . . partly; «lmul ataua, 
asHOonaB. « 

cammousfactS, -facers, -tiel. -fac- 
tum, tr. [Tnone6. remlna+AclS, make), 
remind forcibly. 1. 

IT. iBparktlm, adv. fsSparS, sep- 
arate], separately, privately. 2. 

XS. p«ta. -«re. -ITI or -li. -Unm, 
(r. ami intr. seek, bunt tor, aim at, 
make tor, attack, go to. direct one's 
coDTBe to or toward; seek to obtain. 

IS. quae slot dlota, quae dlisilt; 

Indirect questions. 

lpB6: I.e. Divlclacus. 

18. nt . . , Btatuat, "that without 
lrouDdlii2bls[l.e. Divlclacus 's] feel) ug3 
he might either himself [l.e Caesar] In- 
veatiEate the case and pass aentenee on 
Um [i.e. Dumnorli]." 

Thibd ksfbbebce: 

strive after; ask, request, beseech. * 
hortoc, 1, tr., eibort, encourage. In. 

clM, urge strongly. ^ 
IB. oinniie.-OiilB,/[offBiid6,hiiTtl, 

offense. 1. 
1. lacrlma, -ae,/., 1«nr. S, 

compl actor, -plaotl, -plexna mm, 
tr. [plBCtC, foldj, embrace, clasp, en- 
Blose. I. 

3. Obascrt, I, tr. [aacer, sacredl. Im- 
plore, entreat, beseech, ]. 

rraTlS, -e, adj., heavy, oppressive. 

■014, i. tr., distinguish; know, mider- 
a. aduliiceatlA. -a«, /. laduUi- 

Slb: A. 31U. a: B.ei.B: H.-B.27 

1. IBt. 

■clre: the indirect discourse depends 
on the Idea of "saying," which Is Implied 
IQ obiecrBrt. The direct form Is given 
atier Book VII. 

S. nao quemquam, "and that no 

efi; I.e. Dumuorlx. 

4. IpM: Le. Divlclacus. Itlsthesub- 
Ject of pallet, to be suppUed from the 

1. eoroplaxua: probably clasping 
Caeaar'H knees, lo;: this was the ano. 
attitude of suppliant entreaty. 

a. nSllUld; whyguufr ApplTl: G.-L. 

: A. 437.3: B. 231. 9 

S, minimum poaaet, " 


per Be jrfYJsaet; quibna opiboa ac nervia noa sOlum &d 
-niaueQdani'gratiam, Bed paene ad pemiciera- suam uteretur. 
Seae tamen et amore frawmo et exiBtimatione vulgT commovSrl. 
Q uod Bi qoid ei & Caesare graviuB accidiasetj cum ipse *um) 
» locnm amicitiae apud enm teneret, neminem existimaturum 
Hon ^^ volUBt^te factnm ; qui ex re fut urum <it i totlaB Galliae 
animi asg averterentur. Haec onm pluribas t^^Tb Sens a 
Caesare peteret, Caesar eins dextram prgndit; cfiDBoTfitns rogat 
finem orandi faciat; tantt eine apud se grAtiam esse ostendit 

e€iii, youthj, youtbfulness, youth. 1. 

6. orSioS, erJEoers, erSrl, cretum. 
Infr., grow or Increase (in «iu, poterr, 
agt, etc.), BweO. 1. 

ops, DplB, /., help. Bid; pi., wealth. 
resourceB; authority, " InSuence, 
Btreugtb. S. 

nenrua, -I, dl, sinew; in pt., vigor, 
strength, power. 1, 

T. mlnut. mlnnara, mlnul, mlnfi- 

tum, (r. and Inir. [mlniu, leasi lessen, 
impair. dImlDlsb; settle (eontlOTar- 
■l&s); mluuauta MStb, (be tide ebb- 
ing, a. 

8. amor, -Oila, m. lunS, lore], 

ITitemua. -a, -um, aiti. (ft&tsr, 

S. tt; I.e. Dlvlclacus. He said ptr 
me, "by my help." 

oplbus: ablative with i7((Taur. 

T. auamreters toDlviuiacus. 

8. sJBi: I.e. DIvlclacua. 

». HUOd il, lit. "as to wbleb, If: 
quod Is strictly an adverbial accusative, 
but with >i It bus become a mere con- 
nective, aod Is translated "and," "but," 

(.ocidlsset stands tor an original 

future perfect. 
ipse: Le. DIvlclacus. 

brother], brotherly, fraternal, of i 
brother. 2. 

exIaUnt&tia, •Snli, /. [ 

tlmauj . Judgment, opinion, i. 

Tulgiu, -1, ».. the common people 
the multitude, (he public, tbe masses: a 
crowd, a 

IS. TBrbum, -!,«.. word; pI„Bpeecb; 
entreaty; Tsrba ntsere, plead. 3. 

flSO, flits, flSrl, fljtum, ialr.. weep, 
abed tears, lament. 4. 

IS. deztm,-ae,/.[dezter,ngbtiK. 
manuB] , tbe rlgbt baud- i . 

preud6. prAidan, prSadl, prSa- 
■um, fr.. seize, grasp. I. 

06DS6Ior, l,(r. [aeiOI , comfort], cbeer, 

'- (0«. 


, lit. "It would be that . - . would be 
turned from blm." This construction 
la tbe regular substitute for the future 
passive inflnltlve. which very rarely oo 

I- dH iT*rt«rantUT la a substan^ 
tlTe clause of result- 

13. &Oaasare: the usual construe 
tlon aCMr verbs of asking, instead of a 
second accusative. 

13. rogal (sc- 111) facial, "be asked 
blm to make." In wbat kind of clauses 
and after what verbs may ul be omib 

uti . . . kTarCiian- 

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nti et rei publicae iniuriam et Gnnm dolorem eins Tolnnt&tl ac is 
precibua condonet. Duznuorigem ad sb vocat, fr&trem adbibet; 
qaae in eo reprc^endat ostendit; quae ipse mteUegat, quae 
eifitaa qnomtnr prOpOnit; monet nt in reliqnum tempns 
omngB BUBpIciuQeB vltet; praeterita b6 Dlviciaco fratri ooq- 
donare dicit. Dumnorigi cnst&dSs p5nit, nt quae agat, so 
qnibnscnm loqaatur, ecire poseit. 

2 i . Eddem diu ab expldrutoribos certior factna hoetSs sub 
monte consedisse mllis pasBuum ab ipsius castris octii, qualis 

U. candinfi, t. (r. [dBnft, give], give 
up; pardon. forglTe. 2. 

AdhlbeO, 2. ir. [bftbeO, b&Te], bring 
10, bring In, siimmoQ ; employ, nw. 4. 

17. Tapr«li*ad9.-prelieiidaTe,-pre- 
hwai. -prebinBum, ir. [rs^+pra- 
htnOe (=pieild4), seize], bold back; 
cMUcise. blame, censura. I. 

IB. monefi, 3. tr., warn, advise, in- 

It. Tit*. 1 

ivotd, f 

omit; pToaterltiu, nf. part, <u 

30. outtOl, -Mis, fn., guard, walcb- 
mmn, spy. S. 
91. loauor.loanl.lDCIltiLi ■um.inlr. 

dlk, c< 

■ae. « 

I. a0iiald6, -stders. -sCdt, •■« 
tn<r. [aldO, BlI down], sit dow 
gether, settle; taliea posltloD, ba 
camp, ^tf 

OOtft (mi), card. num. ad}., li 

qufclll, -%, laterrog. ad};Ot whataori, 
kind, cr nature! 2. 

IB. ntleondSiin: a result clause. 
TOluntfttl, "out of consideration for 
Ills wlsb." Is Indirect object ot coo- 

17. qiM* leprehendiit: mode? App. 

Ete: G.-U 487: A. 673; B74: B. SOO, 
1, a; H.-a 634, 2, UI; GS7, b: H. 649, 

It woi tacUnl of Caesar to make 
Dltlclacos believe tbat Dumnortx was 
spared tor bis sake. In reality, bow- 
ever, Caesar bad bis bauds full with tbe 
Helvetil and could not afford to sllr op 
arevoltof thsHaedul Inaddition— a re- 
sult wblcb might easily bave followed 
an attempt to punlsb tbelr most popu- 

Dumnorli to dealb for obstinate dlsobe- 


Vie of the ind^nile quit 

Sative of refermct 

Conttruction tuitU verbi of aikiam. tic 

Indirect queilioa 
Chap. 31-33. The fkilure of a plan 
•-"-— '-"--Helvet" 


Chapters 18-90 Intcrrapted the narra- 
tive of Caesar's pursuit of tbe HelTe- 
UL Tbe events o( this chapter foUow 
immediately after those narrated in 
chapter IS. 

1. lubmonlB: Ihe exact location is 
UDknawn; it was ooly a few miles from 
the battle&eld south of Bibracte. See 

3. mlUa; 

1, Ob- 



esset natura montis et qufllia in ciromtQ asoensns qni cog- 

ndscerent misit. BenQati&tum est facilem esse. De tertia 

B vigilia T. Labienam, leg&tnm pro prsetdre, cnm daabns 

legionibua et lis dncibua qui iter cogn5yerant Bummnm iugum 

montis asceadere iubet; quid sdI cdnsili sit ostendlt. Ipse de 

quarta vigilia esJ^ii itinere quo hostee ierMit ad eSs contendit 

- equit&tumque omnem ante e6 mittit. P. Cdnsidius, qni rei 

w militaris peritiaaimus babebatnr et in exercita L, Snllae et 

posted in M. Crassi fuerat, cum explor&toribua praemittitnr. 

5. clrouitua, -iki, m. leiroumtd, go 

around], a goin^ arouiid; a winding 
path; clrcumlerence, circuit. 4. 

ftBOtniua, -bi, >»■ (ssoendS, cUmb 
np], B cUmblng up. ascending ; approach, 
ucent. a. 

B. vitMWr, -Brl«, m-. praetor; oom- 
maoder. 1. 

6. dux. dUOU, rn. (dDoO, lead], 
leader, guide, commander., t 

T. sicendB, -scBndere, -leendl, 
-■oinaum, (r. and inlr. [Ad+ieuidt, 
cllmb],cllmbnp.aecend. mount. climb. S. 

9. P., abbr, far FlkblliU, a Soman 

OSMldlWi.-dl.m.. PublloaConsldlos 

(pflb'll.fls kOn-ald'l.fis), oiw of Caiiari 

10. niUlUTla.-e.iiEtf. [mUea.aoidier], 

of a soldier, military, miu-Cial; rjl mlll- 
ttrii, mllltar; matters, warfare, the 
Bcleoce of warfare. * 

parltni, -a, -nm, oiV- [</- axpsrlor, 
trf], tried, atperlenced, skilled; famil- 
iar with, acquainted with. 9. 

SullA. -ae, m. , Lnclua Sulla (lu'ebyiU 
Bai'a>, iht dUtalar; Usuttr of tlu nobit- 
Uy; engaged in civil war iMh, Mariui. 
leader of tAt popular parly; livetl from 

138B.C. e(>mi.c. I. 

11. posMi, adv. [port, after}, after 
(bU, afterwaids. ik 

CTAiana. -1. tn., Marcus Llclnlus 
Crassua (mar'fc(ls ' U-sln'l-Oe krlU'- 
Bs), triumvir tottA Caetar and Pom- 
pey. a. 

S. In olrcullb. "In going around 
[behind] It." 
aul eognOieereiit mlait. "he sent 

de tartlft Tlelllli: see on la. T. 

E. Usfttum pr(i praetOre, "lieut«n- 

pendent powers. Lablenus was Caesar's 
mostcorapetentand moat trusted ofhcer. 

cum lla duelbUB. "with those, men 
aa guides." 

T. auld . . . Bit, lit., '-whac Is of bis 
plan"="v.-hai bis ptan was"; namelj-. 
that I,abieDua should take a posltlou on 
the top of the mountain. In tbe rear of 
the enemj', and that he aod Caesar 

eSUBlll Is a possessive genitive, used 

d(qu4rUTlKlllt: the ronrth watcb 
would begin at three a. u. when the 
nighta were twelve hours long. As tbla 
was June, the nigbuwere shorter, and 

9. F. OOnaldtua . . . fuerat: Caesar 

states tbese facts about Considlus to ex- 
cuse hia own ready acceptance o( the 
latter's statements, as told In the next 
tel mlUt&cls, "In military matters": 

' App. I 

!-. 874: J 

4. foo 



22. Prima luce, ctim Bnminns mona & LabiSnfi tenSrgtur, 
ipae ab hostiam castris non longias mille et qningentla paasibua 
abeseet, neque, nt postea ez captlvis comperit, aat ipsius 
adTentns aut Labieni cognitns esset, GoDsidias eqn6 admisBd 
ad eum accurrit, dicit montem qnem ft LabiSnO occnpftri b 
Tolnerit ab hoetibaa ten^ri; 'id 8§ ft Oallicis armis atqne 
insignibne cogn&yiBse. Caesar bqAb cdpias in prozimnm collem 
subdncit, aciem inatrnit. LabiSune, at erat m_ praeceptnm & 

1. Ittx. Ifteli, /.. llghc darllKbc; 
pilmft Ifiee, at daybreak. 3. 

I. captlvus, -1, ffi. [eaplB, take], 
capllTe. prisoner. 4. 

comperlO, -psrlie, -pen, -pertum, 
Ir. [parlO, procure], And out with cer- 
talntf. discover, ascertain. i|i 

1. eqnus, -I, rn., boTBe. * 

odmitto, -mitWre, -misl, -mlsBoin, 

('■. [mltttt, send], admit; comml 
cut; let go; glverBlna tofaRorit). S. 

E. aoourT6, ~oumre, -ourrl or 
-eucnin, -aunum, nur. [ad-HmrrO, 

run], run or hasten to. B, 

S. QalllouB, -a, -nm, a<V. iQi "~ 
Gsull. pertaining to Gnul or ths ( 
Gilllc. « 

1. COUlB. -U, m.. bllL m 

8. anbditoA, -dhoMw, -dftzl, -dno- 

tum, (r. [dftoB, lead], draw or le»l upi 
lead or drawofl,wlllidr»w! viUr,3iKvtt, 
haul np, beach. S. 

aolBB, -fil (old pm., Min. /-, Bbarp 
point or edgs 0/ a uwayon; sharp of 
keen sight, glance; aline (oi/ormlniraii 
ettgt), battle line; prlnui, the van; 
mwlla, the oentei; noTlMdnw, tbe 

Instraft, -itman, -■trozl, -atrtke- 

tnm, tr. [BtruB, build], build upon, 
build, construct; form, draw up In 6a((i* 
array; equip, famish, if 

praecipia, -ctpera, -cSpT, -oaptnm, 
tr. loapie. take], take or obtain before- 
hand, anticipate; Instruct, bid. or- 

s the wnrd (or 

1. ■nmmiia mti&a, "the top of the 

mtiantailn." For the adjective In agree- 
ment, where we sbould expect a noua 
loUowed by a genltlTe, see App. 180: 
G.'L. aei, R. S; A. iOS; B. »l. I: H.-B. 
244: H. 487, t 

Z. Ipse: Le. Caesar. 

paBBlbna: case! App. 1S9: o.-L. ses: 
A. 406: B. 217. 1: H.-B. 118: H. ITl, 

3. nt, "as." 

4. LablSni, "that otLablenUB," See 

Mgnltna esaet; tbe ft 

eauB admtBsB, "at ftii 
7. Inalgnlbus: the 

Iheir helmets, shields. 

a. aclBmInBtrult;Caesarconclnded 
from the report of Cunsidlos that Labi- 
enus had been defeated, and expected 
that the Tlctore would Immediately at- 
tack him. 

ut ... praeceptnm, lit "aa It haC 
been directed to hlm" = "as he had been 
directed." Intransitive verbs can not be 
used In the passive except Imperson- 
ally. Enallsh Idiom generally requlrea 
the personal construction In traosla- 
llon. tl; case? App. 116, e: 6.-L. ai7: t.. 
A. 3(5: B. 187. n,»: H.-B. 361, E: H. 426.3. :■ 



Csesaie nS^ proelinm committeret, nisi ipstna copiae prope 
M hostium csetra Tisae^fffisent, ut undiqae uno tempore in liosteE 
impetus fieret, monte occnpatd noetrfia exspectfibat proeUiujue 
abatinSbat. Multo d^Dique die per explOratdrSa Caesar cognovit 
et montem a snla tengri- et Helvetios csetra mOTisse et Con- 
aidium timure perterritum quod non vidisaet prO Ti85 sibi 
IB renuDtiaTisae. Ed die, qud c5nsui}rat iat^x&Uo, hostea aequitnr 
et milia passunm tria ab edram castria castra pOnit. 

23. Poatridie eiua di6i, quod omnind bidnnm anpererat 
cam ezercitnl frumentum ingtiri oporteret, et quod & Bibracte, 

9. nlll. cotO. (ne-+Bl, ICl. It m 
Mpl. unless. # 

prop*, mlr. and prtp. with ace. 
pnp: near, closu to. (E) At <u1b., aJ 
nearly: r«cenU;. * 

11. ImpBtus, -U, m.,. attack. • 
clurge; Impetuosity, loroe.veheniBi 

13. AbBtlneO, -tlntre, -tlnnl, 
ttun, iitir. [teneO. holill, keep 
Irom. refralQ ; spare. 1. 

dJnique, adv., and thpn, 
anally, at last; at least. S. 

14. Umor, -6rlB, m. itimsO, 
tear, alalia, dread. i|i 

IS. IntervUIniii, -I.n. (tUIui, poi- 

tsade), t&i ipaci btlwiin too palUadtt; 
Interval (o/ tpaet or «n«) ; distance. # 

1. poitridlfi, ode. tpMtenu, rnUiM 
ing-HUIl, day], on tbe day [allowlns 
the next day: poatrldlt alui dlU.(ii 
the next or toUo^ring day. if 

blduum, -I, n- (bit, twice-HlUB, dsyL 
space 0r period of two days, two days. ^ 

■npenum, -esae, -fui, inir. [snin. be 

App. nj, be over or above; be leU, re- 

a. Ubracte. -1«,b. (Cef). Bibracte CA 
brik'tel l/u chit/ lowtt of Iht Baedui. a 

9. Tit oommllterat: . 

volltlve (or purpose) clause, subject ot 

nisi Tleae esaent: modeF App. 373: 
O.-L. K3: £63. 2, »: A. »2. [ : B. 3SS: H.-B. 
63^.0: H. MB, L The pluperfect stands 
lor an original future perTecU 


10. utfleret: a purpose clanne. 

11. proeI16: ablative or separation. 

13. multOdle, "lalelntheday." 

14. UmOre perterritum, "paolc- 
Btiicken." This was probably due In 
part to the eiaggerated notion ol Gallic 
provssa ibat prevailed Id ibe Roman 

qnol . . . reutUitl&TliM, "bad re- 
porUid to him what he had not seen as It 
seen." Tls4 Is a participle used as a 

IS. qu6 . . . InterrUU^f^ iattnSl- 
16 guS uqai wntuimt. For case see App. 
H2. b: O.-L. see: A. 112: B. 2£l: H.-R 
4S3. 1 : H. 4tS. 3. According to 10, 14. the 
distance was Sve or six miles. 

Chaii. 33-39. Caesar defeats the 
Helvetii in a groat battle and forces 
Uie Eurvlvors to return home. 

Chap. 23. Caesar marches to^vard 
Bibraoto to secure grain, and is fol- 
lowed by the HelvetU. 

3. cum . . . oportiret, "(before the 
time) when he would have (o distribute 
grain l« tbe army. " SeeonlS, 10. The 
peculiar eum clause Is beat explained by 
H.-B. BIB, 

Btbraate : now Mont Benvray, twelve 
milts n'e>>l of Autun. 



oppidO HaedDomm longg maximfi et copiosisaimd, nOn amplins 
. milibus passnum xviii aberat, rei frumentariae prospiciendum 
eiistimaTit; itaqiie iter ab Helvetiis avertit ae Bibracto irp « 
contendit. Ea rgs per fngitlvoB L. Aemili, decuridnis equitum 
Gallorum, hostibiis nuiiti&tar. Helvgtii, seu quod timure 
perterritoB KomanOs discedere & 86 exiBUmSient, eo magis 
quod pridie snperidribns locie occtip&tis proelium Don c om- 
mislBsent, sive eo, quod re frumentaria intercludi possecOn- M 
fiderent, commutato coneilio atque itinere converBo nostrOs a ' 
DOTiesimo agmine insequT ac lacesaere coepemnt. 

3. oOpltaui, -&, -nm, iittJ< (eftpU, 
plentj], well supplied, wealtby- 1. 

1. duodJvl(tilU (XVIII), cjrif. num. 
04- [dQO, cwo-Hlfi, Irom-fTlcintl, 
TeDtrl. alghtfien. <, 
praEplclO, -Bplesra, -sped, -ipw- 

Uaa, iatr. [ip«alO. look], ICKik forward; 
iDofc to beforeband, Bee to, provide lor, 

6. fogltlviu, -A, •nm, a4f, [hif M, 

flee]. Seeing; 01 noun, inmawa; slave. 1. 

Aemlllni, -U, •»., AemUlns (e-mll'l- 
b). 1. 

dAonilO, -tnli, in. Idaoam, ten], de- 
corion, a cavalry oMcf in diargt Of a dt- 
curia, tquad of ten. 1. 

4. mlllbiis: ablative of compatiaou. 
lel . . . prSapialendum, '-that he 

r supplier." EvldeDtly 



I chiefs, two days before, had 
as ret produced noresulrs. prSsplcl- 
endum: construction f App. 28G. II. a: 
0-L.!ai. 1: A. IM.b.I). S3T.7,», 1;H,.B. 
800.3; IK: H. !BT. 

5. ttaque . . . oont«ndlt: he was 
south and a little eaat of Bibract«. The 
plan on p. 104 shows that the HetvetU 
wen marching DortbwesC oad that the 
more northerly route taken by Caesar 
was almost parallel, for some distance, 
wlththerouleot thoHelvecU. ThUex- 
plalns the fact that tbe Eelvetll Were 
able lo ovenake Caesar's army. 

Blbiute: case' App. 131: U -L. 33T: 
A.W.i: B. 18a, \,a: H.-B. 4B0; B. 118. 

«. prldit, adv. [dlU, day], on tbo 
day before. S. 

10. InlerolfidS, -elftdere, -ellkil, 

-OlttBum, tr. [BlBUdA, shut), shut OP 
out OS, separale, hinder; with Itlnen. 

cdnfldO, -fldeie, -film pim, intr. 
(fldO, trust. App. «], trust complelely, 
rely on, feel confident, hope; eftntlius. 
pf. part. u>i(A prettiU mtaning. relying 
on. * 

11. oomnilltfi, I, It. imbtO, change), 
change i>r aller completely, change, ex- 
change. 1 

eoQTarU, •Tartar*, -vertl, -t«- 
anm, tr, aitd infr. (TBrt9, turn], luro 

S. axistlmfttent, oommlilMant, 
oOnfldereot: moder App. IM; S73: G.-L. 
Ca2;eS3,3.e:A.W2,3: B.SS6, !;»: H.-B. 
bSS.Z, a: H.GSS,!!; 6a.L 

eS mBRfB quod, "all tha more bo- 
cauae." «6 Is an ablative of cause. 

9. quod . . . aommlslaaaiit; the Hel- 

10. ■lTea«,"or(orthlsreason." 

lAtarcIfidlpoiaa, "that<theRoman3> 
could be cut off"; I.e. by being pre- 
vented from reaching Blbracte. 

11. conimt»t«cOnilU«:irtbeHel> 
vetll bad held to their plan of march, 
they might have tolled Caesar, Their 
safety lay In avoiding battle, which they 
could do as long as they were In advanco 
of him, on account of the rugged natora 



24. Fostqnam id animadvertit, cdpiila 8ii£iB Caesar tn 
proximnm collem snbdnxit equitatumque qni snatineret hostinm 

complslely. turn or wbeel armuid turn, i -Hiuun ttum] af Mr, as soon as. L 

change ;ilsiL»aoiiT«rtei« lace about « 3 nwtlnM 1 tr.andintr, [m(b)H- 

1. pOBtauun.cofti- poat atterwards 1 tonoO bold] holdup froin below: bold 

Firat stage, Chap. 34-3S. 10. 

1, Camp of [fte Romans on the night belor: 

_, , „ ..._,_ ,^,-re the battle. 

b. Camp ol Ihe Helvetii on the nU/ht before the battle. 

c. Wagons of the HetveHi during the battle (84, 8). 

d. Roman lortipcatUm (M, B). 

M the country. Their FatAl ml^tAke 
iay la tUnkliig that they were strong 
moDBh to throw away this ailTantage. 
i noTlMliii6 acmlne, "oa Uierear." 
Bee on 1, IS. 

^BIBD Rbfbbbnccs : 

Aecatativ of plant la irhlc/i 
Implied indtrttl 4iteourir 
Piuiive pt'iphrattic conjugation 

Chan. 94. Caesar prepares fbr bat 

tie ana the Belvetii advaDoe. 

1. animadvertit: mode and leaser 
App. 237: G.-L.sai; A. 513: B. 29r. 1: B.-a 
554; 557: H.60a, 

a. qui . . . «uitluerel: i.e. to check 
the sKirmlahers ot ibe enutny aud give 
Caesar time lo form his lines. The cav 



impetnm misit. Ipse interim in colle medio triplicem aoiem 
instriizit legioP Brn q uattnor yeteranarum ; in gummo iugO 
dnaa legidngs qnas in Gallic citeridre proxime conscripserat^t » 
omnia auxilia t iollocar i. ac tQtnm montem hominibna c oa^ rl, 

et interea sarcinua in unom locnm cOnfe rri, et eum ab iia qui 

in auperiSre acie constiterant muniri ( hiBsitJ Helvetit cum t , ■ 
omnibiiB sois carris .secuti impedimenta m annm locam- ' 
contulerunt ; ipsl cOnfertiasimii acie, rOiecto noatrO equitatu, w 
phalange facta sob primam nostram aciem BuccesBernnt. 

np. sustain; hold back, check, restrain ; 
liold out against, wltbatand, endure, 
beui bold onl. i|i 

S. DMdlllB.-a.-IUn.iuU-.iatbeialddle 
D[; In tlie middle, lnl«rreiilDK, Interme- 
diate: loeui iii«dlui utrlusque, aplkoe 
midway between tlia two. « 

tnplez, -Ids, a4f' Itrfii, three+ 
pllot, [old], tbree-fold, triple. 4. 

4. TeUr&nua, -&, -um, adj. [v*tni. 
oldl,t)M.T8lerftn;p(.MBOu».TBteranB. 1. 

E. piozlma, adv. [pTOXlmnl, last], 
lut; lately. 4. 

%. e(iinpI«B,-vI<r«,-pUTl,-plttnin. 

(r. [ofriDleO. plaO, nil). BU up or com- 
pletelj; coraplete; cover, if, 

T. BftrclIia,-M,/..pack.lUBgage:pt., 
baggage, pocks (of (mli^^uat totOUrt, 

8. .defend wltbawkU,tor- 
tity. defeDd, protect; mnnltni, p/.part. 
rMoiy.. lorcifled. defended, protected. * 

9. Impedlmsutum, 'I, n. [ImpedlS, 
hinder], hindrance, obstacle. Impedi- 
ment; y I., baggage, luggage {o/on armjr). 
baggage-train (including lAt draugU 
anfmatt). « 

10. cSnftrtui, -A.-nm.aiV. [sf.pari. 
of oOnfltTdS, crowd together], dense, 
thick, compact. 4. 

rilclO, -Icare, -Ital, -Itatnm, Ir. 
[re-+(»0l6, burl. App. T), burlor drive 
back, repel; cast downor oS; drive olt 

11. pbAlanz.-itgli, /., » compact 
body of troops, phalanx. 4. 

■uae«d6, -oidare, -osmI, -aeiium, 
In'.r. [lub+ejio, go].goDrcome under: 

S. lucoUe media, "baif-way up the 
bill." Fortbemeanli^ of the adJectlTs 
seeApp. ISO; Q.-L, S», R. i: A. m: B. 
Ml.l; K.-B.S44: H. 407,4. 

triplicem Aclem: on tbe battle forma- 
tion of tbe RomaCB see Int. bS, X. 

*. IsglOnum quattuDT Tet«iki&- 
mm: ci^e? App. lOa: Q.-L.aea.R.: a. 

: H.-B. S40. These leglonu 
ne wblcb Caesar found In 
TransalplneGauUcr. T. o). and the three 
wblch he brought from their quarters 
nearAqoIlelalct 10, »). 
B. qti&i . . . eftnicrlpserftt: ct, lo, 

8. Caesar dared not put ibese untrained 
and nntrled troops la the flgbtlng 

3M:B. II 

ODlloe&rl, eompKiI, otnfini, mb- 
nlrl: an depend on Itiitit. 
T. utcln&i; see Int. ST. 

Ill . . . e&utlMrant: Le. tbe twonew 

8. mBnlri: the location ot tbe battle- 
field was long uncertain, but In ISgSex- 

p of a 

p. 104. Three yea 

were foncd In which the dead had been 

9. In ftnain locmni marked c on the 

plan. Bits of Qalllc pottery hare been 
fonnd there. 




25. Caesar prlmum bqo, deinde omnium ex cdnspectfi 
remOtia equia, ut aequatu omnium poriculo epem fngae tolleret, 
cohorLataB sudB.proeliiim commiait. Militea e loco auperi ore 
pilia misBis facile hoBtium phalangem perfregerunt. Ea disieeta;; •. 
i gladiis deatrictiB ia eoB impetiim fccurnnt. Gallis magn5 ad 
pngnam erat impedimento qjiodj^^pliiribus eOmm Bcutts uno 
ictu pilornm trauBflxis et colligiitis, ciini. f eirum Sfflflflas^aBet, 

come up l«. come np. advance, be next 
to : succeed, take the place ot : succeed, 
prosper. iK 
1. pilmnm, offf. [prlmni, first], first. 

at first. In the first place. Cor the first 
time; com prlmum, or ubl prlmum, 
as soon as: duun prlmiun. as soon as 
possible, ver7 soon, 41 
delude, adn. [dfr+lnde. thence], there- 


9. aequS, I, tr. (aequuB, 

make even or equal, equalize. I. 

8. cobortOT, I. Ir. [co+bortor, en- 
courage], encourage greatly, cheer, aol- 

4. pUum, -1, 1., beavy JaTelln, 
pike. « 
prafiiiiK&, -fitngere, -trtgl, -trftc- 

tnm, tr. [fruigt, break], break <it 
burst through. 1 . 

diiiclt, -loort, -Itel, -Itctum, ir. 

[laclO. throw. App. 7}, Bcatler, rout, 
disperse. 2, 

0. gladlua, -dl. «. sword. 41 

aistnnK6, •■tTingers, -stnui, 
-gtrlBtum, tr. latrtiiKA, bind tight;, 
unbind, nnsbeathe. draw (gladlum). 1. 

8. pugak,-ka,/.[pugn6,Bght], fight. 
battle, contest; (•nuB pugna*. meibod 
o[ fighting. « 

■etktnm, -I,n., shield, buckler; o&lon;, 
eonctx (JKXl /t.). madi of wood covtrid 
vUh leather or Iron ptatet. wiiA a nutai 

maUon the soldiers overlapped their 
Bblelds, shingle fashion, go as to make 
«ii tmpenetrBble covering. The front 
rankheld the shields vertlcBlly.tlieother 
ranks horliontolly. It the phalanx re- 
mained unbroken. It could break the 
opposing line by sheer weight; but If It 
broke, the men were too clOKly packed 
to use their weapons elfectlrely. 

Chap. 36. The Helvetii ftghniraTe- 

1. BUS: I 

.e. of the higher officers. 

t of the cavalry. Caesar wished In 

encourage his men by showing 

e officers shared their danger. 

and In part In prevent aome tlinia 

tiibUDe from setting an example of 

flleht. See Int. 41. 

3. ««qn&Ui pettsnlO, "by making 
the danger equal." 

5. coliOTt&tua buBb; Caesar was a 
skillful orator (see Int. 32), and uauaUy 
encouraged his men before battle by a 
short speech. 

£ iDcG BupBTlOra: see Int. EI6. 

4. pllli: Eee lilt, as, a. 
C, gladlla; see Int. 3a, A. 

OalliB Impediments: tor the two 

datives see App, ll»: G.-L, We. 3: A. 
383,1; B, 191,2,6: H-B.3ao, 6: H. U3.2. 

6. quod , . . potera,Qt is the subjeri 

of erat. For mode see App. 248: Q.-L. 
534; 525. 1: A, 572: B. £W, I, a: H-B, »2, 
1: M. 588. II. a. 

pltillbUB . . . oolllK&tti: remember 
that the ahields overlapped, 

T. cum iuflexlBset: mode? App. 2ts, 
b: G,.L, 56T. n,: A. 542; 518, i': B. 208, ;<, 
a: U,-a5ia: H. MI. t. 


neqae evellere neqae siniatrft Impeditu, satia commode puga&re 
^t^Dt, multi utt diu iactatd bracchio praeoptareut scutum 
tnauu emittere et nudd corpgre pugnare. Taudwa vulneribos lo 
dtifeasi et pedem refcrre et, quod m ona aubera t circiter mille 
[uusuiim spatid, ^^su recipere coeperunt. Captfl monte et 
succSdentibus dob^ib, Buii et Tulingi, qui hominum miliboa 

ing*. fli], throHt 

3 tlirougb. 

1 Eumed lOTce, 

coUlBfi. [eoa+llgi. bind], bind 
or t^lea togetber. 1. 

famm, -li »-. Iron, BUel: anyt/iing 
madi of iron, sword, Hpear-polnt. 1. 

InllMM, -flectere.-flexl, 'flezum, tr. 

[flicti, bend], beod down: viUh Tffiii,, 



ilnlitM', -tra, -tmm, a<ti., lett; ftm 
^ju/. at noun (te. BUWUB), tbe lelt band 
«nbiliitatr&, oatlieletc 4. 

MmnLDda, adv. [oommodui, conven 
IcDt], conreuteutif ; readll;. easily 
H'ly: Nitli oomniod*, to much adran 

Bslly. * 

pngnO, 1. in(r., flght, bI™ battJe, con- 
tend; itrtve; often impm., ai pngnl* 
tor, It Is fougbt, l.a. they Tlgbl, t 

>• bnutoUuin, -olil,>L,cbeami.tore- 

PT«MpU, 1. (r. [opU, wlsbl.nlEli be- 

10. liiaiiua,-U,/..tbebBiid;lliiiuuil- 

bDi. near at baud; mutb, by band, by 
art: ferraA manua, a grapp ling-book; 

wltb tbe 

S. multl Is put before vl tor em- 

Uctit6 braooblft, "after (browing 
tlielr arms about," In ibeellort tosbake 
out [ha JaveUns, and m Mar the shields 

dara muiM, yield 

troop, t 

emltu, -mlttara.-iDl*!, 

[mitts, send], let go, send out or (orlh, 
release; burl, discharge; drop. 3. 

nfidui, ~tt, -um, adj., naked, on- 
clotbed, bare; exposed, unprotected. I. 

oorpui. -orU, »-, body; person; a 
iiltail) body, ^ 

tandem, •!'(/., at last, at length. Anal- 
ly; in inierrog. doutn to add emphatU, 
ai quid tandem, wbat, pray? what 

Tulnna, -srls, n., a woond. * 

11. difeaana, -a, -tun, auj. Ip/.parf. 
of djfetlaeor, grow weary], wearied, 
exhausted, faint. 3. 

refarS, refeira, rattDlI, reUtum, 
ir. [n-l-fWO, bear. App. BIJ. bear, 
cairy. or bring back, report; padem 
Teferra, go back, retreat; gr&tlam 
rafam, show one's gntltude, make a 
requital, if 

■ubaurn, -aiaa, 'ftal, lair, [awn, be. 

App. 77}, be under or l»low; be nearer 
close at band. 9. 

la. efi,(iiIi.[aUiIa(lmio/lal. thither, 
there (In itmt of thither), to cbe place 
iwhtrt, etc.), to theta lit. him, etc.). « 
tain was near at baud, (separated) by a 
distance of about amUe"="there was a 
mountain about a mile away." paa- 
auum: case? App. ion: O.-L. 385. S: A. 
315, b: B. SOS, 3: H..B. 3S5: H. 440, 3. 
■patlt: ablative of degree of diflerence. 

la. «B: the adverb. 

okptOmoQte, "when they had reached 
the moimtaln," 

13. qui . . . claudibant: tbey had 
formed the van or the HelvetLin army, 
and became the rear when the line of 
march was reversed. They had praU^ 

...'., 5" 


ciroiter xt agmen hoetinm clandebaQt et noTJssimis praesidio 
II erant, ex itinere noatrdB ab latere aperto aggresBi circ 

close Uie llD Dg 
IB. latu eri« 
4>/ an armi/. 

a. nm, a^. tpf. part, of 
pe powa; ab IkMn 

aalre, -yial, -«•■• 
nit come], come or gM 

I THE Helvetii. Second stage, Cliap. 3B. 10, thiougti Chop. U. 

(, Camp at Oie Romant on the night betore the battle. 

3, Camp of the Helvetii on the ntgM betore the battle. 

:. Wagons of the Helvetii during the battle (34, »). 

i, Roman torU/lcaiionfM.e)- 

!. The Helvm. 

'. The Romans. 

'„ The Boii and Tulingi. 

Mr I>e«il MDaraWd Irom the Helvetii by 
a wagon train, wblcb tbej bad been 
obliged to pass on the road. This ac- 
connid ror their coming upso late In the 

straight from their march Into the ba> 
tie. without a halt, 

ab latere BperM: l.e. therlgbtOanii, 
(or their shields protected the soldiers' 
lelt sides. The plan shows that Uie lefi 


; 109 

«t id cdiispicu,tl Helvetii, qui in montem seBe recSperaut, 
rnrsua Inet^e et proelium redintegr&re c oep6nii it. Komani 
conversa eigaa bipertito intulenint : prima et secunda aciee, . 
Qt yictis ac submutis Teeisteret; tertia, nt venientus eustiueret. 
26. Ita aDcipiti proelio diu atque ucriter puguatum est. 
Difttina com sustinSre nostri^nim impetus nou possent, alt«ri 
^, ufc coeperant, in montem reciJp5runt, alter! ad impedimenta 
et carros suds s5 co ntulerunt. Nam hdc tutO proelio, com ab 

ucnnd, snrroand, cut oil, besec; betritr> 
detrSiUd. ik 

16. cOniptcor, 1, tr. [spaclO, look], 
observe, dcscr;, perceive. S. 

IT. i&nua,<<<'i'. [forreTeTstis,/roBi 
nrertfl, turnback], again, back, anew; 

18. tlguma, -1, n., murk, alga, slg- 
nal. watchword; signal lor battle, 
■tandard, ensign; ab algnls dlaeedare, 
withdraw from the ranks; ■Igna Ill- 
fans, adTaQco to tba atlack; Blgna 
coBTeraa Inferre, face about and ad- 
D the attack; ilgna foire, ad- 

ntlt* ti 

B, lace or wheel aboDt; 
ad algnk eonTeiilre, loin the armf. sti 

blperUM, adv. [bli, twlce+partlor, 

illTlde],ln two parts or dlTisioQa, in two 

IS. TlncS, Tlneen, tIoI, vlMain, 

(r., conquer, ovaroomo, vanqolBh; 
IKVTaLl; hare one's way or de- 
sire, m 

■ubmOTvt.-mOTAre, -mSrl.-mStaiii, 
tr. (moves, move], move awaf, drive 
away, dislodge. 1. 

mlBtft, -■utar*. -taa, , Mr. 

[re-+alst6, siand] , stand back, remain 
behind, bait, stand atUl; wltbataod, re- 
sist, oppose. * 

I. anoepa, analpltu, ottf. (unbt, 
both-i-eapnt, head), two beaded, with 
two sides or Itonts, double, l. 

ictltar. ado, [&eer, sharp], sharply, 
keenly, flercely, vigorously. Comp. 
lorius;>«p. keerrima (App. 40). i|i 

Tullngl. bnt they came np In tbe rear, 
trying to work their way around (rir- 
camvmirt) to the more adTantageous 

position, cireiunyenlra depends on 

coepgnat. to bo supplied from 1. 17. 

18. converaa , . . IntuUnint, lit. 

turned Biandards" = "faced about and 
advanced In twodlrections." Inreallty 
only the third line faced abont. ilgna: 
see Int. M. 

prima at gectmil* ftaiSa; tertia (sc. 

dctri): Inapposltlon wltb .SAnilnl. 

19. vfeUsao tvibmit,la=JIfli!^li^ 
TtalentiB=BS0i el Talingdt. 



)g quod cla/uat 

pugn&tum est, "thsy fonght." Far 
translaHon see note on 23, 8. 

a. altwl . . , alteri, "the one body 
[the Helvetll] ... Che other [the BoU 
and TuUngll." 

S. ut coeperant: see as, iz. 

4. nam; thlssenleDceglvesthereason 
for Caesar's statement that the enemy 
withdrew. Instead of Qeelng In dliiorder. 

eum pngDltum alt; an adversative 
clause. Note that the perfect subjunc- 
tive Is an exception u> tbe rule of se- 

ab IiOt& B«ptlin&, "fnr^ about noon." 


isiidrfi eeptima ad rdsperum pugnatum sit, ayersum hoatem 
>7id€re nSmo potnit. Ad multam noctem etiam ad impedimenta 
ipngnatam est, propterea qaod pro vallo carrOs obieceraat et e 
1oc6 8uperi6re in nostros venientea tela ooniciebant, et non 
nulU inter carros raedasque mataraa ac tragulas aubiciebant 

ID nostrdsqne vulnerabant. Diu cnm esaet puguatum, impedl- 
mentia oastrisqua noatri potiti sunt. Ibi Orgetorigis filia atqne 
unae e filiis captus est. Ex e5 proelio circiter hominma milia 
•cxxx sQperf u^runt eaque tota nocte continenter iernnt ; nullam 

6. hira, -B9, /-. bour, Th« BonUM 
irKioning tetieeen tunriit and tnruet), 
^mlfttnciveriidaccoritiagtothesgason. )|; 

Tsiper, -«rl, m., eveniiis; snb tm* 
SWlum, towarda evening, 1. 
6. Qoz.iiMtla,/., night; madUnox, 

middle of I.k« niglit. midnight; mulU 
■kOOU, late Mulgtit. H; 

T. Tillaa,-I,'». [villui, palisade], 
vail or rampart u/ earlk itl utilh pal- 
itada; eacreBctiments, aankworks, « 

oblelO, -lc«re, -Uol, -lectum, <r. 

"llacIO. throw. App. ij. throw against 
«rlD itaewax; place In f root or opposile, 
present: expose; obl«CtUB, pf. pari, at 
Mi: lying In the way or oppOHlte,ln tha 

8. conleiO, -ioer*, -Uol, -laotimi, 
tr. [UtclO. tbrow. App. n hurl, throw, 
cast; put; put logether [ogicall^. cOQ. 
Jecture; In tugmm oonlvsre, put to 
aigbt. * 

9. Ta,*da, -»,», /.. wagon vMh fovr 

mst&rs, -as,/., Ctiticit,veiiD. i. 

trkgulk, -A«,/.,a]avelliiordartM«il 
itlkiOault. I. 

BablolO, -laers, -IBcI. -lectum, tr. 
(laaiO. burl. App. T1. hurl or put under; 
tbrow rrom beneath ; place below; sub 
]ect to, eipose lo. 3. 

10. Tnlnerft, I, (r. tTUlnuB.awoundt, 
wound. # 

13. trlglllt& (ZXZ), card. mm. adi 
inOKl. [trfii, ihreel, thirty. * 

The serenth liour began at uoon, and la 
«iich expressions the Romans probably 
reokoued from the beginning of the 

7. J«r8»S118, "as a rampart." 

i IdoA BupsrlSro: i.e. from the lops 

^pt I 

1 wagons 

S. eoulclSbuit, 

The imperfect here denol 

13. oaptUBeitagreeswltbtheneai 

mllla OZZZ BuparfUSTUDt: accot 
iingujchap. 39 the original number w 
'MS.OOa If both slatemenis are corre 
ithe Slangbter In this battle was lerrib 
-though we must remember that t 
original number bad been reduced 

lu of the Tlgurlnl, and at 
iral deaths on the Journey. 
3ng the children and tlM 

especially a 

13. nocM: caser App. 1S3. a: O.-L. 

3B3. R. 2; A. 434, b: B. S31, I; H.-B. 440. 

nUlam. . . perrinenuit: the mati 

toeing p. 12 shows tbe direction of tbis 
aigbt. OF course no Indlvidnal (raveled 
every day and e^-ery night. There was 
OLlj- a panic-stricken mob, under no 
leadership, every member of which 
rested or moved on at his own pleasure, 
so that as a whole it was In ceaseless 
motion. Tonuerre Is about a hundred 
miles north of the battlefleld, and only 
the strongest oould have traveled so far. 


partem BoctiB itioere iatermissd in finea Liagonatn diS qu&rtS 
perreneruut, cnm et propter valnera militnin et propter eepul- u 
turam occisfirum nostrl tridunm mor&ti eos eeqni n&n potuis* 
aent. Caesar ad Lingones UtterAs nflDUosque mtsit dS eoa 
frumento neve ^ia re invareat; qui bI i&yiaeent, e€ «Sdem 
k>cd quo HelvetioB babitunim. Ipse trlduo iBtermiaBd cam 
omoibiis copiiB e5s sequi coepit. » 

27. HelvgU! omnium rernm inopiu addncti leg&tus do 
deditioue ad eum misSrunt. Qui^cum earn in itinere con- 
TeDiSBent seqne ad pedes proiecisaent auppliciterque locuii 
flentea p&cem petiaaent, atqne eos in ed locd quO tnni essent 7 
aaamadreDtomexspectiire iaaaieset, pani€nmt. Ed postquam • 

It. bit«niUtt4, -mitteA. -mUl, 

-mllBUm, Ir. and Inlr. [mlttt, bbiHU, 
Hnd between ; lnt«rTeiie,seiiarat«;altt(«. 
aua. aiscontlniiei delay. luglaol, omit; 
lelpuB. It 

UnfonBi, -nm, m. (Br), the UngotiM 
fllni'gd-iiez). 1. 

16. HpnltBTA, -at,/..burlaL 1. 

It. tridniim, -I, n. [trta, ttaree-t- 
dlia, Say], three days, i^ 

moror. i, (r. and <ntr. [mora, ailelay], 
delay, binder; tarry, linger. ^ 

IT. mtent, -ae./.. a letter 0/ (Seal. 
p^adet, a wriUen si^, mark, or cbaratv 
ler; fit jil.. letlersot the alphabet; tot- 
t*r. epiatle. if 

santlni, -U, m., iDe.wtnKor: men- 

14. putam: aconsatlre ol dumtkiD 

dM qu&rtO: by the Soman method of 
reckoning, the day of the battle oouuled 
3:i [be arat day. We should say "In 
ibree days." 

15. eum: causal. 

IT. n6 luTlrmkt, "(ordering ibem) 

not tOBSslst." Tbe subJODctlTe Btaiid.i 

__ tor an Imperatlie ot the direct discourse , 

"(hough It may also be called a substan. 

■ tire volitlTe clause: App. MT: G.L.flBi: 

A. 688: B. SI6: H.-B. 534, i; 338: H. 

BBKB, news, report. * 

18. ntra (neu) <App. tes, b), am}. 
[B<+Ta, or], and not, nor. B. 

loTfi, tuTire, IbTl, IhtuiB, ir.sU, 

1. InopU, -A*. /. [Inop*, needy], 
need, want, poTerty, lack; want of pro- 
Tialons, hunger, i/. 

I. OMIUS, <finU, /. [dtdO, aurreu- 
der], capitulation. * 

8. piOlolA, -lMr«, -Mol, -iMttun, 

tr. [IbolO, throw. App.Tj.throwtorward 
or away: throw, cast; reject, give up; 
■a prSioer*, cast one's self; Jump. 4. 

■nppUolUT, adt. imapplex. suppil- 
ant], as suppliants, humbly. 1. 
E. pftre6, I. intr. [of. pkTlfi, bring 


9i , , . Itabitfirumi ie. 

ireat them as enemies. 

1». qnSHalTCtlSB: Bc.AaAA-<e. 
Third Refebencb: 

Ootamandi inindirtct Sitcourtt 

S. aulcnm, "when they." 

4. Nient: Implied Indirect dlMworse. 
Caesar said goo nunc atlt. "where you 
[the Belvetil as a whole, not theenvoys] 

5. luHliaet: supply Cottar as the 

poBtauunperrinit: mode and i«uaer 

/ -, /(i-j iit-^j iz^"-*^ 


C'aeaar perrSnit, obsides, arina, serves qui ad eos perfflgiBsent 
poposcit. Dum ea conquiruntur et cdnferuntnr, nocte inter- 
miaeA, circiter hominiim mllia vi eius pagi qui Verbigenus 
appellatar, sive timore perterriti n^ armis traditis sapplicio 
» afficerentur, sive spe salutis induct!, quod ia tanta maltitiidine 
dSditicidruUL suam fngam aut occultari ant omnind ign&rari 
poB86 existimarent, prima nocte h castris Helrgtiomia Sgressi 
ad Rhenam fiDesqne Gerniaadrnm contenderuat. 

28. Quod nbi Caesar resciit, qnoram per fines lerant, bis 

forth], ai 

y, jleld K 


6. semis, -I, tn.. slave, servant. 1. 

parfugld, -fuieTB, -ffiEl, -fnKltum, 
Ififr, [fUglO, flee), flee for refuge, take 
leluge: desert, 1. 

T. poaaB, poacere. poposcl, , Ir., 

aak. demand, request, require. S. 

conimirA, -quIiBTe,-aulElTl, -qiitil- 
ttun, tr. (qnaer6, search], seek lor care- 
fully, search for. bunt up. 2. 

8. lez (TI), card. num. ai}., Indecl, 
■U. * 

VtrbitetLllS, -1, m. (Cgh). VBTblgenos 
lver-'ai'6-D0a), a eaaloao/lti^HelDelil. 1, 

9. tr&dC, -dere, -dtdl, -dltum, Ir, 
(ttl&a+ilO. give], give over, give up, 
surrender, deliver; Intrust, commit: 

cate; recommend, « 

App. 237: Q..L. 661.: A. MS: B. IS!. 1: 
H.-8. 954; K,7: H. SOS. 
6, BerrOa: tuglclve slaves from the 

10, aal&B, aalQtlB,/. [SAlTVU, safe], 

dellrerance: place of safety; life (mAoi 
in dangler). « 

11. didltlalns, -a,-nin, adLf. [ded», I 
surrender], surrendered; at noun, one 
surrendered, prisoner, subject. 4. 

occulU, 1, (r. toooultQB, aecret], hide, 
keep secret, conceal. 1. 

i^SrC, 1, ir. [ignltua, not knowing), 
not know, be Ignorant of; fall to ob- 
serve, overlook. 1. 

1?. Sgredior.'gredl, -KreBBOBenm. 

tntr. tgiadlor. step], step or go out. 
come forth, depart; marcb out, make a 
sortie; land (from a ihipj, dlsem- 

SOi: B. aw, 2: B.-B. eOS, 4: H. 567. 1. 

perterriti agrees with milla, but Is 
masculine because the Idea of men Is 

13. prbni: for translation, see App. 
leO: a.-L.391,R.2: A. 293: B. 241, 1: B.-B. 

7. dum ea eouqulruntur. "while 
these were being sought out." For 
mode and tense, see App. 234, a: O.-L. 
S70: A.Ktt: B. 293.1; H,-B. 671; H. £83,4. 

9, tlmire nt ■uppUclC affieeren- 
tnr, "bj' tbe fear that they would be 
punished"; lit. "be treaied with pun- 
ishment." For the meaolog of ne, 
see App. 228, b: G.-L. 550, L 2; A. 

Clauiei introduced bv poitguam, etc. 

Chap. SS. The six thousand are re- 
taken and jint to death. The otliers 
are sent back to their homes. 

1. reicllt=''<«i;icC(. 

Ilia is the antecedent of gadrum and 
tbe indirect object of imptrBvit. 

: ^-U... 



Qti conqnirerent et redaCerent, b! eibi purgati eeee vellent, 
imper&rit; reductbs in hostiatn numero babiiit; reliquos omnSB 
obdidibue, armiB, perfagis traditie in deditionem acc^pit. 
HelretioB, Tnlingoa, Latobrigos in fines suds, nnde erant t 
profecti, reVerti iumi et, quod omnibua frugibas fimiaais doml 
nihil erat quo famem tolerareotf Allobrogibos imper^rit ut iis 
frumentl c&piam facerent ; ipsos oppida vicdaque qnds iucen- 
deraat restituere iussit. Id e& masim5 ratidne fScit, quod 
ndloit eum locnm unde Helvfitil diaceBserant vacfire, ne propter w 
bonit&tem agrdrum Germaui, qui trans Rht-nnm incolunt, ex 
bdIb finibuB in Helr^tidram tin&s transirent et finitiml Galliae 
provinciae Allobrogibaaqae eesent. B5i5s petentibus Haeduis, 

S. redact, -dtotia, -lltaU, -dno- 
tom, tr. trs-fdOca, IsadJ. lead or bring 
; draw back, pull back; extend 

in+tge, do, 

POIgd, 1. tr. [pftmi. 

make], clean, clear, exc 

ItklgfctuB, pf. part, at ailj., treed from 

blame, esonemled. 2. 

4. parfusa, -ob, m. [perfagia, flea 
for refuge], refogee, deserter- S. 

B. nude, adv., from whlcli place, 
whence. iK 

i. frtlx,-gli,/.[(riior,en]oy], trait; 
p^T crops, produce. I. 

imlttA, -mlttere, -mlal, -mlBiani. 
tr. (mttte, send], send awaj-. dismiss; 

7. nunti, -U, /., Irnngei, i 

port; with tuiWIII, appease, aUeT^ 

6. ratio, -Onla, /. (nor, reckon], 
reckoning, account, estimate; design, 
plan, strategy, science; metbod. arrange- 
inent; cause, reason : regard, constd- 
eraUon; condition. 8tat« of aDalrs; 
manner, way; condlUon, lenns; in pi., 
transactions, sfi 

10. TAcA, 1, intr., be empty or unoc- 

Elbl: dative ot reterence. It relers to 

S. In. . .habnlt; i.e. hebadiliemput 

io deatb. Tbey bad broken a military 

4. In dMltUnem koeeplt: this act 
made them subjecta of Rome. 
-^ •. doml: case? App r-l, a; O.-L. 
<n.R.3: A. 427, 3: B. 2B2.2: H.-B.449,a: 
B.484. 3. 

T. quit tolarfttant; mode? App. £30. 
f: Q.-US3I.1-. H.-B. BI7. i 

nt lis faoeient, "lo provide them 

». IplSa: Le. tbe HelvetU and tbelr 

Ipsti rntttnare la tbe object ot 
luHiC. The object ot iubio Is regular- 
ly an accusative and InUnltlre, while 
the object of imperS Is regularly a 
substantive volltlve clause, as to 
I. 8. 



qaod ggregifi virtute erant cogniti, at in fmibns snla col- 
ts locarent, GouceBBit; qaibus illi agrds dederant qudsque postea 
in parem iuris libertatieqae cotidiciunem atque ipsi erant 

29. In castrlB HelvetiOrum tabulae repertae Sunt litteriB 
OraeciB confectae et ad Gaesarem relatae, quibns ia tabulia 
ndmiuatim ratid cOnfecta erat, qn! nnmeruB domd eslBset edram 
qui arma ferre poBsent, et item agparatim qnot pnerT, Benes, 

1. iiHwinttim adt. [nOmtnO, 
name], by tuuoe; eipressiy; In de- 
MU. Z. 

4. atlOt,ai(f..ia<KeI..(l)fn(<rroff_Iiow 
many? O) r«J., as luauj as, (be Bumbar 
tbak 1 

PIMI, -CIl, fn.. bor. cblld. son : in pt., 
clilUlTen<0/ AotA •««(); ft pnerti, from 
childhood, if 

niMX, mhIb, ik^.. old! at noun, old 

II. v&i, pkTli, ditJ-, eqQBl.ltke, Edm- 
liar ; equal to, a match (or ; vMh icardt of 
wambtT and fuon^lfy, tba Bame; pir 
*tque. the game as, * 

eondlelB, -tnla. /., condliioD, stace; 
agrecmcDt, sllpulatton, Mrms. % 

1. tabulm, -ae, /■■ board; tablet; 
UbI. 3. 

a. Qraaoiu, -», -nin, adi.. ot or be- 
lon^ng to the Oreelis. Greek, GreelaD; 
pi. at noun, the Greeks. 1. 

broses"; ror the Ailobroges wsie a part 
ot the protlDce. 

BAlSl Is the object or eaIIiKar«»e. It Is 
put Stat for the sake of the emphatic 
Eontrast wltb Stlvaoi, TulingS; Lato- 
trigSt. In 1. E. 

BaedulB: indirect object oCcamwHK. 

It. tgleg^ Tirtnte, "(men] or very 
great courage": a descrlp'tlre ahlatlve. 

nt colloc&ient 1b the object of eoa- 
etiiU. The Boli had had no Hied home, 
asisshoffnbf B,11,12. Themapfaclng 
p. 13 sbowB where they were aettted by 
the Haedui Tbe Haedul wished to 
sti-engtheu their trontlei' against Inva' 
eloDS by neighboring states, Just as 
Rome wished the Hclvelll to guard her 
frontier against the Germans. 

IB. qulbua, quOe: the auteoedeni is 

It. param . . . atane ipit nant, 

lit. "equal ... as they themselves were 
(Id)" = "the same ... as they themselves 
Third Rbfsbihc..: 

1. tabuUa, ■■lists." written on mx 
tablets. The tablets used by tbe Romans 
were like folding slales, but mo^o en- 
tirely ot wood, wltb tbe Inner sm-tacei 
thlnlj coated with wax. They vrrate on 
this wax vrltb a pointed ttylui, 

llneiU OrMOli: Gallic words wen 
written in Greek characters, the Qatila 
having BO alphabet ot thetf own. Tbe 
Greek alphabet was known u> the Oauls 
through tbelr Intercourse with the 
Greek colony, HassUla. and was used by 
the Dnild priests. 

3. quibUB In tabulla, ■■In whb:li." 

3. IMH, ■'an aoeount." 
qnteztaaet: indirect question. 

4. aul pOBSsnt: mode? App. ZaO; 
0.-1.031. S; A. 639: B.383. 1: H.-R 521. 1: 

pueil, mqSb, mullerMan* 

Jects ot exiuttit, to be supplied from 
Ittel. Note that this use of -qvi li 
exception to the staumeut of the i 

■, Google 



maliereaqne. Samma erat capitum Holvetiorum milium & 
ccLXiii, Tulingorum milium xxxvi, Latobrlgurum xiv, 
Rauracurnm zsilt, Boiorum sxxil; ex hla, qui orma ferre 
pojBent, ad milia ndn^iota duo. Samma omnium fugrunt ad 
milia cccLXTiii, Eorum qui domnm rediiiruiit censii habitO, <r 
nt Caesar imper3.Terat, repertus est numeriis milium c et X. vi 

B. quattuDTdacIiti <XIV), <^'-d. num. 

S. nSnftElnUl, card. num. oiV., indecl, 

S. r*d*ft,-lK. -U,-ltum.l)Ur.(t«4- 
-feS, go. App. W]. so or turn back, re. 
tuTD: come; tuU to, deHend; ba re- 

OiBini. -ItB. ">., enamenktlon. 1. 

t. BinUar,-erU,/.,w< 


;wl(e. « 

highest 1, 

Oe main Ihlng or point. 

total, ag- 

gi«ga»s the wbole: go 


meit, oonlrol, alrecilon 

nnut im- 

caput, oftpltlB, *, the head (of mm 
vntt oBimals) ; person, Individ □&]; mouth 
vf a riMry, aapltta poana, csplial 
puDlahment. * 

t. mmuna . . . OflLzni, lit. "the 
total was [I.e. consisted] ot S«8,000 of 
heads ol tbe Helvetll"="the total was 
lOMOKelretU, etc." 

e OflLZIII = ducmt6nm lexOginta 

ZXZU strigtnai dttSrum. 
qnl poiMBt: ct. 1. 4. Sapplj/ufnmt; 
"there were . . . who oonld, bK!." 
8. ad, "atKint," la an adverb In both 

faSnutt agrees In anmber with the 
predicate noun milia. 
8. OI}OIXVlIl=lrectiUaiexagtnl3oc(d. 


The complete sutceas of Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii at 
ODce established his prestige in Gaul. Eepreeentativea from mostof the 
states came to beg liis aid agamst their common enemy, Ariovistus, a 
German king wlio had established himself in Gaul. It was still early 
in July, and there was time for another campaign that summer. Caesar 
willingly accepted the task, for if ever he was to become master of Gaul 
he must first put out of his way this rival conqueror; and in any case 
it was most important that the Germans should be kept to the east of 
the Rhine. Yet the Germans were no mean antagonists, and Caesar 
was ready to make some concessions rather than fight them. He first 
proposed to Ariovistus that they settle their differences in friendly 
conference, but be met a haughty refusal. Determined to bring the 
king to terms before he should be joined by other German tribes, 
Caesar marched against him with all speed. 



During a few days' halt at Veaontio the soldiers heard such fefirful 
tales of the Gerioans that the; were on the point of mutiny. By a 
masterly speech Caesar quieted their fears and aroused their enthuaiasm 
to the highest pitch; and at once he led them on toward the enemy. 
Never again during the Gallic campaigns did his s-.ldiers give him 

Impressed by Caesar's activity, Ariovistus in his turn now proposed 
a conference; but when they Qiet he replied boastfully to Caesar's 
demands, and the interview was broken off by an attack of the Ger- 
man guard. Caesar refused to meet Ariovistua a second time, but 
sent two representatives in his place. These Ariovistua threw into 
ohaina. The negotiations were thus finally broken off. 

At once Ariovistus marched past Caesar's camp, keeping up on the 
elopes of a mountain where he was safe from attack, and boldly 
established his camp in such a way as to command the road by which 
Caesar had come, and by which his provisions were to follow. Caesar 
immediately offered battle, but the Germans were not ready to fight. 
Five days later Caeaar marched back paat the German camp and 
fortified and garrisoned a small camp to protect the way for his 
provisions. The Germans were unsuccessful in an assault on this small 

At last Caesar determined to force a battle, and he marched straight 
at the German camp. As this was not fortified, Ariovistua was obliged 
to lead out his army and draw it up against the Romans. Caesar in 
person led his right wing, which was successful; his left, on the con- 
trary, was beaten bock. The reserves, hurrying to this spot, decided 
the contest. The Germans broke and fled to the river 111. a branch of 
the Rhine, so closely pursued that only ft few. including, however, the 
king, escaped to the other bank. 

In the two campa^i) of this one year important results were 
achieved. The Rhine for the first time became the frontier oE the 
Roman possessions; the tide of barbarian invasion waa rolled back for 
five hundred years; the destiny of Gaul as a future dependency of Rome 
was fixed; and the Roman's traditional fear of the Gauls and the 
Germans waa dispelled. 


■J -v Google 

Cantpaign M«p far Book 1, 30-64 

r,,.r,,j-, Google 



Brown indicates Roman posseaaioDiS when Caesar entered Gaul. Red 
lodicates states which Caesar conquered. Blue indicates the states 
which submitted without fighting. Compare all these with the map 
facing page 42. 

Crossed sabers indicate the battlefield. Colonel Stoffel's identifica- 
tion of it (Guerre de Cisar et d'Ario\-iste) is very probable, and is 
iadicated on this map. 

30, Belle HelTetioram confecto totiua fere Galliae Igg^t!, 
prmcipes oivit&tum, ad Gaesarem gratulatum conv^n^nint : 
Intellcgere aese, tametsi pro vefceribas Helvetifirnm iniiirila 
populi Romanl ab his po ^aa bello repetj aaet, tamen earn rem 

1. KTitnlor. I, l»<r. IKTktUS, pleas- 
ing], expresa Joy, coogratulale. Ihank. 1. 

8. tamelit, conl. [tamen, bower 
+nal,eveii It], although, though, noi- 
vlihslandlag. 1. 

4. TepaM, -paten, -petlTl, -i 

tnm,(r.[n. +-p«tA,>eel[]. seek or 
again, demand 1)ack ; wUh poenftS,e] 

Chap. SO-SS. A.t the request of the 
Qallio states Caeaar warns AriOTiBtoa 
to cease eucr'-chioe on Qallic terri- 
tory, bnt ho rf leivee a defiant reply. 

Chap. BO. Deputations fVom the 
Oallie states congratulate Caesar and 
ask pormlsslon to hold a cooaclL 

, tOUua far« Oalllaa: Oaiil^ Celtl 

l-he blue 

laclDg p. 12 shows the part of Gaul trom 
Bhlch Qnvoysraay have come; but prob- 
ably not all ibe stales so colored were 
represenlcd at thLs lime. 

3. KTitulktum: constrncilonf 
ae: O.-L. ^o: A. 5W; B. 310, 1, b: H.B. 
•18^ H. 033; S33, 1. 

8. Since there Is a large amoi 

by the nol«s on 1-39. It is assumed 
that the following points are clearly un. 

(. derstood by the studem : 

and InOnltlre Id principal declaral 
clauses; (he subjuucllve In prlncl 

Imperative clsusea; the subjunctive in 
subordinate clanses. The direct form 
of all long passages of Indirect dtsooune 
U given after Book VII, 

■isj; the envoys said " we. " The re- 
flexive pronouu luior the corresponding 
possessive tuu> Is regularly used In Indi- 
rect discourse wherever a pronoun Of 
the flrsc person Is changed to one of the 
third. In this use the reflexive is often 
called the Indirect reflexive. In contrast 
with the jllrect reflexive, which refers to 
the subject of the clause In which ll 
stands. App. leS; O.-L. £20; (i21: A. 300, 
2: B. ZM, 1,11: H.-B. aaa.S; H. KM. 

Helvitlfirum . . . Reminl, "the 
wrongsluBlctedbyibeHelvetU upon the 
Roman people," refers to the defeat of 
Casslus, IS, 13. Since the phrase Implies 
" the Helvetli wronged the Soman peo- 
ple," HeloetiSram Is a subjective geni- 
tive, popua SSiaStti au objective geni- 
tive: App. 98: G.-L. S83. 1, 2: A. 348,n.: 
B. I9S: anU: H.-B. ai4: 3&I: H. 410.1. P 



B ndn minuB ex ueu Galliae quam popnli KomSni accidisse, 
propterea qaod eo cOnsilio florentiasimis rubaB domos auike 
HelvL'tii reliqaiBBent, nti toti Galliae bellum inferrent impe- 
rioqne potlrentiir Icxsnmqne domiciliO ex magna cdpi& deli- 
gereiit, quern ex omnT Gallitl opportunissimum ac fructuOsis- 

10 Bimnm iudicaBsent, reliquasque civit&teB stlpendiarias haberent. 
Petiiiraiit uti aibi cODcilium totine Galliae in diem certam 
indicere idque Caesaris volunt&te facere liceret: Seae habere 
quaBdam r€s qatla ex communi coDagnsu ab eu petere vellent. 
Ea re permisBa diem concilid cfiaatitnenint et iure iurandu 

B. ftlUI,-IU,Fn. [btor, asel.UHe. ei- 
perleDce. practice, skill : Gervlce. advan- 
tage: need, necessity: biui eit, tbere Is 
need; ItfUleMeorax&stkssBe. be of ad- 
vantage or serrlce; tkill Tanlra, come by 
neceaiiiy: bappen. « 

6. flSrSna, -entli, nitj. [fl6r«i, 

Bower], Soorlsbliig, prOBperouH. Influen- 
Ual. S. 

%. domlelllum, -II, n. [domni, 
honse], residence. dwelllnK. home, 
domicile. 3. 

•- opporttUiiiB, -A. -nm, aij.. lit, 
opportune, luckjr, suitable: favurable, 
mdvantageoua. * 

frtctufiiua, -a. -nm, ai^. [fr&ctui, 
Imlc]. tmlttul, productive. 1. 

10. nipand^ilni, -a, -lun, adj. 
[■tlpendlnm, trlbuM], paying trlbui«, 

tributary; pi. (U noun, tributaries. 1 
13. Indlcfi. Hllcare, -dizl, -dictum. 

tr. [dIo6, saj-l.say pubUcly, proclalro, 
appoint, call. I. 

13. auidam, quAedAm, qniddam 
and Qiddam, QiuMdani, quoddan; 

{nclr/. pron, {App.Oaanil ft), a certain 
ooe, some one: acertaiii,some.a: aklcd 

cfiIli<IiiIiB,-bB.'n-[<i9luaiitU, agree]. 

united opinion, aKTeemeuC, consent; 
coallClOQ. 3. 

M. iMniiitte,-mltt«re,-tiiIaI,-Rili- 
lum, tr. [mlttt, send], give up orovw, 
surrender: entrust. commlC: permit, al- 
low. * 

B. flSiwtlBiUnia TibuB. - although 
they were lo a very prosperous coadt- 
UoD." The ablative absalut« Is here 
equivalent to au adversative clause. 

auli: thlBisadlrectreBeilve.slnce It 
refers to BtlnBS,, the subject of the 
clause in which It stauds: App. 104: 
Q.-L. SOB, 1: A. 300, 1: B. 244. I. I: H.-B. 

li, 1: . 


, ntl Infeirant, potlrentui, dBll- 
(•T*llt,liaberaill: substantive voUtlve 
(or purpose! clauses, in apposition with 
t5 cBneilio. 

9. domlcUU: dative of purpose. 

10. llkdlcfcsaaDt, "they should de- 
cide." lit. ■■ they sboold have decld- 

11. petieruiitntlilbllla<itt."tiiey 

requested permission." 

coueUlnin: TheenvoysmentloiiediQ 
l.I dldDotconsUlutethlacoancU, Tbey 
Issued a call lor representatives from 
each Blal«. The blue color on the map 
facing p. 1IT iDdlcates tbe tartotGaul 
from which envoys lo^babl; came to 
tbe council. 

13. Oa«iarlB Tolnntito: - 
sar-B consent. " They did n< 
sar to suspect that (he council was lor 
the purpose of making war on hltn. The 
request shows that they were Impressed 
by Caesar's power, and may talrly be 
reffardfd as tlie flrst sMp la Uwir sat»- 
mlulon to him. 





dE quia enuntifiret, nisi qaibns commani consilid mandatnm u 
eeeet, inter b6 Banzerant. 

3 1 . £o concilio dinuBBo idem principus ciTit&tnm qoi 
ante fuerant ad Gaesarem rerertemnt petieruntque nti Bibi 
iucriitfi de Bn& onminmqae salute cum ed agere lioeret. f £a r€ 
impetr&taj agBe omnSs flentes Oaesari ad pedes prdiScgmnt: 
Ko n m inns s6 id contendere et labdriire, nt! ea qnae dizisBeht s 
^DUDtiarentur, qnam nti ea qnae vellent impetrarent, proptereA 
quod, Bi enuntiatom esset, anmmum in crnciatam b6 venturdB 
ridgrent. Locutus est pro his DiTiciacns liaednna: Galliae 
tj^tios factidnes esse dnas: harum alterius princip&tnm tenSre 
Hoednds, alterius Arrernds. Hi cum tantopere de potent&tii lo 

IS. aanete, auielra, alnxi, a&na- 
tniB. (r. (cf. saoar, Bacred].m&ke sacred. 
aancdon; blDdisftniitui. pf.part. atodj., 
sacred. Inviolable; establlsbed. £> 

d. 1*Mt6, I.fnCr. [Ubor, IoU],toll, 
Horkhard: beanxloua, troubled, or per- 

plexed: labor, BUlTeT, be bard preaaed. >• 
T. crooUtni, •&•, >». [omelft, tor- 
ture; emx, dosa], torture, torment. * 
I. ftotlfi, -Bull, /. UmIS. make], 
party, taction, l. 
10. Arvamui, -I, Fn, (CDe>, an Ar- 

lE. nfi in&ntliret 1) 

e object) ot 

Bill (Ua) qnlbua nutiuUtnm eaaat, 
"except to tboae to whom tbey sboold 
be directed" <u> dlwloae It), nuui- 
Utnin aii«t is tmpersonaL The pla- 
perfect subjuDctlTe standa torftfntiire 
perfect Icillcatlie by Implied lodlrect 
diacoarse,forlbe agreement was In eHecl 
" we will tell no one eicept those wbom 
we Hhall have agreed upon." 

Chap. 31. They implore Wm to Sid 
them aeainst the Qemuta kins Arlo- 

1. eS oonclllj> dlmlasSr Caesar 
leaves It to be Inrerred from the fact 
that hla permlgalon was given (SO, 14) 
that the council was held. 

Idem priaalpAa: when ther bod come 
to Caesar before (SO, S) they had had no 
authority to act for thetr states. Now 
the couDcil 

dfl . 
safety and (that) of all." 

i. Caaaarl ad pedis, ' 

pedfy, jua Is it a dative ot p 
App.lSO: a.-L.3W, 1; A.37T: B. I8S,l.n.: 
H.-R 308: H. 42S, t, n. ''^ " " 

5. nSB mlana, etc., "(saying) that 
they were no I is urgent and anxtona 
that . . . staoQld not be reported, than 

B<; cf. noteona^«^.SO;S. 
quae dlzUaant. " wblch they should 
T. al tntUitlfttnm aaaat, "tt reports 

should get out." The verb Is used 
Impersonally. All the conditional clause* 
In this Dhapter employed the indicative 
in the direct form, itvattiat'im ettet 
stands lor a future perfect and IsavlTld . 
App. 256: a.-I- M 

:: B, 3(n, I 

U..B. B?«.a:H.Sn, 1. 

B. QaUlAs: UallU Celtlca is a 

9. nLetiOnia: seelnt. St. 

10. enm eontandarent. " when they 
hadfought." We m^ht expect the plu- 
perfect, but the Imperfect Is used on the 
principle laid down for the Imperfect In- 
dicative In App. IBl , i ; G.-L. tii: K. «I, 
~i: B. aeo, 1: H..B. ^Sb■. H. Bn,i. 



inter sS multos anoda coatenaeretit, factum esse utl ab Arvernta 
Seqaanisque Germanl raercede arceaaerentnr. Horam primS 
circiter milia iv BhSnum tranalaae; poBteaquam agros et 
cultum et copiils Galluruoi hominea teri ac barbari aSamaBaebt, 

» tradactos plflrea ; nana ease ia Qallia ad centnm et viginti 
milium nnmeram. Cum his Haeduos eorumque clientea(8emel 
atque iterum^ armia contendiaae ; magnam calamjtiltem pulaoa 
accepisse, omnem ndbilitatem, omnem aenatam, omDem 
eqaitatum amlaiBse. Quibua proeliis calami tatibosqae fractos, 

M qui et aaa rirtute et populi Romfmi hoBpitio atque amicitja 
pliirimum ante in Gallia potuisBent, coactoa ease S^quanis 
obsidgB dare, nobilisBimoa civit&tia, et iilre iiirandO ciritatem 
obstringere aeae neque obsidea repetituroa aeque auxilium a 

TBmlan; pi., tbs Arvernl (iLr-vSr'ul), 
poiiWli/ the ArremUDB, S, 

tantopers, adn. (tftnlni, so great + 
opus. work].30Kreatlr-soearae9CL7. 1. 

potentftlus, -U, m. [potSni, power- 
ful], chkef power, supremacy. 1. 

13. mvrcjs, -idls,/'. par, blre. I. 

arctiie, -tit, -iTl, -Itiim, Ir.. sum- 
moa, send for Inrlie. ^ 

prime, adv. [piImuB, flrst]. at Qrsc, 1q 
tbe flrsC place. i|i 

13. poiteLQuam, udr. [poitel. after- 
warda + quam, thao], after. 4. 

14. ftruB, -a,-nm.<u{;.. wUd.savage. 

borbftrua, -a, -iii 

Ortfii and So/aam 

ail}., foreign ( 


un. savages, bt 
tamO, love]. 

baroua; pi. at n 

adamS. I, Ir. 

Btronglf. covet, 1. 

IB. nunc, adv., nov, al present, at 
tbls time. 3. 

16. Beinal, adv., once, a single tlmei 

IT. itarum. ads., again, a second 
time; Bsmal atque tMrum, again and 
again. « 

10. ftangjt, tTRngara, tiig\, frfco- 

ao. .bciBiiltlum, -ti, ». IhoBpsa. b 

or gueatj.tbe relation of host and gut 
friendship, hospltalllr. S. 

11. faelum eiia utt, "it had cDim 
to puns thut." The perfect inBnitlve 
factum etti, stands tor factum eil of the 
direct lorm, as conleadtrf [1. 5) stands 
for a present Indicative, and as vejUi 
(1. T) stands tor a. future Indicative, 
the uses of the Inflnlilre tenses In In- 
direct discourse, see A^p. ^i&i.Q.-l.. 
BS0;53I: A.&84: B. 3T0, 1, a, fl. c; H.-B.47S. 

■■ They were In O 


maicSde: tbe Qermana \ 
simply hired ao Idlers. Thlawi 
years before Caesar came u 


IT. pulsBs accipiaae. "asthey were 
beaten, they had suDered." 

18. amnem . . . amialaiai this was 
an exaggeration, for the nobles and the 
cavalry of tbe Haedul were prominent 
la some of the campaigns o( tbe Gallic 

30. qui, "although they." 



popnl5 Kom&no imploT&tflr58 neque recfiafiturfts qadmintu 
perpetuo sub iliorum diciune atque imperiO eesent. tJiduiii b6 m 
esBB ex omni ciritate Haedadrum qui adduci non p otueri t ut 
iuraret ant liberoB suus o^aidSe darei. 01> aam rem se ex 
t»Titfito profQgisae £t Rdmam ad senatum venisse aaxilium 
postdlatum, qiit)d buIub ueque iure iurandd neqne obeidibna 
tettgr§tur. Sed peius victoribus Seqoaais quam Haedula victis n 
accidisfle, propterefi quod ArioyiatOB, r6x Germ&ndrum, in 
eorum flnibua cdn^diBset tertiamque partem agri S^qnani, 
qai eeaet optimne totins Gallioe, occapfiviaeet et Dono de alterft 
parte tertia SequanOa decedere inberet, proptere& qood paucis 

14. implore, 1, tr. [Is + pUrt, call 
oni]. beseech, entreat. Implore. 3. 

reetlii, I, Ir. and frUr., refuse, reject; 
object to, make objectlocs. complain; 
•nUh pcrlonltmi, ahrinh from. « 

gnfiminui, coi^. [quo, so that+ml- 

D that a 


dlelft, -OnlB, /., dominion, authorily, 
role, sway. S. 

IT. larS, I. tr.amUnlr. [iu, Hght], 
lake oittb ; swear. 1. 

U. profUglS, -fUKarS, -(Ugl, -tJig- 

Itnm, Mr. [tuslS. flee). Bee, flee trom, 

run away, escape. 4. 

KSma, -aa, /.. Rome. 1. 

SB. poitnlS, 1, (r. , request, ask. de- 
TEiaud ; require. neceHsitace. :|( 

90. mila*, -a, -nm. adj.. evil. bad. 
Injurious; camp., palor, palm; ». a* 
mniB.aworsetblnK; <up.. pesalmlu. I. 

TloMr, •Srli, fn. [TlueO, conquer), 
conqueror,Tictor:<Ma'V,, rictoriona. * 

Bl. Arlovlatui. -1, f., ArioTlstus, 
(im^-S-vls'tlls), atlngoflhe Oermaru, « 

rflx. TtgU, m., king. « 

34. diuMG, -cidare, -casil, -aaaa- 

um, ialr. [ceaa, go], go from or away, 
withdraw, leave, forsake; dl 

39. poitulfctum: the supine. Bian 

speaks of him with admiration. 
GO. pelui aAoldlHa, "a worse fata 

sa. tartlun paxtan: this was prob- 
ably an exaggeration. The part taken 
by ArioTlsiua corresponds pretty well 
with upper Alsace, on the Rhine, and 
is colored t«d on the map facing p. 

S3. altarL, "a second." 

■4. panelB miiulbiia anta, lit. ■- be- 
fore by a few months " = " a few motitbs 
before." m^iibut is an aU&tlre o( d» 

gree ol difference. ' 

M. qntmlnuB auant: c 

' App. S2a. e: G.-U. 54S: A. GM. b\ B. 2M, S: 
H.-B.SI2.3, b:H.HB.8. 

M. naiim »6 ataa, " that be was the 
aoiy one." tf Is Dlvlolacus. Cf. noteon 
f^. SO. B. 

as. anl patnarlt: mode? App. Z30: 
G.-L. 031, I: A. DBS, ft: B. 393. 1, »: H.-B. 
WH.},a.b:B,iai.b. Sofar in this chapter 
all the subJonctlTss have been imper- 
fects and pluperfects. In accordance with 
the rule for sequence of tenses ; for the 
indirect discourse depends on an histor- 
ical tense, locafui eat. t. B. But lapotaerit 
we have an instance of repraittntatio; 
Le. the t«nse of the direct form Is re- 
tained In tbe Indirect: App. 270. (i:0.'L. 
tM. D. : A. GW, i, n. : B. 318: B. OM, I. 

, G(.)(.jgle 

"132 CAESAR'S GALLIC WAB, 1, 31 

6 mSneibiiB ante Harfidom milia hominnm xxiv ad earn Teoiasent, 

'.tquibuB loCQ^ a& sgdSs par&ireatur. Fatdrnm esse pancis annia 
nti omnes ex Galliae tiuibaB pellerentar atqae omnSs Oermilni 
Khennm tr&nBirent; tieqne emm conf^rendum esse Oallicnm 
cam Germ9,ndram agrd, neqae hano coDBiiC'tudinem victus cam 

mills, comparaadam. ArioTietam aatem, tit' semel Gallornm 
copiSs proelid ricerit) ^uod proelinm fictam sit ad Mageto- 
brigam, saperbe et crudeliter imperare, obsidgs nObiliasimi 
cuiasque liberCs poscere et in eos omiiia exempla cruci3:t{Uque 
€dere, si qoa rea nun ad nutum ant ad voluntatem eius facta 

e sit. Hominem esse barbamm, Iracundam, temeririnm ; nfin 
posse eins imperia diutius sustineri. Nisi qnid in Oaesare 

S6. ' BKTfidil, -UIIl. m. (Ch), tbe Ha- 
rudes (ba-nt'dSz), a Oermantribi. 3. 

S«. sHfii, -iB, /' iMdeS. sit], seftt, 
choir; residence, abode, sectlement. 

SB. cfiuuCttulO,-liili,/-|o6i»nBH6, 

become itcciiBtomedJ, habii., custom, 
practice ; mode of IKe. % 

Tlclni, -fta. m. [rtvO, live), llrtng, 
niode ot lire ; provlslonSi load. I. 

40. eompart, I. 'r. ipfcr.eqoal], place 
In comparlsoQ, compare. 1. 

41. HaBVtObTlK*, -U, /. (CO. Mag- 
etobrlga (iati"6-fi6b'il'e^), a OaUictotm 

■ [crfttUUa, cnieii. 


cruelly. 1, 

44. tib, -Atn. -dldl, •ditum. tr. 
MA, give], give outjlnOlct. I. 

UQtui, -&•, to. [uaS, nod], nod: 
sign, conunand; ad nttum at one's 
nod or comnund. a. 

46, Ii&cundut. -A, -um, aO]- dim. 
anger]. Irritable. I. 

t«m«rtrlnt, -a, -um, a^. |t«mert, 
rashlfl, rash. Imprudent, reckless. 1. 

St. [Utbrum MS* ntl oumCi p«l- 
laraitUT, lit "It would be that all 
would be expelled "=" all would be ex- 
pelled." The direct lorm was omnA 
ptUeatar, AstbeluturelndloatlTeinust 
be reudend by the future Inflnltlve. one 
might expect puUum IH; but this form 
of Ibe future passive Infinitive Is very 
rare and tbe perlphraHiH toond In the 
text Is the Dgoal method of expressing 
tbe fntore passive Inflnltlve: App 205.6: 
Q.-L. 6S1; A. 600. 3, a: B. MO, 8, a: H.-B. 

>7. omnfli [oil: i.e. alltlieQauls. 

SS. OAlUenm: sc. agram. 

S9. liAne= Oallicam. 

^etno: note the quantity of i. and 
oompare vidai, the pirfeot participle of 

41. TlMrlt: from this point on to the 
end of the chapter repratitntalio is em- 
ployed. See note on potueril. 1. SS. 

proallum: this anal and decisive 
battle vras Fought two years before 
Caesar came to GauL It Is probable tbat 
tbe Seqoani had Joined forces with tbe 
Baedui in an eflort to eipel Arlovistus. 

43. OQlniaaa: the singular forms of 
^It^iu, "each, "with superlatives have 
theforceof "every" or "all." 

•zomplA, "punishments." 

44. siracMslIitiiisconditionBtaiidi 
tor an original ti facta sat. See note on 
I. T. and App. ^63: 0,-L. BSb; A. MS- 518, 
d:B. 302, 1.3:H.-a.9T«:H.B74, I. 

4B. auidaozUI,"soniebelp," 


popaldqne Bumanu sit aaxili, omnibus Gallia idem esse 
faciendam qaod KelT^tii fgceriot, ut domo emigrent, aliud 
domiciLiuni, alias sedds, reiadtas it Qermaaia, petaat fortn- 
oamque, quaecamqae acoidat, experiaatar. Haec si enQutiita h 
A.riovistd sint, non dubitare quia du otnaibas obsidibus qnl 
dpad eiim sint graTiasimuia auppliciuiD sumat. Caesarem vel 
aact5ritS,te sua atque ezercitus rel receuti Tictoria rel Ddmine 
popull Bumani deterrere pasae nS maior muUitildo Germaadram 
Rhenum traducatur, Galliamque omDem ab Ariovisti iuiarifi M 
poaae dsfendere. , 

32. Hac (>rati6ne ab Dirici&oO liabita, omiies qui aderant 
magnd fl§tu anzilium & Caeeare petere ooepSraat. Animadyertit 
Caesar iinds ex omniboB SSquanos nihil eilram r€rum lacdre 
qo&B ogteri facerent, aed tristes oapite dSmisBd terrain intit§ri. 
Eius rei quae causa easet miratua ex ipsia quaeaiitr ^fihil » 
Seqoani respondere, aed in eadem triatitia tacit! p^rmanSre. 

«. emlKTO. >, IntT. [mlsro, ml- 
giatA], depart, migrate, 1. 

BO. quicmiuine, auuo<iiil<tiie, 

gnodOUmqUB, indtf, i_or gtmralieing) 
rtt, pron., whoever; whatever; whoso- 
ernr; wliawoever, any . . . whatever; 
everyone who; everfthlDs Chat. * 

«xi»«rlor, -p«rlTl, -partiu ■, 

J, try.t 

9. lietui, -U, rn. [lltO. weep), wi 
lug, lameQtatloD. I. 

4. ofiUl^, -M, -a. t'U. the rest 
the remalQiler; ai noun, the rest, 
malnltig. ocbers. 4. 

trlBtlB, -a, aiO: Bad, dejected. 1. 

4T. OftlUi: caseTApp.llB^Q.-I.SSe: 
A.3T4: B. 189, 1: H.-B. S73, I: H. «l. 

48. ut dome SmlKMnt. etc., "inamel;) 
leave borne, etc.." explains fdon. 

Bi. nSn (M) dnbitire quln sbniat, 

■ ■ he did not doubt that Artovlatua would 
Inflict." samat: mode? App, 2W. d: Q.- 
L. »5, Z: A.»63.a;B. »8:H..B. 5E1,3, A; 
a ses, I. 

H. dAt«rrer« at trUBefctur: lor 

dJmltUI. -mlttBis, -mill, -mUanm, 
Ir. [mltUt, sendl, send, thrusi, or let 
down; slnlt; how; ■« dtmltMrt. come 
or get down, deaaend; b4 anlmft d4- 
mlttsrs, lose cour^:e; dimlaiiu, p/. 
part, at adj.. low. 1, 
tarra, -a«, /.. earth, land. boU. ground ; 
region, district; tarra* {pi.) and arbia 
tanftnun, the worM. 3. 

Intnaor, 3. tr. [tuaor, look], look 
at. I. 

B. mlior, 1, tr. and inlr., wnnder or 
marvel at: wonder, be astoDlshed, 1. 

«. trlKltU, -aa./.sadnes». I. 

penuanaB, -manSre, -iii4nil, -m&u- 

1. magnfi flitb; Caesar often men- 
tions the demonatratlve manners ot the 

auxtllum petare: the Gauls railed to 
see that the; were nlmply chaotflng 
masters In appealing to Caesar against 


Cum ab his saepina quaereret neque ullam omnind vocem 

exprimere poeaet, idem Diviciacua Haeduas respondlt: Hoc 

esse miBeriorem et graviorem fortunam S^qoaDdrum quam 

» reliqaorum, quod aoli ne in oeculto qnidem queri neque anxilium 

— implorare anderent abBentiaque Ariovisti criid^litatem, yelut 

ai coram adesset, horrerent, propterea quod reliqals tamen 

fugae facnltas daretur, SeqnaniB vero, qui intrfl fines euoa 

ArioTistum recepisBeut, quorum oppida omnia in potestate 

IB eiuB QBsent, omn^B cruciatuB esBent perferendi.3 

33. His rebus oognitis Caesar Gallorum animds TerbTs con- 
firmavit pollicitnsque est sibi earn rem curae futuram: Magnam 
8fi habere spem et benoficio auo et | auctoritate adductnm 

■um, '»'''. (m>iiB6, remain], s 
(hrough or to the eud, aiay, rema 
continue, peralsl. S, 

7. T«I, t6c1»,/., TOlee. toneiouK 
cry: word; p'.., words, iaogiiage ; bi 
Qv^ty trarulaitfl according to context, 
entreaties, coraplalncs, tales, etc. i|i 

8. •zvrlmS, -prlmsre, -praail, 
r.[premS, press], pre! 

to. oocultiu, -a, -Bni, ai^.,coi 

noun, a bidden place, an ambush, t, 

t. taapondCra, pemumflTa: hisior 
leal iQHoltlves. 

I. QuaervESt: a. pluperfect wouic 

8. lLl>c: ablative or cause. 

II. sbuntls: " even wbeii absent. " 
> VBlut Bl adetiet; mode and Mnse 
App. 281: a. -I. SOi: A. S24: B. 307, 1, 2 

though tbe; could ool rest 

It. BiquauU; for case. < 
eatlii. 31, 41. 

Chap. 83. Caesar decidei 

CT&dillt&s, -UtiB, /. [crttdilU, 
cruel), cruelty, barshnesB. I. I. 

13. cSram, adv., tact to face. In per' 
sou. 1. 

Iiorrae, -in, -nl, ■ — ■, tr., ahnddei 
at. dread. 1. 

IS. TtrO, adn. [TSnu, true], Incrath. 

3. COra. -M,/., 

c. [Intar, between], 
ire, atteDCloQ. S. 

take their defeoae. Eis reasons fbr 
2. atbl . . . futtlruni "Chat the nut- 

: B. 1>l.2.a: 

LB. 3«0, I 


b«ii«fli]16 anO: la Caesar's consul' 

ship, only the year before, the senate bad 
conferred upon AlioTlBlUB the titles 
■'rSc" and"amfeu«." Thlshadbeendone 
to keep Arioyiatus from inierferinswlUi 
Roman interests in Gaul until C&eaai 
should be ready to xaMa cbarge of his 



ArioriHtum finem iniariia factarum. Hie flratione habit& 
conctliam dimiait. Secnnditm ea multae rea eain hortiibantar t 
qn^ sibi earn rem cdgitandam at auaoipiendam i rot&r et. in 
primia, quod HaednOs, fr&trea cdnsangaiaedaqne aaepe numero 
& Benatu appell3.tda, in serritute atque dicione vtdebat 6er- 
mandrnm tenSri, e&ramque obaid_€a esse apud ArioviBtnm ao 
Seqaanoa intellegSbat; qi^ id tsatb imperio populi Bfim^nl lo 
tarpisBimum aibi et rei publicae esse srbitr&b&tnr. PaaUtim 
antem Germands conaugscere RbSnom trfinslre et in Galliam 
magQam eorum maltitudinem venire popalo Rdm&nd peri- 
cnloatiiD Y JdSbat ; neqiie aibi homines feros ac barbaroa -temper &- 
taroB exTstimabat qain, cum omnem Galliam 0RcupS.Ti9&ent, u 
at ante CimbrI Tentonique fgcisseat, in provinciam exirent 
atqae inde in Italiam co n tend s rent, praeaertim cum SSquauds 

t. MCimdDin, prip. witft ace. [m- 

pauUtlin. adt. [p«uli», lliilel. little 

mior.(oUow). along; in the direction of; 

besides, In addition to. 3. 

IS. perloulSsui. -a, -mn. ad}, (pw- 

6. c6glM, 1, It, and ta(r. [co+agltB, 

Icnlvm, danger], tullotdaosec, danser- 

tally, ponder, reflect; .think, purpose. 

18. Olmbrl. -Brum. m.. tbe Clmbrt 

plan. 3. 

(slm'-brll- 4. 

Teutonl, -etQm or Taatonts, -um. 

m.. the TeutoQl (ta-tS-nl) or Teutones 


(tu't0.nei). i. 

«. qn&ri puttret: "to think." lit. 
'' why he should tbtnk." 

■ibl: datlTB at tbe aKsat, with the 
passive periphrastic. 

7. HAMlnSt t«n$rl is the object or 

'who bad been 
note on 11. 

10. quod, "and this"; I.e. tbe con- 
dition of the Haedul. as set forth tn the 
pncedlng inflnltlve clauees. 

11. Blbt refers to Caesar, the subject 
of arbUrSbStvr. not to the subject of Ibe 
clause In which It stands; It Is therefore 
lie Indirect [eBeilve: App. Ite: G.-L. 

e,S: H. « 

: A. 30CI. i: B. »4, 1 

II: I 

Qermaos to gelf gradually In tbe habltol 
crossing and ... to come . . . (waa) 
dangerous." etc. 

18. perlenlOiunt: see int. s. 

14. (Ibt: Indirect object of ternpt' 

. «lDl: indirect object of cempt' j 
■oi. It refers to karninii, the subject -'I I 

vrhlch it stands; 
the direct reflexive; App. lU: ' 
Q.-L. 309, 1: A. 300, 1; B. 244, 1, 1: H.B. 
W2, 1:H. $01. 

16. temparftlQrSt quln •xlrmt . 
atque contanderenti construction r 
App. SSS, c: G.'L. K4: A. »S: B. »U, 3: U.- 
B.KB,3,i: H.5»5,a 

IS. nt. "as"; torflcinmt atauds tor 
/eceraat of tbe direct form. 

Olmbrl Tautonlqna: see Int. 2T. 

IT. praaiertlu eumi cf. note oo if. 





S, proTiDciil Qostru Bhodaiins divideret; quibua rebus qauD 
maturrime occurrendum putiibat. Ipse an tern AHoTiatua 

n taotds sibi epiritus, tantam arrogaotiam sumpserat ut fereadm 
noQ vidSretur. / 

34. Qaam o6 rem placuit ei ut ad Arioviatum leg&td> 
mitteret qu! ab eo poetnlarent ati oliquem locum medinm 
ntrlneque colloqnid dsligeret: Velle sese do rg publica et 
summis utrinsque rgbu a cam 06 agere. £i l6gati6iiT ArioviatOB 

s respandit: Si quid igsi a Caeaare opua easet, s^aii ad enm 

19. mfttOIJ, <"Jif. Im&tariu. rlpel. 
earlT, speedily, sood. s. 

<icaurr6, -oniiere, -ounl, -aursnm, 
intr. [Ob+<nrrt, run], run in tlie way 
of, meetj h&ppennpon; go to, come loi 
oppoBe. coanMract ; occur, t 

10. ■plrltlU,-ttB,fn.[iplTJ}, breathe), 
tovatb.alr; inpf.,baiisbClDSss.prlil«. 2. 

ftrrocantla, -ae,/. [utob&hb, arro- 
gant], arrogance, . haughtiness, pre- 
aumptlon, tnaoleuce. S. 

1. plKcaS, a, intr. [ct. pIftcO, ap- 
peaee], please, eaUafy; often ffnp#r>.. 

aeeat gooi to om. hincf, d-xldr, resolia, 
ilel«nnl&& i. 

S, nterqna, Dlrftqas, utramqn* 

oi(f. [liter, which of lito), each 0/ Im. 
elthero/Iuw/both. 4 

eoUoqutuiii, -qui, n, [ooUoqnar, ua 

together], talking together: conference, 
parley, Interview, t 

B. opiu, indtet. noun. n. let. opnt, 
vork, deed], need, necenslty; opus «it 
It la neoesBary, there Is need, thi t/iiag 
nfedtii iiing ixpretttd either b\/ the nain. 
orabl. (App.l4«.) if 

IB. Bboluiui diTtderet, "only 

Rbooe separaMs." Caesar'i 
o( the reasoni (or esponslog the eange o( 
the Qauls Is candid and coDTlnclog. No 
aoubl the Bnterprlae fell In with his bold 
and Bmblilous spirit; but It appealed 
also to the statesman and lover o( bta 
country. Gaul must certainly ^ield to 
11 of the Oerman 

If the) 

. No hi 

ground was possible. 

nnlbui ribui oecnrrenitiim, "that 
hemusttacethla danger." SlnceoccurrJ 
Ib an Intransitive verb U cannot be ased 
In ibe passive except Impersonally: 
App. lIS,iJ:Q.-L. 3(t,R.l: A.3n:B.lST, 
II. fi:H.-B. 361, 2: H. 1», 3. 

;o confer with 

. ad ArlDTiitum: 

to secure bla end without a war and 
probably tbooght tbat the diplomatic 
relations which had been maintained 
with Arlovistos could be Icept up (cl. 
note on SS. 3). 
4. lummli . . . Ttbui, "matten 

6. Hi eMet, ni»t v«ntlkrum nilw«< 

the direct form was eieteet. vfni*Mrrt,"\l 

Iwanled anything. I should havegooe." 
a contrary to fact condition: App. BM: 
O.-L. S«T, R. 1 : A. bIT. a: B. B«. 1, 2: H.- 
B. Sgl: H. 679,1. When such a condition 
I3 turned Into Indirect dlaconrse, the 
conclusion always takes the InOiilllTe 
form -ariie fnitci. although some of the 
grammars make the mistalie o( saying 
tbat the Imperfect subjunctive becomea 
.Aw ««: App. 372, U: O.-L. G»T, R, «: A. 




TentSrnm fnisse; a! qnid ille s6 relit, illtim ad bS venire 
oportere? Praeterea se neque eine ezercitu in eas partes 
Oaliiae Tenire audere quus Caesar possideret, Deque exercitom 
une magno commeatu atque molimento in finuiii locum con- 
trahere posse. Sibi autem miruoi rideri quid ia sua Gallia, ii 
qaam bello vtcisset, aut Caesari aut omnTad populd Rom^nd 
aegoti esaet. '•s^id. pen. 

35. His respdnsis ad Gaesarem reUtIs iterum ad earn 
Caesar legatoa cum his mandatis mittit: Quoniam tanto and 
popnlique Kom^nT beneficio affectus, cum/fii cdnsuUtil bu6 
rex atque atnicus a senatu appellatus essat^anc sibi popuMque 

wonder at], strange, aslioalalilDs: inlr- 
um ia modum, surprisingly, i. 

19. nsf fitluin, -tl, «. [iies-+fitluiii, 
leisure), concern, business, undertalclnK; 

'ouble, dinculty, labor; na(&tlum 
dttra, employ, direct; quid nagStl, 
: busLoeas; nlhU nsKOCI, no dllB- 

I. BommeltuB,[c<iininaB,go 

oack anil forth], urlp, voyaite; supplies, 
proTlGlons. 4 

maiimentum, -I, n. [mflUor, exert 
one's self 1 . eflort, dllHoult j-. I . 

Mntrali6. -trabBie, -tr&xl, -trac- 

(nin. tr. [trabO, draw], draw or lirlng 
logeMier. assemble, collect; draw lau> 
smaller compass, contract, l. 
10. miruB, -a, -um, ad}, [mlror, 

tm. i. I, at B. Sai. A. S: H.-B. 58I, b, l : u. 

reflexive, sifti, would be more usoal. but 

ipn is more empbatlc. 

B. •! . . vellt, "11 Caesar wanted 

\ aDythlngof hint," lit. " It Caeear wanted 

^ Atm (for) anytblng." 


3. miinditum, -1, n. [mandB, com- 
mand], charge. Injunction, order, coiD- 
mand ; message, if 

auonlam, con}, [quom-oum. since 
+lam, now], since now, since, inaa- 

3. cflnsulfttui. -fis, m. [consul, con- 

l: predicate aajBcUve with 

I. Bove 

sallves. like 

Terbsof asking ordemandlng: App. 125, 
i: G.-L. 311 , a. 3; A.SBCl, d: H.-B. 897, ! : H. 
<'S- H Tellt staods W an original «i 
1"U: App. 3^: G.-L. B«; A. 5B; B. 303, 
1: H.-B. 570: H. BT4. 1. 

8. quia . . . poaaldCret: i-e. the 
land Of the Haednl and the Llngones, 

omniaO, "in general." 
Chap. 30. Caesar demanda tliat 
ArioTistos cease bis oppression of the 

3. tMneflclS aSectni: cf, note on u, 
3. The German was shrewd enough to 
e'ltlmate tbe benejtcivm at Its true value. 

4. qu«nlama'2}Iianogr&tlanir»- 




5 Rdm&nd gratiam referret, ut in colloqaiutn venire inTit&tuB 

gravaretur neque de commuai re dicendum sibi et cognoscendum 

^putaret, haec esse quae ab eo poBtuIaret^primum, ne qaam 

mnltitudiiiem homintini amplius trans Bhenum in Galliam 

truduceret; deinde, obsides quos hab^ret ab Haeduis redderet 
10 Suqu^lsqne permitteret ut quos ipsi haberent^volunt^te eiu^ 
reddere\iillB licerfet; neve Haeduos iniuria laceaseret, neve 
hia sociiaqne eorum bellum inferret. Si ita fecisaet, sibi popn- 
loque EomSno perpetuam gratiam atqne amicitiara cum e6 
fut.uram; si nOn impetraret, B^se, quoaiam M. Messala M. 

B. invSW, I, tr., iDTlte, summon; al- 
lure, persuade. S. 

t. Braver. I. intr, [giaTls, heavy), 
beunwilllDK' 1- 

8. ample, adjj. [amptui, large], 
largely: comp.. ampllua, more, far- 

S. redd^. -dsra, -dtdl, -dltun, tr. 

[red-l-dt, give], give back, r 

lapAratt In perpBtuum. rurever. 

fenat, nt, "since he made tbls re- 
quJtal. that." The direct, lorm given 
atier Book VII reprasents Caesar-s 
words to bis envoys, in which Arlovlstus 
was spoken of in the third peison. It 
would also be possible to give the form 
sage was to be repeated 

to Arlo^ 
Bildressed In tl 

, lo which I 


B rtfirret stands {i 

G-L. 356: A. 374: B. 189. 1 
H. 431. 

7. liAM eise atUM, *' these w 
things) wbich." 

at tr&dtkcaiAt: as addressed tc 
voys the direct torni was ni ti 
"that he shall not bring." a si 
tlve ToUtlve clause, in apposition with 
AoK. Ab addressed to Arlovlstns l 
would be noli IrailOctrt. " do not bring. 

a prohibition: App. 2\»: G.-L, 2TI.S: A. 
410: B. sue. C-. H.-B. SOI. 3. a, 2: H, Ml. t, 
10. Sfiquaulaqua . . . llelret."aud 
grant permission to the SequaDt lore- 
turn with his (Ariovlstus'sJ approval 
those [hostages) wbom Ibey [the S«- 
quaol) bad [trom the Haedul]." Ut. 
"permit that It be allowed." illlBa 

: H.-aGT», a: H. 5T4. 1 

albl; Le. Caesar 

liai: tbe direct form would be ego. It 
expressed at all. It Is the snbjecl ot 
atglictSr-um, I, IS: but. because the sen- 
tence ia so long, the subject Is repealed 


Piaone cdneulibus seniltus ceDBuieset uti quicumque Galliam is 
provinciam obtineret, quod commodo rei publicae facere poaaet, 
Haeduoa ceterosque amicos populi Komani defeaderet, ^e> 
Haeduorum iniurias nan neglecturum. 

36. Ad haec ArioviBtus respondit: lus esse belli ut qui 
vicissent ils quos viciBsent quern ad modum vellent imperarent; 
item popalam Rdmatium victis noo ad alterius praescriptum. 
Bed ad saam arbitriam imper&re cdnsugsse. Si ipse popnld 
Bomano non praeBcriberet quern ad modum su6 iure uteretur, s 
nfin oportere se a populo Rdmand in buo iure impedirl/) 
HaedauB sibi, qnoniam belli fortunam tempt&ssent et armis 
coagressi ac saperatl eseent, atipendiariOs ease factoB. Magnam 

IB. einaaS, ciniire, ctniul, cta- 

lnm, l''.,tlilak, decide (act. and inf.); 
propose, advise, vote (nt ond laij.); 
propose, voie for (lec,)- 1. 

IS. eommodum, -i, »- [commodni, 

convenleatl. convenience, interest, ad- 

18. a«Kl«sO, -leseTe, -itxl, -Ito- 

turn, tr. [a«K--)-lBB6, chooBe. regard), 
not heed, disregard. neglecL iK 

3. praeierlptum, -I. n. [ptaaierl- 

U,Drder).order.dlctalloa,coniiiiaDd. 1. 

4. iiTbltnuiii, -il, n. [ATbltar, um- 

plrel, decision or Judument (o/ " 
bUer); opinion, dlscreUoo. 

S. prasiorlbfi, -icrtbeTV, -icrlpil, 
-KTlDtum, tr. [icrlbA, write], wrlu 
beCoreband; order, direct, prescribe, dic- 
tate to. a. 

S. congndloi, -srftdl. -Breiiui 

■um, intr. (giadlor. aupj, meet, en 
at, meet in battle; jola (peact 


IB. Mnfctui oeniulSHt: this decree 

enireatieH at Dlviciacus {at. SI, S8), and 
no governor bad paid an; aiientlon to 
it, as Arlovtstos very well knew. 

16. quod . . . poiaet, " so Car as he 
cODlddo It In accordance with the inter, 
eais of the stale " : a common forniDla 
la decrees of tbe senate. 

IS. nesliotartun: lense? App. HH: 
G.-L. fHO: SSI: A. 581: B. WO, 1, a, 6, c: 
H.-B. 4TZ, a: H. SIT; SIB: SIB; tW. 

1. Ut impeTfctent: 
Tollilre claose. In apposition with iSi. 
Ticlsaent. Ticlaiaol, valient might 

all have been Indicative In the direct 

•e attracted 

form, but would probably bt 
Inlo the subjunctive. 
Ua : Indirect objeot of iraperBrmt. 

3. ad altetlni DTa«iarIptain, "in 

accordance with the dlcutes of anfone 

4. Ipia: direct form, ego. The re- 
neiive cannot be used to replace a pro- 
noun of the Srst person (cf, note on 
litf. SO, S) when a nomlnatlTe is re- 
quired, because U baa no nomlnallve. 
Daually no prooonn Isused; but 1( there 
Is emphasis, as here, ipie la used, 

B. qaam . . . nteTStnr, "bow they 
should eierelse their rights." 

nfin oDorMre aS Impedlrl. " be 



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OaeBarem iniDTiam facere, qai anS adrentu Tectigalia siU 
n deteridrs taceret. Haednis 86 obaidea redditurum non esse, 
neqne hiB ceqae eoram sociia iniuriS bellnin illaturnm, d 
in eo mangrent quod conTeQtsset stipendinmque quotannia 
pecderent; el id noa fecisaent, longg its fratemnm nomen 
populi ROm&n! Sfnturum. Quod aibi Caesar denuntiaret ae 
16 Haednoram iniuri&s nCn neglGctfirum, Deminem aecum sine 
salt pemiciS contendiase. Cum vellet, congredergtur : intel- 
UctilrDm quid invicti GermilQi, exercitr&tisaimi in armia, qui 
inter aunds XIV tSctam ndn sublsseDt, rirtute poasent. 

37. Haec eddem tempore Caesari mandata referebaatni, 

10 dStsrlor, -luo, ci 

■ttpBndlum, -dl, n., tax, tribute. 4: 
quOlKnilla, oif e. [quot, asinau)- aa + 
annus, Tear], every year, yearly. S. 

13. pendO, pendare, pependl, p«n- 
■um, Ir., weigh, weljjli out; weigh out 
fnoneji, pay, pay out; tcUli poen&a, 

14. dJaDntiS, I, Cr. [nftntl6, an. 

nonucel, announce, give or seod notice, 
declare, tbrealeo. 1. 

IT. quid, interrog. adv., wby! icitk 
poiM, howr e.g. quid Oarmanl pot- 
Mnt, bow sCrong the Germans were, t 

iDTletui, -K, -um, 01^. [inH-Tiettu, 
conqueredl. unconquerable, luTln- 
ctble. I. 

•zarciUtna, •&, -um, tufj- Wf- port. 
o/exerclt6, train or practice well) , well 
tcaloed. skilled, versed. 2. 

9. qui facorM may be translated by 

App. S48. a: G.-L. S!S, S: A. ST3, ai a 2n, 

a causal clause. ■■ since be. etc. .■■ but the 

a:H..B.653.S:H.5e8,3, n. 

IS. BSOUm, ■U&:>fcunisthelnidrecl 

direct form. Apparently Ihe presence 

raHeilve. relerrtng to ArlovlstuB, ma 

of Caesar had given hope U> the Haedul 

la the direct reSexlve. rererrlng to nAiil- 

ana bad made them less careful In pay- 

turn. Cf. notes on 80, Sanaa. 

nequa . . neque. "but . . . not . . . 


18. Inter, "during-- 

11. UlitHrnm. ■! manSrant: a vivid 

tuture coodlllon. 

13. In . . . convdnlsBet, lit. "should 
remain In that which had been agreed 
upon"="adhered to the terms whicli 
had been agreed upon." 

IS fSclssent atands tor a future 
perfect indicative. 

longi . . . ifntOnun, "the name of 
brothera of tbe Roman people would be 
«t little value to them." 

U. quod, "aa t* tbe fact that"; 

Chap. ST-41. Caesar marohea into 

the country of AriOTisms, cbecldDC > 
panic on the way. 

sar marchaa toward 

1. eSdem tempore: tbe reply ol 
Artovlstua and (he complaints of tbe 
Oauls reached Caeaar at the same tiroa. 
It waa now about tbe beginning at 

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. . .-^^ Xttf hi uiu - ^A ■-' 


et legati ab HaedniB et & Tr^verls venUbant: Haedai quesCam 
qnod HarudeB, qai cuper in Galliam transportati essent, fi- 
nes eorum popuUreatur ; Sese ne obsidibua quidem datis p3,cem 
AtioTistl redimere potuisse; TrSveri antem, pagda centum ' 
Sueborum ad rip&e BbenI cdnsSdisse, qui RhSiium transire 
eonareatar; his praeeaae Naauam et Gimberium' fratres. 
Qnibns rebus Caesar vehementer commotits maturandniq sibi 
existimaTit, □€, si nova manns SnSbdruni cum veteribus copiiB - 
Ariovistl seBe ooniunxisset, miiina facile reBieti posset. Itaque u 
th frumentaria qasm celerrimS potuit compar&ti magnia 
itineribiiB ad Ariovistum contendit. 
38. Cum tridal viam proceBsisset, nuntifitnm est ei Ario- 

1. TrSrtr, -erl, m-.oneot the TreT- 
Ri; pi. TreTerl <Bfgh), tbe Treverl 
<tr«T'e-rl). « 

I. trftUBtMTtS, 1, tr. [ports, CBiry]. 
carry acroBB or over, brlna OTer, convey, 

e. SuAbni.-a.-um, ad^. ororpertalD- 
Jog to Cba Suebl, Suebun; pi. at noun, 
BuSbl, <Bhi), tbe Suebl (sw^rtii), a 
power/ai people of central QfTmany. 
eeniUting of stceral indeptndmt tribf; 
tlu modem Snablaas. if 

T. Kftina, -■«, m. Nasna (DSsh'u-s). 

a leader of the Satbi. I. 

ClmbflTliii, -ri, m., Clrabertna {slm- 
bsTl-as), a ttadtr of the Suebi. I. 

8. Tehemantor, adv. [velwmia*, 

Tlolent], Tloleally, severely. alroiiEly, 
very mupli. greatly. 1. 

10. eoniunKft, -lunsara, -ItaxI, 
•lUiLctuni. Ir. (inngS. Join], Join wlUi 
or together, connect, nnlte, blniL ik 

I. prAeCd6, -eidera, -osui, -eei- 

Bum, intr. [oMB, go], go forth or tea- 

ward, procBed.advoDce. i|i 

9. aneBtnin; ibe supine. 

5. Hankdia: ct. 81. »>. 

4. aOrum: the indirect reDeztve.tuds. 

would have beea more correct, since the 

Hiedui said ■■ our. " 
oba Idlbua datls. "by giving hostages. " 
B. Trflvari: bc. venubant yueittan, 

loUowed b; Indirect discourse. 

6. tf&nalra: somewhere north ol 
where Ariovlstus was, probably near 
modem Mayence. The Treverl were a 
strong people, and It is probable that 
Ariovlatas was marcliing north to help 
Uie Suebl cross when he was inlerrupted 

il Caesar'a approach. 

9. si 

Tor 1 

e perCect indlca 

II. magnia lUnenbua: cf. Int. 54. 
Caesar Intended lo strike Ariovlstua be- 
fore he could eaect ajunctlon with the 
Snebl. He started from the coimtiy of 
the Ungonea. where he had received the 
snrrender ot the HelvetU and where hla 
army had been encamped near Tonnerre 
peQdlug the result ot his DegoUatiohs 
with ArlovlstuB. See map facing page 

Chap. SB. Caesar occuiileB Teson- 

1. tridal: descriptive genitive. Tba 
descriptive genitive must ordinarily be 
modiOed by an adjective; but Iridias 
Irium dierum. 

Tl&m: case* App. IS8: O.-I. 333. S: A, 
ISO; B. 176.1: H.-B 3M. 1 : H. WS. 

The three days' march was east from 
Tonnerre (see map tactng p. 117), and 



viatam cum suls omnibaa cOpiis ad occupandum Veaontidnem, 
(quod eat oppidum masimnm SequanOrnm J contendera triduiqae 

viam a 8Ui8 finibaa proceaaisae. Id ne accideret magaopere 
B aibi praecaTendum Caeaar existimubat. Namque omnium 

TBmmrqnae ad bellam usai erant) B amm a erat in ed oppidii 
-^ f acult as. idque natura loci aic muaiebatnr ut magnam ad 

dacendum bellam daret facalt&tem, propterea qaod flumen 

Dubis, ut circino circumductum, paene tdtam oppidum cingit; 
IB reliquum apatinm, quod est ndn ampliua pedum BBBcentdrnm, 

qu9. flumeu intermittit, mona continet magnfi altJtudiae, ita 

nt radices eiua montta (^x utraque partartpae fuminis contia- 

3. VeBontU, •4iiia,fn. (cr) VesoQtlo 
(•vi-aOa'ahyo), l/t* ehi^ town of the Be- 
guani. tU'utUed on tht Doabt. modrrn 
Beaai^oD. S. 

-GftUtnm, intr. [oaveO, gaara ftgalast], 
Buard agalusli betore buid, t^e pre- 
cautions. 1. 

ntunqua, conj. [nun, [or], for. 3. 

7. SlO, ode, HO, thus, tn this mauiier; 
■Ic . ■ ■ ut. so ■ ■ ■ tbac; so ... as. it 

9. Dtkbla, •!■, ni. (Cfg), the (jimr) 
Dubls (dQ'bls), tunntXM Doubs. 1. 

alrelniu,-l,in.[ciTciu, circle], apalr 

brougbt Caesar to ibe point wbera hla 

mute turns to the soutbeist. 

ntntUitum eat: tbla report th&tArlo- 
Tlslus was marcblng toward Vesontlo 
proved raise. Prolrably It grew oat of 
the fact that Arlovtstus had got his 
army together for the porpose at 
marehlng north to help the Soebl. C(. 
note on 87, «. 

). (Iliad agrees la gender witb opj^- 
dtun. alttaongb Its antecedent ts mascu- 
line. A subject pn)noaa often agrees 
In gender wlib a predicate noun. 

4. Id: l.e. the capture of Vesontlo. 

•- auDuna fMnlt&a, "a very great 

oiTcutndQcS, -d&oere, -dttxi, -duc- 

tum, Cr. (d11o6, lead], lead or draw 
around. 3. 
cIukO, clnxare, olnxl, cinctua, ir, 

manCauaJt). I. 

10. oeacentl, -«e, -a, ft>0> w-u 
num. adj. [IBX, sixl. all huadrea % 

IS. Tidlx. -Ida./., root; If, ^I. u-tft 
mantis or doIIIb, foot, base. .. 

oontlnsi, -tlDK«t*. -tig^ -t&clum, 
tr. and Intr. (tuif6, loucn]. touch, 
reach; extend to; befall, happen to. %. 

to Caesar) are at one point only 000 feet 
apart. The neck of land at this point Is 
very blgh. The town Ilea wjthln the 
loop. Anallencloaesboth thelovnand 
the blgh neck of land. 

10. ipiitliun: object of canthut. 
nBn . . . HacnitOrum."oriiotmore 

tban six hundred Feet." psdum Is a 
descriptive genitive : why Is not the ab- 
lative nsed after the comparative* App. 
in, b: G.-L. VK, R. 4; A. MT, c: B. 117, 1-. 

11. qui ntuntn intvrmltUt, "wbere 
the river does not Bow.'- 

BUgni altltndlna: descriptive ab- 


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gant. Hnnc mfirns circamdatae arcem effioit et cum oppidd 
coninngit. Hac Caesar magnls noctarnig diurnisqtie itineribua 
contendit occnpatoque oppidi) ibi praesidiam coUocat. is 

39. Dnm paucos dies ad Vesontidnem rel frfimentftriae 
comme&tuBque causa morAtnr, es percoct^tiOne iioBtr5niia>"^i> 
Tdcibasque Galldrum ac merc&toniiii, qui ingentl maguit'jdine 
corporum Qermilii5B, iDCredibili virtute atque exercitatione in 
armis esse praedic&baut (aaepe nnmerd a^ag cum his cougressos s 
pg Toltnm q uide m atque acie m oc ulornm dicebant feire 
potuiaBe)j tantua subitd timer omnem exercitnni occup&vit nt 
nOn mediocriter omnium men tgs ani mosque perturburet. Hio 

IS. oirouindS, -due, -dadi, -da- 
tun, tr. (d6, pnt). put aroiuid, eoconi' 
pass, surround. 3. 

trx, ar oil, /-. citadel, tonress. strons- 
hold. 1. 

efBclO, -floete, -nei, -featum, ir. [tx 

+tMelb, make], make or do completely, 

cause, bring about, render, * 
X*. bftcodB. [oW/orm/omSo/rom 

Uc). Co thla place, bilber, here; agalnai 

tbese. u> these, t 
noctuniiu, -a, -um, a^- [nox, olsbti, 

at Dlsbt, nocCnrnal, nigtillr. 1. 

dlomua, -ft, -um, adj. [UH, day], of 
Ibe day. by day, daily. 1. 

S. peroi)nUti6, -Aula,/., InqalciDK, 
luqalry. I. 

S. Insfini, -entla, 
huge, vast, large. 3. 
mamltftdA.-UO*,/. [mAgniu.Kreat]. 

greatnesa.greatslze.slze, extent: sut- 
ure (oorponmi); violeute (TentI); se- 
verity ipoenae); m mltftdd anlml, 
courage. « 

4. ezereltatifi. -Snli, /. [eierelti, 
freg. of ezeraed, exercise), exercise, 
training: practice, experience. * 

B. prkedleft, I, ir. [dloi, pnwlalm], 
proclaim publicly or before oibers; de- 
clare, report, tell of. 3. 

4. Tultnt, -til, ' 

T. labltft, ads. [subltui. sudden], 
suddenly, unexpectedly, of a sudden, t 
S. medioctltet, adc. [mediacrli, 

IS. tmnc (naoHfnn) is the object of 
tfett, aroeai Is a predicate accnsittlve: 
App. 128: G.-L. 310: A, SM: B, 1?T, I: 
B.-B.3B2.a:H. 410, 1. 

!«. taOo contandlt! he turned from 
Us east^rard march to the southeast. 

would bave been much nearer Vesoutlo 
tban Caesar was. and only the most ex- 
traordinary eOort could have enabled 
Caesar to arrive flrst. 
Chap. St. Fear of the Oermans 

App. sat. a: G..L. BTO: A. 656: B, 2B3, 1: |" 
H.-B. U9: H. S33. 4. The principal - 
clause of this sentence begins with* 
tanlnt. t 7. 

rsl . . . cauli: Caesar was always 
careful about his supplies. In this case 
he had no doubt arranged tor supplies 
along his Lnteoded line of marcb, but 
he bad suddenly cbauged tbe dlrectlou 
or his marcb. and therefore failed to 
meet bis convoys. Consequently 
be now bad to make new arrange- 

S. T6clbus, "replies." 

tnftgnitiidlita. vlrtilCe, ezerelt&tl- 
ftoa: descriptive ablatives. 

= 134 


" ' primuin ort uB e^ t a tribunia^inilitnin, praefeotiB, reliqnlsque 

■V^wrfwrfftqui ex urbe amicitiae cauaa Caesarem eecuti non magnum in 

re militarl aeum habebant; quOrum alius alia c ausa illa tA. 

qaam eibi ad proficiscendum necessariam esse diceret, petebat 

nt eius YoluDtate discOdere liceret; noo null! pudore addncti, 

Qt timoris suspicionem vitarent, reaianeba&t. Hi neqne Tulttun 

u fingere neque interdum lacrimas tenere poteraut; abditl in 

tabemacnlis ant suum fatnm^uerebantur aut cum familiaribns 

anis commune periculum misera^ntur. Vulgo t^a castri^ 

teat&menta obBignabantur. Horum Tdcibos ac timOre paulatini 

etiam i! qui magnum in castris usnm habebant, milit^s ce^ 

to turionesque quiqne eqnitatui praeerant, perturb abantur. Qni 

moderate], moderalely : nSn mtdloorl- 
t«r. Id do small decree. 1. 

rnins, nwntlB, /- . tbe iblDklng lot- 
ally, mind, Intellect: tboughci dlspoi^l- 
tlon, (eellDgsi iiMQWa aalnOiQue, 
tolnds aDd hearts; alltn&tk mante, 
bereltoF reason. 4, 

partnrbA, i,(r. |tiU'b6, disturb], dis- 
turb greatly, tbrow Inu) coQfusloD, em- 
barrass, disturb; alarm, tertify. * 

>. tiibbnuB, -I, m. [tnbuB, tribe], 
tribune, a magtttratt eleetett by the people 
voliag in Irib/t, to defind Ike intereiti of 
Iheplibe; trlbDnui milltum, oritiai- 
t&rl8, a military tribune. « 

pra«fsetus, -I. m. [prftolloUi, place 

over], overseer, prelect, commander, 
oncer, captain {uaually ofcaratty), 4. 

IS. pudoi, '4ils. m, |pud«t, It 
Bhames], sbame, seuse of shame; sense 

B. trtbllnIi:BeelDt.41. 

10. amIcHl&e ckusfc: Caesar puts It 
dBllcately. Wa know from other sources 
tbal Caesar had with him young men, 
trieuds or relatives or Influential mea 
at Home, »bo hoped Jor personal gain 
from their connection nilh him In his 
proTlQce, Someoftbem had little tasl« 
for real fighting. 

11. quSrnm . . . lll&tft, •■aae of 
them alleging one reason, anotber 

13. dloerat, " they said, " agrees In 

of honor. 2. 

14. remaaefi, -joaatie, -mtn 
•m&iuiuD, inir. [r«-+iiiuiae, remal 
Btay or remain behind, remain, it 

IE. angb, Husert, flnzl, fietum, i 
form, imagine, devise, invent, a. 

15. tatMrnkonlnm. -1, n., tent, i 
ntum, -1, It. (fltrl, to Gpea 


mlMFOi, I. tr. [mla«r,iTretcbed], 

bewail, lament over, deplore. I. 

TUlg6, ado. [Tnlpia.the crowd], com- 
monly; everywhere. 2- 

18. test&nMntnm, -I, n. [teator, be 
a witness], wllL 1. 

Obilgn6, 1, Ir. [aigne, mark], seal, 
sign and seaL I. 

19. ceilturl6, -AnlB, m. [oentum, a 
bundred]. centurion, the commander of 
the ctnlury, the tixtiethpart of a legion. * 

Q.-L. 631.3: A.535:B.SB3, 1: H.-B. 521. i. 

14. vultum fingere, "control their 
features, ^' so as to loo^ unconcerned. 

IT. tdtla okilrls: why Is there no 
preposition? App. 151. b: G.-L. 388; A. 

. fc 

li. centnilfiiiiB: f 

ed especially lor their 

30. qui ex hla, ' 

re appoint 

■, Google 



^ e3t hJB minus timidds existjmarl volebant, con se hostem 
•vererit^sed anguetias itineris et magnit^dinem silvaniin quae 
iutercederent inter ipsos atqae ArioTistum, aut rem frumen- 
tariam/uF}Bat ia^ co mmode aupportarl posaet, timere d iceba nt. 
Non n^M etiam Caesari nuntiabaot, cum caatra moveri ac x 
aigna ferri iussiaset, oon fore di cto aad ientea militCs Deque 
propter timorem aigna latGroa." ''-'- li'"/. •'-..'-, " •'-.•■ i'- '^- ' 

40, Haec cum animadvertisBet, convocatd conailiO omni- 
nmqne ordinum ad id oooBilium adhibitie ceuturidnibus, 
Tehementer eos incusavit: Frimum, quod(aat qaam in partem 
ant quo coQsili5 ducerentur) eibi quaereudum aut cogitaudum ^> 
pntareat. ArioYietum se consule cupidissime populi Rom&ni b 

11. timldiu, -a, -urn. ad}, [timet, 

fearj. teartul, trlKtaUDSd, Umld. cow- 
tmiy, atrald. I. 

34. SUpporU, 1, tr. [lulH-portft, 
carry], carry or bring np from beneaUi; 
bring, convey; supply, lurulsb. i. 

36. dictum. -I, n. {pf. part, of dleO. 
•ayj. aajlng. remark; commanilj dlotO 
ftudltea, obEdleut. 1. 



in.. Obedient. « 


ftrda, -Inl^ m. 

row, tier, layer 

, line of lotditri: arrangement 

prlmi eTdluia 


Incus, 1, ('-. 


, brlna a case oi 

charge against 

ai. anguBtlfta ItlQerii: the valley 
ot the Dubls Is narrow aad yery rough. 
and It ArlOTlatua hod really beeo march' 
Ing toward ttiem It would have glTsn 
opportunity for ambuscades- 
Si. rem rr&meiitJtTlkm, ut posset, 

timere, lit. "feared the supplies, that 
Ihey could nr 

S6. enmluaBlMet: Indirect dlscom^ 
tor earn imeerii, <'wben you shall have 
ordered." = *'wheQ you order.*' The 
clause depends ou what foUowH, cot on 

iole^/utSroi aif. 

negne slsna 1&ttkr5i, "and would 
notadvaace." See Int. *i. 

Chap. 40. Caesar encourages his 

1. omntum 6ralDum: to the ordl- 

of the Qrst rank were admitted (Int. 43). 
ThlH, however, was a special gathering 
or all the olScerB to listen to Caesar's 

S. IncQB&Tlt: this Implies a verb of 
saying, and what follows Is In Indirect 
discourse. The tactful and self-reliant 
combination ol rebuke and encourage- 
ment makes the speech very eOecllte. 
unitary discipline demands severe pun- 
ishment for mutiny, but this speech 
preveoled open mutiny and served Cae- 
sar's purposo better than punishment. 
Tbere was never again any sign of 
mutiny In the Gallic war. 

4. dUcetentUTi subjunctive In an 
Indirect question. 

8lbl . . . cSgltanilum. "that they 
ought to Inquire or consider." The 
grammatical subject is the clause out 


amlcitiam appetisse ; cur hnno tarn temere quisqaam ab officii 
diacesBfirum iMicuret? Sibi quidem persuaderi, cognitis 8u!3 
pofltnlatiB atqne aequitita condiciOaum p&rapecta, eum noqne 
BDam neque populi Rdmani gratiam repndiiiturum. Qaod ai-, 
to fur&re atque amentia impalsus bellum intulisset, q uid tandem 
Tflrerentnr? tut cur d§ soA virtute aut dS ipsiua diligentii 
dgspgrSreut? Factum eiua hoBtis periQBlain pstrum noBtrSrum 
memoria, cum CimbriB et Teutoais a G. Maris pulsis noa , 
minorem laudem exercitus quam ipse imperStor meritus vide- | 

4. app«tS, -peters, -pBttvI{-p«tiI), 
-Unm, ('". and inir. <ad-l-peU), Best), 
^seefa lor, aim at, escroach upon; 
«pproacb, benear. 3; 

OOr, interrag. and rel. a^., why, lor 
irtiac reason ; fomhlch reason, wberS' 

Umeifl, a 

.. rasbly. blindly, without 

offlolum; -cl, n.. service, allegiance, 
duty; official duty, business; SSBS, man- 
Bia. or permanSrs In oOelS, to remain 

8. pottulitum, -I, n. [poitttlft. de- 

maudl, demand, claim, request. 4. 

aaaalUi, -Mtls,/. [aequui, eqnal], 
equality: falnness. equity; animi 
Mqnlt&s. contentment. I. 

pariplclO, -splcera, -spexl, -ipso- 
tum, [ir. spscie, look], look or see 

(hrough, Tiew, eiamlne, inspect: per 
ceive. reallie. leara. find out, ascac- 

B. repuWe.l, f-, reject. 1, 

10. furor, -6rla. m.. rage, trenzy, 
madness. £. 

fcmeHtla, -aa, /- [m«itB, mtnd]. bs- 

wUderment or mind, lolly. iDsanliy, I. 

ImpetlO. -pellare, -puli. -pulinm, 

tr. [In+paUd, drice]. drive or urge on. 
Incite, Instleate, impel. 3. 

11. «llgeiitla.-aeJ.CdillKemi,care- 

lol], caretulnesa, heedfulness, patostak- 

> OfclllB 

abbr. for praenomi 
(ga'yOa). « 

Kartua, -tI, «<., Oalos Harlui 
(Bfyfiama'ri-Qs). (A< conqmror of M« 
ambri arvl Teuloni. I. 

U. laus, landla, /., praise, com- 

S. cU llkdia&rat: the direct form 
was cvr SldUtt. "why should anyone 
snppoae*": App. 310. a; SflS. Ill: a.-L. 
985; esi. R. 2: A. 444; S87: B. ZTl; 31&, 3; 
H.-B. G13. 1: H, Kt, 4; 049. 3, Contrast 
with this subjunctive question tbe In- 
finitive In 14. B. 

7. Bibt . . . peTanUCrl, "in fact he 
" : App. 115,d:Q.-L, * " 

R. UA.SIS: B. 187,11. i 


I,-a 304, 3: I 

11. TBrirmttiT, dSspiratsnt: ct. 

note on 1. S. 

■Ill: the direct reflexive: App IM: 
Q.-L. 300, 1: A. 300, I: B. 344. 1. 1: H.-B. 
a63.1:H. G04. 

IpBluBT I.e. Caesar's; lalt could tiava 
been used here as the indirect reflexive, 
but il would be confusing because it baa 
Just been used as thedlrectrefleilTe. The 
use la something like tbal of ipie In 36, (. 

11. perlculnm, " a test." 

13. Cifflbrls at Tautonis: ct. tot. 3T. 
nana: of. Int. S. 

14. Tld<b&tnr: no satisfactory ez- 

o[ this Indicative ina: 



Utar; lactam ebiam nuper in Itatig serrili tumuitu, qnda il 
tamen aliquid usua ac diBciplina quam a nobis aocepiBsent 
smiA&y&Tenty' Ei quo ludicar! posse quantum haberet in sS 
boni cOnstuitia, proptereS qnod, qudS' aliqnamdiu inermes sine 
causa timnissent, hoa postea arm&tds ac victSres super&Bsent. 
Benique hOs esse edadem Oermlui5s quibuscnm saepe nnmerd » 
HaWetii congress! n5n sOlum in ania, eed etiam in illornm 
flnibag, plSrumque anperarint, qui tamen par^a ease nostrS 
eiercitai nun potuerint. Si quoa adreraum proelinm et fuga 
Gslldmm commovSret, hda, si qnaererent, reperire posse, 
diutumit&te bell! d6fat!gfit!3 Gallia, Arioviatnm, cum maltds ft 

EUDdatlon ; tsdowd, popnloricr. glory. 

Imparfctor, -Oria, m. [imparO, com- 
[luud], commander-ln-ohlef . gsneral. :|i 

IB. MrrlllB, -«, tUi}, [MTTUI, > 

alavej, or or llkea slave. Berrlls. 

tomnltUB, -U, m- [lunwO, 
raar. contusion, disorder, tuiuulti up- 
rlslnc, ingnrrecUon. 3. 

la. dlaclplISJk, •»«,/. Idla oft, learn], 
leunlng ; dUclpllne ; 

■go, mal (App. 61), Jlrit per: print.. 

allquundllL, ado. [allqnta, soma + 
dllk, long], lor some time. I. 

Inermli, -«,a<tf. [In.+umk, arnu] 
without arm* or weapou, unarmed. 1. 

19. armO, l, tr, (uma, arms], arm, 
equip: poll., ana one's self; irmttui, 
pf, pari., at a4i; armed; arm&tl, a* 
noun, armed men, if 

33. plimmqaa, adv. ipidrniqna, 
ttie greater part] . lor ibe mo^t pan, 
mosclf, genecallr; agalu sad agato. 
very often. 4: 

35. dlfttunLlUB,-tAtU,/-ldllktuni- 
Ul, long] . long duralloQ. 3. 

d«AtlKJV, 1. Ir. [fttigO, wearrl, com. 
pleEelf wear;, tatlgne, tire out, ex- 

it, factum: ec. me pericalam. 

wrrlU tnmultO: the Insorrectlon of 
Ibe gladiators under Spnrtacns In Tt-Tl 
«. a Man J ot ihe gladialora and slaves 
wbo Joined ihe uprising were Qer- 

IT. quaatum bonl, "bow great an 

IB. inarmja: a part ot Sparucus's 
band was at first armed only with 
■takes; yet they won vlotorles and thus 

SO. qnlbuacnin Helvetll eouBreMl 

whom the Hel- 

vetll havlag 
■'Whom the BelveUl bad met and con- 
quered." aupeTtrUt; tense? App, ITO. 
a:G.-I<. t&i. a.. A. SSJ. ». n.: B. SIB: H. 
U4. 1. 

13. Qui: the antecedent laBdnOa, 
The ai^umeut U (hat slnoe the HelretU 
hare beaten the Qermans and the 
Romans hare beaten the BelvetU, the 
Romans can beat the Qermans. 

33. proellum: the battle at Mageto- 

94. aomnoTirat: the direct form 
App. isa: Q.-L. S»: A. 
I -B. S»: H. tai, 1. 



menses oastris se ac palfidibuB tenaisset neqne snl potest^tem 
fgcisset, despSrantgs iam de pagna et dispersos subito adortum 
magis ratlone et cdnsilio quam virtute TicisBe. Cui ratiOni 
contra homliies barbaros atque imperitdB locus fuisset, hac ne 

n ipsum qnidem spgrare nostros esercitds capi posse. Qui suum 
timorem in rei frumentariae simulationem aognstiasque itineris 
conferrent facere arroganter, cum aut de officio imperutOiiB 
deaperure aut praeacribere Tiderentur, Haec sibi ease curae: 
frumentum Sgquaaos, Leucoa, Lingones Bubministrare, iamque 

B esse in agris frumenta matura; de itinere ipsos brevi tempore 
iudicaturoa. 1 Quod Qon fore dicto audientea neqne signa laturi 
dicantur, nihil Ee ea re commoveri ; scire enim, quiboscamque 
exercituB dictd audiens ndn fuerit, ant male rS gestA fortunam 
defuisse ant aliqno facinore comperto araritiam esse convictam; 

36. paltki, -fidia, f., niBTsb, idotbsb, 

3T. dltpetgS, -ipergers, -aperal, 
-apettnm, ('-.Upargfi, scaceerl, ecaiter, 

SB. iiiiparltus. -*., -um, a^. [InH- 
perltUS, eipertance], InerpBrienced, 
unskilled, ignorant. 4. 

SI. limnlfttie, -finis. /. [simulO, 

nsbe like], almolaUon, preWnse, decelC, 

34. Leuol, -6miii, m- (&%}. Uw 
X«ucl(lu'a). 1. 

■nbmliUstT&, 1. tr. [mlnUtrQ. w^t 

upon], rnmlsb, mpply, gtre. 

SB. bieTlB, -•, oty.. short, brief, 
transitory; brsTl, in a sbort time. « 

SS. mala, oitD. ftnAlUI, bad], badir, 
.lit. adrerselr, Comp.. pelua; mp.. 

3». dtaum, dMBia, dsnii. — . in'''. 

[Bum, be. App. Ml. be wanting, be 
absent trom, fall. * 
facinuB, 'norls, n. tf^lfi, dol, de«di 

misdeed, outrage, crime. 3. 

as. aul potMtfcMtn, " a chance at 

37. dfiBpiruittB, disperBliB agree 
frith au implied cJi irhlch la the object 
of adortum and refers to the Qaula. 

as. tiitlSllI: translate witb hMe In 

39. liao . . . pOBSe. "not even (Ar. 
lovtstus) himself hoped that our armies 
Oonld be caught \>j Ibis stratagem," 

SI. nl . . . aimulitlSnam, "apre- 
Mnae about the supplies." iri is an ob- 
JectlTB genltlTB. 

n. de . . . deaper&rB, "lolack con- 

fidence in the general's attention to bla 

SB. m&t&ra: it was now August. 

86. auod . . . dIC&Dtur, " as to the 
Btalement that tbr? would not obef hi? 
orders or advance. " nuod: translation? 
App. 248, atO.-UBES. 3: A. 5Tl.a; 13. 2S9. 
2:H.-B. 652,2^H. 588, 3, n. 

ST. aulbUBOumque . . . cooTictam, 
lit. '■ that to whomsoever an army had 
not been obedient, (H> them) either 
fortune had failed or avarice bad been 
proved." This most be turned Into 

■, Google 



gnam innocentiam perpetu^ vita, felicitat«ia HelTetifimm bellft 40 
ease perspectam. Itsqae Be qaod in longiarem diem collaturus 
luisset repraeaentatamm et proximi nocte dS qairta vigilii 
caatra moturum, nt qnam primum intellegere posset ntnim 
flpnd eo9 pudor atqne officium aa timor plus valSret. Qnod 
si praeterea nSmO aequatur, tamen sS cum s5l& decima legione u 
itnram, de qui ni)n dubitet, sibique earn praetdriam cohortem 
fntflram. Haic legiOni Caesar et indulserat praecipue et prop- 
tor Tirtutem cdnfidgbat maximg. 

4 1 . Hac oratione habita mirum in modum coayersae Bunt 
omniam meutes sammaqae alacritas et cnpiditaa belli gerendl 
illata est, prlncepsque deoima legifi per tribunOs militnm el 
gratiSs Sgit, quod dS s6 optimum iudicium feciaset, sOque 
esse ad liellum gerendum paratissimam cdufirmavit. Deinde 6 

af&rltla, -ae, /. [sTimi, greeaj], 

coDTlnofi, -Tlnoert, -Tlel, •Tlctnm, 
Ir- [t1iic6, conquer]. confiMr c<»npl<(iJ(f,' 

40. InnooMitla. •a«, /. {Innooina, 

Innocenl,] . Inlegrltr. I. 

fdlleltoa. -tktU. /. Ifillx, bapprl. 
hipplQess, success, good fortune. I. 

41. lonpia, -L, -uin, a(lj.. long, dls- 
(aiit;of long duration; ladious. if 

42. repraeMntt, i, ir. [t«— t-prae- 
•jiu, presenti, make present; ilo at 

. an. conj., ■■ 

d U> introd^ict the 

ueond mtmbtr of atternatltie gutttUnu, 

45. decimal, -a. -nm. oril. num. 
adj. [deoem, ten], tenib. « 

46. praetorina, -a, -um, o^^.tpraa- 
tor, conunanOer] . praetorian, belonslng 
to the generaL 2. 

cobora. -tia, /.. cohort. * 

4T. lndulg«d. -dull ire, -dulal, — , 
ItWr., be Indulgent m, [aror. ]. 

praaGlpuS, ads. [praeclpuus. espe- 
Gla)], especial!;, particularly r 1. 

1. moduB, -I, m. measure, guantltr, 
size; manner, method, style; elusmodl, 
of auch a kind, such; abh. niad6, ifilA 
gen., in tbe cbaracter of, like, • 

3. alaerltis, •Utls, /. [alaoer, 
lively]. Uvellness. ^rdor. 3. 

40. lumtoantlam, "fair dealing." 
not "Innocence"; opposed to atHrUiam. 
What tbe soldiers would object to would 
be the generars keeplog too large a 
sbare of tbe booty for himself. 

parpatul TlU, "tbroogboutblsllfe." 

41. quod . . . npraeienUtnTnin, 

"be would do at once what he had In- 
tended to put OH. etc." 
M. acnua . . . Taliret: an indirect 

^. 331; 2S&: B. I6S. 1 

46. pcaatirtam ooharMm, " hU 
body-guard," which would naturally be 
composed ol the bravest troops. 

Chap. 41. The panic Is checked and 

■, Gl.)(.5t^lc 



reliquae legidnea cum tribunis militum et primoram orditiiim 
ceutnridnibus eg&ruat, uti Caesari aatisfacereat : Se neqae 
nmquam dubitasse naque timnisse neque de Bamma belli gaum 
iudicinm, sed imperatoris esse ezistimaTiBBfl. Edrum satis- 

10 factione accepta et itinere exquisito per Diviciacum, quod ex 
Giallia ei maximam fidem habebat, ut, milium amplias quin- 
quaginta circuitu, locis apertig exercitum duc&ret, de qaartii 
vigilia, ut dixerat, profectus est. Septimd dig, cnm iter non 
intermitteret, ab exploratSribua certior factus est ArioviBti 

15 copias a uoBtriB milia pasanum qaattuor et viginti abesse. 

42. Cognltd Caeaaria adventu Ariovistus legatos ad enm 
mittit: Quod anteg. dS colloquio postulaaaet, id per ae fieri 

8. umqaBm, ndc, at any time, ever; i 10. BxqnlrS, -aMlrers, -quIbIyI, 
neqne . . . nmiiutitn.aud never, never. I -quliltiun, tr. Iquasift, searcb], seek 

2. J or searcb out, inl|Uire. iDvestlgale, 

9. utUfftctiia, -otLlt. /. [utiBfaoia, 2. 

give eallsfactlon), saclsCacilou; excuse, 1 11. iiuUiqQliKlnt& (L). card, num. 
apologj. 1. I aii}.. iruiicl,. flftj. 3. 

6. earn trlbtknli egerant uU, -' ar- 
ranged with ate crlbuDes cbal " or " beg- 

B. neane <U . . . flxlatim&TlBBs, 

"and that tbey bad noi tbougbt chat 
the decision regarding the conduct of 
the war was theirs, but (knew that It 
was) the commander's." 

10. ItlnBre . . . DIvielienm ut . . . 
dltceret. "baTlog sought aroute. with 
Cbe help o[ DIvlciacus .... in order 
Ibat he might march his arm; through 
open countrj-. (though) by a circuit or 
more than fifty miles. " 

Mt a«llls. ■■ of (all) the GanlB." 

11. el: case? App. n^ a: G,-L, 3«, 
n. 5: A. 307. a. a. 2: H.-B. 303, footoote 

3, b. 
mllttuii quluqaigintt is a de- 
scriptive genitive. Why not an ablative 
after the comparative' App. 139, b-.G.-L,. 
398, R. 4: A. 4OT, c: B, 217, 8: H.-B. 416, d: 

13. clrenltf): he passed around to 
the north of the broken country In the 
valley of the DubU near Vesontlo (see 

13. nt dlxBTAt: cf. 40. 42. 

•aptlm6 did: the seven days' mafch 
brought bim to the battlefleld Indicated 
on '^he map facing p. I IT. Arlovlseus. 
who bad probably been marching north- 
ward (cf. note on ST, 6), had learned 
that Caesar was marching toward bim. 
and had turned l)ack to meet Caesar. At 
this time he was not (ar from Stras- 

DuiB . . . intenultterat: i.e. he did 

usually given about every fifth day. CI. 
Int. 54. 

Chap. 43-4T. Negotiations -wiUi 
AriovistDS are ftnitless. 

Chap, 43, AriovistUB asks fbr a 
cohference, under conditions vrUCb 
Caesar grants. 

3. poBtul&Bset: sc. Coftar. 

Id . . . Ucere, "that . . . might Da 
done as far sh he was concerned." Ula 
ibe antecedent of qwid. 




licere, qaoDiam propins aocessisset, suque id Bine perlcnld 
facere poaae existimaret. Non reapuit condiciouem Caeaar 
iamque eura ad eanitatem reverti arbltrabatur, cum id quod 6 
antefi petenti dunegaaaet oltro poUiceretur, magnamque in 
speiii veniebat, pro aaia taatie popallque Rdm&ni in enm 
bene&ciis, cognitis aula poatulatia, fore uti pertitiaciii d^sisteret. 
Dies coUoquio dictne est ex eo die quintus. Interim aaepe 
cnm legati ultro citroqne inter eoa mitterentur, Arioristna ii 
postulavit ne quern peditem ad colloquium Caeaar add&ceret: 
Vereri ae ne per insidias ab eo cireamvoniretur; nterque cum 
equitatu veniret; alia ratione aeee uon eaae venturum. Caeaar, 
quod Deque colloquium interpoaita causa toUi Tolebat neqne 
saliitem auam Gallorum equitatui committers andebat, com- u 
modiesimum eaae stiituit, omnibus equis Gallis eqnitibns 

S. p«rtl]i&cU, -ae, /. (pertlnsA, 
bold tbrougb or faal]. obstinacy, stub- 
bomnesa. pertinacity. 1. 

10. oltrS, ada.. bittaer; ultrS citrO- 
qua. back and tocth. 1. 

1). pades. pedlUs, m. [pii, coot], 

(ool soMler; pi., infantry, fool. 3 

14. InterpCnS, -pSuere, -poaol, 
-posltum, tr. ipOna, place], place be- 
tween, Inierpose; allege: cause: flden 
InterpSnate. pledice. 4. 

15. commodni, -a, -um. adj. 

(modus, naeaaure], in /all mtaturt ; cod- 
vsnienc. galtable. aaUstaclory. 3, 

4. rHpn6, -ipuers, -ipul. — , tr. 
reject, spurn. I. 

5. B&nltftB.-tfcUB, /.[ainni, sound, 
soandness of ui1nd,good sense, dlscre- 

e. denegA, I, Ir.lnesa, deny], refuse. 

oltrO, adv.. to or on tbe [artber side, 
lieyond : of one's ovn accord, volunta* 
rllj, spontaneously, without provoca- 
tion ;liesIiles,nioreovBr; ultrd oltrSquB, 
back and forth. * 

:: ArloTlstus's reason 
lOT refusing a, conference (see S4, T) no 
longer existed. Caesar's prompt ad- 
vance had impressed him and he nas 
more Inclined to confer. 

t. pvtentl, " when be (Caeearl asked 

S. for« utI dCsUteret, lit. - that it 

wonJd be that he would give up "=-'thBt 
h* would giveup." Tlie use of this peri- 
phrasis is here a matter of choice on 
Caesar's part, since tba verb is active 
and has a future influltlve form. tt. 
noieonsi, 3S.and App2«hb:a..L.MI: 

A. B6S, 3, a: a 3T0, 3, n: H.-B. 472, c: H. 
BIB. 2. 

IS. Tenliat: thesubjunctlveof com- 
mand In Indirect discourse, 
alllk ratlftne, "on any other terms." 
IG. salbtam . . . audibat: Caesar 

GerraaD cavalry. 

16. aallU •aulUbui: caseF App. iio, 
I:G.-L.3t&.R 1:A.381:B. 183,2, (<:H-a 
3TI : H. 427. 




d€tractis, efi legiSnirifia milites legiOnis decimae, cai qnam 
maxima confidebat, impdnere, ut praesidiutn quam amicis- 
simum, si quid opus factd esset, haberet. Quod cum fieret, 
u Don irrtdicnle quidam ex militibns decimae legionia dint 
plus quam pollicitus esset Caesarem facere; poUicitum bS in 
cohortis praetoriae loco decimam legidnem habitui'um, ' ad 
equum rescribere. 

43. Planities erat magna et in ea tumulus terrenus satiB 
grandis. Hic locus aequum fere apatium a, castris utriusqne 
sberat. EO, ut erat dictum, ad colloquium T^nSrunt. Legi5- 
cem Caesar quam equiB vexerat passibns duceutis ab eo tumul6 

IT. ditralia. -traHate, -trlxl. 
-tractum, Ir. [traM, drawl, draw on or 
away, withdraw, ulte off, remove. 1. 

leglSD&rluB. -a, -um, adj. [legiO, 
legion], ralallngtoaleglon.leglOQiirj. 4. 

18. ImpOnii, -ptaeie, -poiui, -poa- 

llum, (r. [tn+pSnC, place], place 
upon, set on, put or impose od; maont. L 

30. Irrldlcuie.adp. [In'+rldlcnluB, 
wltly], without wit, unwlttlly. 1. 

33. reacrlbS, 'icrlbere, 'SOiipsI, 
-Beriptum, tr. [te-+aoAbft, write], 
wrltB again; transfer. 1. 

1. pl&nltiea, 'it, /. (pl&nuB, levelL 

level ground, plain. 4. 

tumulus, -!, m. [tumai. swell], swell- 
ing; mound, illU 1. 

terr^QUB, -a, -urn, aiV- [lerra.earthi, 
of earth, l . 
3. graiutlB, -a. aili; great, large. 

equliablH, Impartial ^ustj aequni anl- 

. ed, tt 

. aaset, Ut, "if there should 



■■ auid 

case? App 

laS. 6: G 



178, 3; H 

B, 387, III 



i facW 

n?App. H 


G.-C «6: A. 


a: B, 218, 

2.c: H.-B. 


Caesar thought si eril, •• U there shall 
20. nBn IrrlliculS, "wittily.- 
'it. poilleiium . . . rsiciibera: the 
soldier said. In substance, " After prom- 
ising only to make ua his hody-guard, 
Caesar Is actually making us cavaliers." 
The pun Is based on the double meautQg 
or od tquum Tiicnbtri, namely, (1) to 
transfer Co the caralry, a part ol the 

army looked down upoubytheleglonar; 
soldiers, and (!) to knight, i.e. raise 
to a high rank In Roman society. "Cav- 
alier" means eltber "cavalry man" or 

Chap. 4; 

le confareoca Caesar 

i. ut eiat dlstum, "as had bea 

4. aquli. " on horseback." 
passlbus, InterrallC: ablatives c 

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coDBtituit. Item equitSs ArioviBti pttri iDterr^d odastitSmnt. t. 
ArioriBtns ex eqnis ut coUoqaereatnr €t praeter se denos ad 
colIoqniTim adducerent postniavit. ITbi eO Tentmn eat, Caesar 
initio drationis sua een^tusque in earn beneficia commemoraTit, 
qnod rgx appellatas esset a seafttu, quod amicus, quod monera 
smplissima missa; quam rem et panciB contigisse et pro magnia h 
hominnm oflficils conaogBBe tribui docebat; illam, cum nequa 
aditnm Deque cansam postulandi iustam hsbSret, beueficid ao 
liberalit&te bu& ac senatus ea praemia cdnBecfltnin. DocSbat 
etiam qoam veterSa quamque iustae causae oecessitadinis ip^ 
cam Haeduia iiitercederent, quae senatfla cdnsults qaotiena » 
qaamqae hon5rifica in e5B facta esaeut, ut omui tempore tdtlOB 
OalHae princip&tum Ilaedui tenuisseut, prius etiam quam 
nostram amicitiam appetiasent. Popult Romani hano ease 

9. muiDa, -aria, ».. dm;, servioe, 

task; present. 1. 
U. doceS, ttooers, doenl, doctum, 

13. atUtuB, -Hb, m. [silefi, go to], 
approacli, meanBot approach, Hglit of 
approach, access. :|i 

Idstiu, -a, -urn, lull- [IbB, right]. Id 
accordance with law or right, lawful, 
ralld, Just, fair; proper, regular; tuWi 
nnera, appropriate. 4. 

13. prftemlQin, -ml, n., distincUon, 
prize, reward. i|[ 

14. naoeisltlkde, -lull,/. [neoeaM, 

ct. naaaBB&rliu. frland], Iriendahlp, 

IB. cftnsi^ltmn, -i,n. [o0iiiul6, lakg 

counsel], rtaulc of diliberation; decree, 
enactment, decision. 1. 

auotlina.adc. [qoot, how manf] , (I) 
{nlerrog. , how ■mstaf times! bon ottenf 

IB. taonArlfleui, -a., -lun, aifj. [lutm- 
St, houor+faolS, makej, conlerrins 

S. adnatiWrimt: distinguish care- 
toil; Itetween conalito and cdnitituS. 

S. ex «QUlB, "on horseback." CI. I. 
1 ; la tbat line the horses ore the mesne 
bf wblcb the soldiers are brought to the 
but ; in this Ctaey are the places from 
which the conversation goes on. 

9. iiacHl unloiu: sc appelistut luii. 
Ct. note on SS, 3. 

10. inlBB&: sc. «faenf. The three Tiioif 
daUBBB are substantive clauses in ap- 
position with binfjicla. and tbe aub- 
ionctlTe Is dne to Implied Indirect dis- 

12. adlttuu: I.e. to the aenaie. 

14. Ipili . . . IntHTOMsrsQt, "ea- 
Isted between them [the Bnmans] and 
the Haedui." IntsiraJderAnt: smtK 
JunctiTe in an indirect question. 

16. ina^B. "in their behalf." 

ut, "bow," taCroduclng an indlreot 

II. OftllUe: ie. Celtic Saul; but 
we have learned In 81, H that even there 
their supremacy had always been dls- 

prius . , . qaaxa = prtutjuam. Tbe 
subjonctlve which it Introduoea U due 

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c5iiBiiStQdiiiein, at socids atqne smlcos nOn modo bu! nihil 
n d€perdere, sed gratia, dignitate, hondre anotiorea vellet esse; 
qaod Tgro ad amicitiam populi Rdmfini attullBsent, id iia eripi 
qnis pati posset? Fostolavit deinde eadem quae Iggatis in 
mand&tis dederat: N6 aut Haeduis ant e&mm sociis bellnm 
inferret; obsidgs redderet; si niillam partem Germfindrnm 
% ( Oman) remittere posset, at ne qu&s amplius Rhennm transire 

44. ArioTiBtna ad poatulata CaeBaris panca respoiidit, de 
BuiB virtutibuB mnlta praedicavit: TranslBse Rh^Dom sese noa 
BuA Bponte, sed rog&tum et arcessitum a Gallis; ndn sine 
magna sp€ magnlsque proemiis domnm propinquOsque 
6 reliqniBBe; sedSs habere in 6alU& ab ipsls conoessas, obsidcs 
ips&rum volantate datdB; stipendium capere iure bell! qaod 
viotSrfiB victis imponere consuSrint. N6n sSse Grallis, sed 
Oallds sibi bellam intuliaae; omnea Galliae ciTit&tes ad se 

30. Up«rd6. -petdata, -psrdtdl, 
•pardllum. tr. iperdO, dmtroT], de- 

■iroy utterly ;IorfBlt, lose. 2. 

dlcnltiB.-ULtU,/. [dlsnui, wortbj-l, 
WDribiQesH. dignity, merit, rack. 3. 

ftuctm, -i, -um. atj- [tlf- part, of 
auiet, increase], Increased, advanced, 

31. aS^rfi, aflarra, ftttnll, aiUtnin. 

('■■ I»4+ftrB, carry. App. 81], bring, 
Ulce or cany to, preseat; occasion. 
cause; bring forward, allege: report. 1 

as. rBintnA. -mlUera. -iniil,-iuit- 
■um, fr. Ira-HmlttS, send], send or de- 
apatcb back, retara, restore, remit; re- 
lease, relax, give np; imiMtVf, pf- part. 
(M ml/., mild, t 

Kt. «ani-.bat, alleasu * 

19. UtTallat, "CO wish"; aaabslan. 
tlve clause of resnlt, In apposition -with 
Aofx eotmiMSdiinm. 

■Ul, ■' o( their own " ; Uie neater of 

30. led auott&rft bim, "but raiber 


c: ablatives of speclSca- 

31. Iia; for case. c(. note on 43, 1& 

33. quia poaaat: the direct form wo* 

Tula potiU, "who would be able?" and 

the subjunctive Is retained Id the in- 

eommand la Indirect discourse. What 
was the direct form of n< lr\ft7Ttlf App, 
!I9: Q.-L. 171, a: A, 460r B. 3TS. c: H.-B. 
Chap. 44. ArloTlEtns JustlSes Ileb 

mands and proposals. 

S. roc&tiuiist&raaaaItum:iibepartl- 
clplea may be translated by a causal 

i OftUla: ct. 11, II. 
B. ab Ipili: BC. Oa, 
e. lUe: ablative OJ 
T. cSnautrlot; tbe 
part of this chapter i 

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lam Tenisse ac coiitr9r se caetra habuiBBe; e&s omngB 
copias a se udo proelio puUas ac superatas esse. Si itorum lo 
eiperiri velint, se iteram paratum esse dficertare; si pSce Qti 
veltnt, iniqaam esse de stlpendio recusare, quod sua volnntfite 
ad id tempas pependerint. Amicitiam popoli RomaDi aibi 
ornfimeDtd et praesidio, non detrimeuto esse oportCre, atqne 
e« hac spe petiese. Si per populnm HdmaiiuiB stlpendinm is 
lemitt&tur et dediticii subtrahantur, ndn minus libenter sese 
recuBfitfirum populi Bomani amicitiam quam appetierit. Quod 
mnltitudinem Germ^omm iu Galliam tr^ficat, id se bqi 
muniendi qoq Galliae impugoandae causa facere; eius rei 
testimonium esse quod nisi rogfttus nou venerit et qnod bellnm m 
not! intnlerit, sed dSfenderit. SS prins in Galliam v^nisse 
qjam popnlum EOmfinum. Nomquam ante hoc tempus exer- 
citnm populi ROmani Galliae prdrinciae finibus ^gresanm. 
Quid sibi vellet? Cur in suas possessidnes veniretf PrdTinciam 

11. dioertS, l.incr.ioart&.contend], 

igbi u> tbe eoil. Ught ont. altuggle 
Bercel; or earoestl;, Tie, coul«nd. 4: 

13. Inlquua, -k. -um, tut}- [in-+ 
MHuui.evon, Juat), imeyen; unjust, no- 
liir; unfavorable, dlsadTanUtgeoiis. * 

13. Smfcrnantum, -I, n. [SmS, adoru], 

dttTliiMiitnm, -1, «. [d«+ter6, mb. or 

mar out], barm, loas, Injorji dis&ster, 

inMrahO, -trfthara, -trtzl, 
Itralie, arawt. draw or 
carry oil from btntatk; take away.' with. 
draw. 1. 

Ubsntar, adv. [libtni, wUUnBj.wm- 
ItiKlr. Blftdlr. wlch pleasure. 3. 

IB. Iiii[infii6, I. (r. [in+pnfnA, 

light], tight agalnsl. attack, asaall. 2, 
30. t«itliiiBuium, -nl, n. ttMtor, be 

a wlLness], testlmooy. eTldence. prooT. 

i. oppugnandtun: genmd or ge- 
InudlTeFApp. 28»:G.-I>127: A. eoa,n.3: 
B. 33». i: H.-B. ei3. 1 : B. 038. tootDote 1. 

cutra babuliia, " had eacamped." 

10. UtO proallO: tbe battle at Uoge- 
tobrtga: ct. ai, t1. 

IS. MiilolUamalbl6niaiiunt*«He 
oporMra, lit, " that It waa rtgbt lor tbe 
rrieodshlp to be to bim lor an bOQor." 
Uake Eagtlsb of this. 

IS. petisae: ec. earn, referring to 
fuiritiam, as tbe object. Tbe kins ad- 
Tilu that he had sued tor the honor, 

•1 ramlttfctur: a vivid future condl- 

IT. quatn, " than." 
auod, "as M thefact tbau" 

31. PTiui auMu populum Be- 

miniun; p^i^u guar,t = priutgtmni. a con- 
J unction, and the more accurate expres- 
sion would be priuaquam popultn 
SomOma vfnerit. Tbe truth of the state- 
ment 1b denied by Caesar In the next 
34. uuld ilblTellat, lit. "wbatdid 


3 Idlon 


ioe App. S«8, I: G.-L. Wl : A. H 

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IS auam banc esse Galliam, sicut illam nostram. Ut ipsi concSdi 
non oportgret, si in ooatroa Imes impetnm faceret, sic item 
HOB ease iniqade, quod io suo iiire Be mtorpellaremus. Quod 
fratrSs a senatu UaeduOs appelUtoa diceret, non ae tam 
barbarum neque tam imperitum eaae rerum ut non sciret neque 

3D bello AUobrogum proximo Haeduoa ■Romania auxilium tuliase 
neque ipsos in bia contentionibus quas Haedai secum et cum 
Sequania babniaaent auzilio popnli Romani iiaos esse. Debere 
se auspicarl simulata Gaesarem amicitia, quod exercitum in 
Gallia habeat, auT opprimendl causa babgre. Qui nisi dgcEdat 

K> atque exercitum dgducat ex bts rogionibus, sgsg ilium nOn pro 
amico, sed prd boste faabiturum. Quod si eum iDterfgcerit, 

95, 8lcut or alouU, adc. [alo, so-f-nt- 

(1), a»1. so as; just as, as: Just as If. l. 

ST. Interpslie, I, tr., Inlerrupt, hln- 

31. eontentlS, -bttie, f. [oonteiidS, 
BCrlvel. BCrlvlng. struggle, corneal, dia- 

33. Suiptoor, 1, tr. [lUBplolD. sus- 
pect], suspect, distrust isurmlae. if 

BlmulO. 1. ir. [limlllB. like], make 
Uke; pretema. 2. 

34. opprlmS, -primere, -prssBl, 

-preBBum, tr, [ob+pr«nl6, press], prea 
down, oppreas; OTerwhelm, overpower, 
destroy; fall upon, surprise. 4. 

ss. dfidaoo. -daoers, -dozl, -dno- 

tmn. It. (dtlcO, lead), lead don-u or 
away, withdraw; bring, oondQCC, lead; 
laflaeuce; launcti {ihipty, give in mar- 
riage. * 

tBglS, -6nlB,/- (rags, keep straight], 
line, direction ; quarter, region, country, 
terrluiry, place; e legloaa, «^th gm.. 
opposite. * 

•■ The 

28. banc QAUlam, " this (part of) 
Qaul." Heclalmsthathisrlght of pos- 
session IQ the land near the Rhine Is as 
clear as tbat of the Romans IQ the 
Roman province. 

nl . . . opart£rst, "Just : 
ought to be no yielding to hit 
direct form of the conditional sen tenet 
was probably oportsat, Blfaclam, lit 
"It would be right If I should make.' 
This Is a less vlvld future condition! 
App. K7: G.-L. MS; A. &IS, !, S; B. 303; 
H.-B. MO: H. B76. Such a condition has 
the same form In Indirect discourse as a 
ylvld future condition, and can be dls 
tlngulshed only by the sense of the paa 

37. qnod diceret, "as to the fact 

39. Imparltum rSrum, "Ignorant of 
political maCWFs. ' 
SO. balls Allobrognm; cf. note on 


Haedu6B . . . ftBOa bbbs: Ariovlstns 
le weak point in 
In fact the alli- 
ance of the Haedul and the Romans had 
been mere words untU now wbenltsulted 
Caesar's purpose to consider it binding. 

31. lpB6B=H'aeifuos, 

33. debere eS BUBpld&rt, "bebada 
rlBht to suspect, ■• 

33. slmulSiti vnloltlfc, "allhongb 
he made a pretense of friendship'* to- 
ward Arlovlstus. 

qDOd. "Inasmuch as." 

3S. BfisS . . . atnlefi bftbltarum, "he 
would regard him [Caesar] not as a 

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lOQltis sese nobilibus prlncipibaBque popali ROmilDi gr&tom 
esse facturum ; id b€ ab ipsls per eorum uuntios compertum 
habere, qnormn omnium gratiam atqne amicitiam eias morte 
redimere posset. Quod bi dgcessisset et liberam poBsoBsionem 
Galliae sibi tradidisset, magno se ilium praetnio remaner&t&rnm 
et qnaecnmqne bella geri rellet sine uUo eius labore et periculd M 

45. Malta & Caesare in earn sententiam dicta sunt, qaarS 
negotid desistere uOn posset: Neqne suam neque popnll 
Edmani consuetudinem pati atl optime meritSs sociOs dSsereret, 
neqne so iudicare Galliam potioa esse ArioTisti qaam popnli 
RomaalJ/' Bello superatos esse Arrernds et But^Dds a Q. Fabio b 

IT. ffT&tuB, -ft, -um. luij., pleasing, 
■greeable. acceptable. 1. 

U. lltwT. -«Ta, -arum, tvH,, nnre- 
Krafned, free; undUpuMd. I. 

41. remIUi«ror, i,l'-,[ra-+mlUisror, 
Ireseni], repay, rsward. 1 . 

41. Ikbor,-ArU, nt.. toil, etton, strlv- 
liig! UtHir. hardsblp. if 

1. Mntantla, -U,/.(sUltlS, think], 
way of tblnklDg, oplolon, sentiment; 
purpose, desljiii. scheme, plan; decision, 
•nsolTe; verdict; sentence. « 

I. l>«ne, adv. (bonua, good], well, 
Tightly, successfully. Comp., melius; 
nV'.opUmd. 3. 

diHr6, -Mnrs, -Hnil, -■•rtmn. Ir. 

tlsrS, entwine, loin], disjoin; Bbaiidoii, 
desert., forsake ; dtMrtu, kT. pari, at 
ail}., deserted, solitary. 3. 
4. potluB, adv. [comp. o/jtMia, »ble), 

e. BuWnl, -6runi, m, (DEde). the 
Hulenl (ni.te'nl). * 

Q., o66r./orQulntna.Q\ilnCusO™in'. 
tda). a Boman praeaonun. 4; 

Fablul, -bl, m. QnlntuB FablDS 
Mailraus (kwin' tQs laJbl-Bs niAk'sI-. 
mila). victOF ooer tilt Gauli, 131 B. O. 

ST. mnltls . . . fftottkrum; as ttae 

bead of tbe democratic party, Coeaar 
bad made many bitter eneinles lu tbe 
wlstocrallc party, especially daring Mb 
cotunlsblp. It is entirely possible that 
•otne of tbem bad Indicated to Arlovlatus 
Uelr desire to have him put out of the 

IS. id compartum Iii,Mre differs 
™ry sUgiitly from id comptritie. "bad 
lODDd tbis out." This means "he pos- 
sessed this as a thing fully Bscertalued": 
itpp^ SS6.b:G-US3i:A.Wl.b:B.SXl.B: 
B..B. «%, 5, s : E. StO, 2. 

Chap. 4 B. Caesar InsiEts on Roman 
rights in Oanl. 

1. In aun ■antantiun, qofcre, Ut, 

"to this effect, why " = "to show why." 
qu&rj possst Is an Indirect question. 

3. pktl uti dSsereret, "allowed bim 
toabandon." pnetor Is usually [allowed 
by an luDnltlve Instead of an uf 

4. AiloTliU, popnll BBm&nl: predi- 
cative genitives of possession. 

5. lUper&tOa oHb: in the year lEl, 
at the time when tbe AUobroges were 
conquered. As this was Qtty years be- 
fore ArloTlstDS had entered Gaul, it dis- 
posed of the claim (U, Zl) tbat Arlo- 
vistus bad come Into tbe country cef ore 
the Roman people. 



Maximo, quibas popniua Rdmanus igadvisset neqne in pro- 
vinciam redggisaet neque stipendium imposuisset. Quod si 
antiquissimiim qaodqne tempuB spectari oporteret, populi 
Romani iiiBtissimum esse in Gallia imperium; b! iiidicium 

to BenatuB observari oporteret, liberam debere ease Galliam, quam 
bello victam suia legibna liti voluiaset. 

46. Dum haec in coUoquiu geruutar, Gaeaari nuntiattim 
est equitgB ArioviatT propios tnmulum accgdere et ad nostras 
adequitaxe, lapidea telaque in nostroB conicere. Caesar 
loqnendr flnem fecit aeque ad snoa recepit Buiaqtie imperavlt 

6 Qg qaod omnino tglum in hoates reicerent. Nam etei sine nll5 
periculo legidnis dglSctae cum eqnitatu proeliam fore videbat, 
tamen committendam non putabat ut pnlBia hostibns dici 
posset eoa ab s5 per fidem in coUoquio circumventfls. Postea- 

6. Hazlmnl, -1, rn., Qulntus Pablua 
Mailmus (quIn'tQs ts'bl-Qs m£k'sl- 
mOs), vMo'' o""" 'A' 0<iaU, 121 B. c. 

bring under: render, make; reduce. * 

10. obserrS, i. tr. [isrvO, give beedl, 
observe, mark, waich; regard, obrj: 
celebrate. 1. | 

3. ad*qnlta, i, fntr. [•quttO, ride; 
equm, horse], rlda up. l. 

laplB, -Idli, »i.. stone. ^ 

B. etBl, eon}. [et+Bt, U], erea It, al- 
though. * 

. redegliset: the in 
irauBltlve ign^viiitt governs the dattve 
quibJu; but redegiiif 
we must supply juo 
again with impo»Tiiiitf, The Arveml 
and Ruteol lay on the other side of the 
Cevennes Mountaioa. wblch rormed a 
natural frontier Cor the Roman prov- 
ince : this was the real reason Iot the 

8. antlQUtsdmum auod^ue tarn- 
pus, lit. "each most ancient tlme" = 
"prloHty of time." 

' guitmi Is needed 

Chap. 46, An attack by the Oer- 
mancaralry breaks up the conferencB. 

1. gamntur: mode and tense? App 

3. KO, I: H.-B 

SM. a: Q.-L. 571 
Sse:H.533, 1. 

3. tnmulum: case? App. Its. b; q.-l. 
3N. a. 1: A.<33.a; a HI, S: IL-B. 380, (: 
B. 420, 5. 

D. quod: the adjective lonn of the In- I 
dednlte pronoun. 

6. leBlfiniBdeiiataa," to His lacked ' 
legion"; the genlilve cannot always be 
translated by ■■ o(." 

T. oommltt«ndum lit diol pouet, 
Ut. " that It ought to be permitted thai 
tt could be sald"="that he oD|[ht lu 

pulsls boittbUB, " after the detsat of I 

a, pe- fldem, ■'because of Lbelt cond- 
dence (In Caesar's honor)." This It 
equivalent to saying '■ creacheroual; ." 



quam in Tulgua militum elatam est quA arrogaotia io colloqnid 
ArioTistusiisusomQi Gallia RomanisinterdixiBBet, impetnmque lo 
at in n08tr68 eius equites lecissent eaque res colloqnium iiiti- 
misaet, multo maior alacritas studiumqiie pDgnaDdi mains 
eiercitul iniectum eat. 

'. 47. Bidao post Arioviatus ad Caesarem l&gfi,td8 misit: 
Velle se de its rebaa quae inter eos agi coeptae neqne p«rfectae 
Bsaent agere cum eo ; uti aat iternm collaquio diem cdnatitneret 
ant, ai id minus vellet, es sais legatis aliqnem ad at; mitteret. 
CoUoqneDdi Caesari causa vlaa non est, et eo magia, quod prldig 5 
eins diei Germani retineri non potuerant quin tela in noatroB 
canicerent. Legatum ex auia seae magirS cum perioulo ad eum, 
mias&rum et hominibns ferte obiecturnm existimabat. Com- 
modiBsimnm visum eat C, Valerium Procillum, C. Valeri Cabfiri 

10. InterdloO, -dloara. -dlzl. -llo- 
tam. tntr. [dIeO. say), problbii, exclude, 
torud, iQMrdlct; aqufc atqn* Ignl In- 
Wrdlceri, /orMrf Iht um of ftri and 

11, dlrlmft. -Imara, -emi, -<mp- 

(um, tr. [«mB, t&lce], take &pari, tDt«r- 
rupc, break oO. I. 
I>. Inlelfi, -lean. -ISel. -toatum, tr. 

(laoU. hurl. App. TJ. tbroir Into or up- 
on: pat or place on; liuplre. Intoss. 3. 
t. Proaillus, -1. m.. Qalns Valerias 

«. amcantli naua, "using 
whiii arrogance'' = "witb wbal arro- 
gance. It Is oCten well to cranslale 
at'ii IQ this waf ■ 

10. omnl . . . luUrdlslHet. "had 
tDrbiddeDtheRamauaaUOaul. " SalUi 
Is nB ablative ol eeparacloo. BSmillll 

11. ut, "how," Introduces both 
/aiitaU and diriniUiel. It would mors 
natarajljr precede impetam. 

Chap, 47. AriOTialna requests a 
secood conibrence, bnt seizes the en- 
Toys sent by Caesar. 

1. blduS post, "on the [oUowiiiK 
day." The literal meaning is "alter. 
wardB by two days," but the Latin 
writer counts the day of the interview 
as one. tbe next day as the second. la 
this ease tbe meaning is proved by 

" which they had begun to dlsouSB." 
The paaaive torms ot eoetA are used 
when tbe dependent InQoltiTe is In the 

3. ntl a6iutttnarrt: a aubstantlTe 
clause, tbe object ot an Implied verb oE 

4. Itgfttll, " legates. " not " envoys, " 
Arl9vi8tus Kjshed to conter with an 
officer' o( the highest rank. If Caesar 
should refuse a second personal inter- 

e. ooUoquendl . . . est, "Caesar 
saw no occasion for a conference." 

prldlt «1UB diei la only a roller ex- 
pression for pridii, atid has the; same 

e. retlnSrl qnln aonlaerent, 

kept from casting." Foi 
see App. 3S8, c: Q.-L, Sbi 
3^H.-B, Gr«, 3. i: H, 99fi, 2. 



w fill am, Bamma virtute et hQmanitate adnleBcentem, cuius 
pater a C. Valerio Flacco clvitate donatua erat, et propter fidem 
et propter linguae Gallicae acientiam, qua mnlta iam Ariovistas 
longinqaa conauetudine utebatur, et quod in eo peccandi 
Germania caaaa dod eaaet, ad earn mittere, et una M. Metium, 

c qui boBpitio Ariovisti iltebatur. HIb mandavit ut quae diceret 
ArioviatuB coguoacerent et ad ae referrent. Qiioa cnm apad se 
Id caatris ArioviBtua conspexisset, exercitu aud praeaente con- 
cl&mavit : Quid ad ae venirent? an specnlandi cauaa? Conantea 
dicere prohibuit «t in catenas coniecit. 

pTOoUlus (gVyaa va-le'ri-us pro-EiU'uB). 

Oabtkmi,-!. m., Q&iuB Valerius Citbu- 
rua (saiyilB vo-le'rl-Os kabQ'ras), a 

Oaut wlio poimied Soman citiaeniSip ,- 
father of C. Fattriui Proclllvt and C. 

Valtriut DomnolaMTUM. I. 

10. adulfisoens, -SQtli, m. \prii. 
pari, of ■.doUsoS, grovi up], youUi. 
young man. 4. 

11. FUOCUB, -I, m.. Gallia Valerius 
Flaccas (g&';us va-ie'rl-us fl&k' <]»),, 
Oowmor of Oaal, S3 b, c. 1. 

Mab, 1, Ir, IdSniUtl, s^tl), give, pre. 
■em: endow niih. I. 
13. Bctentl&. -u, /. iBclO, knoiTl. 

knowledge, scieDce, skill. 4. 
13. lonBliiQuuB, -a, -DID, a4}. \ioa- 

piB, lODgj. Car oD, distant. remat«;lDiig, 
long con clDned, 2. 
pMOO, I, intr., sId. transgress, do 

U. HittlU, -U, •»,. Marcus Mettus 
(m^'kOsme'sbyHs). 2. 

IT. e6iispiciS, -iplosra. -Bi»axl, 
-gpaotum, tr. [tpaalO, look], look at. 

observe, descry, perceive, if 
coacl&mf>, 1. (Mr. [cl&md. cr; out], 

t, call a] 

18. •pseoloT, 1, i» 

look), spy. I. 
1>. eattna. -a«,/.. c 

'. [ct, ipMlG, 

11. elTlt&ta dAn&tns «rat, "bad 

at ... St (1 13) ... at (L 13). '-botb 
. . - and . . . and." 
13. 4U& mult& tktabitur, "whicb 

Ariovlstus spoke fluently." 

13. UlbB, "Inblscase." 

14. QermBiiiB ; dative of posaesHor. 
aSBet: implied indirect discourse. lor 

Caesar Is guoting the reason which In- 
fluenced him at the time of his action: 
"because (as be cbongbt) the Germans 


" withblm." 

hOBpltUi, . " gucst-Iriendsbip. " 
i ab awkward rendering, but as 
longer reccgnlxe such a relatioo- 
e have no name tor ic. la its 
si form It bound two men, resld- 
alflerent Ktaie'. to give hospl- 

other services to each 

lar relationsblp might exist between a 
man and a state, or between two staus. 
The obligation was peculiarly binding 

17. COnaUmlTlt, etc. : Ariovlstus 
was angry at hts failure to secure an lU' 

Caesar^s legates. 

IB. an is not to be translated. The 
lull thought Is something like ■isltfor 
anything else, or. etc," By such an 
ellipsis ot the first alwrnatlve on not in- 
freguenily introduces a simple question. 
though its proper place is In the seoooil 

oenanttB, "while tbey were attempt- 

N..,j-, Google 


48. Eddem dig castra promovit et milibas passnum sex a 
' Caesaris castrls sub monte coDsedit. Fostridig eias diei praetar 
castra Caesaris saaa copiils triiduzit et milibas paesuum duobus 
nltra eum castra fgcit e5 cdnsilld, uti Irumento commeatuqtie 
qal ex S5quanis et HaeduiB aupportaretur Caesarem inter- 6 
cluderet. Ex eo dig di6a continnos quinque Caesar prii castrls 
Buas copiaa prOduxit et aciem instructam habuit, ut, si 
yellet Ariovistua proellg contendere, ei potestas non deesset. 
Ariovistus bis omnibus digbus eiercitnm castris continuity 
eqnestri proelio cotidig contendit. Genns hoc erat pugnae i< . 

L iiTamovs6, -moTera.-mBTl.-mS- , 
tain, Ir. [rooTeO, move], move torwara, 
(dTuice. pushlorwiu'd. 3. 

^. llltr&. prtp, icUh ace. befond. OD 
die farther sUe of. 3, 

I. contlnuuB, -k, -nm, a<il. [oon- 
tl]ie6, bold together], holding Uigetber. | 

unbroken, uninterrupted, c 

T. prMtkeO, -dtesn, -doxl, -dno- 
tmn, t>'. [dtkeB, lead), lead am. or tonb. 
bring forth; prolong, protract; produce; 
wUA eiplfcB, arrongB, draw up. * 

10. gennt, -wla, n., descent, origin, 
race, class, tribe, tamlly; kind, nature. * 

Chap. 4S-H. After some i 

.: ablatlre of roe&snre 
dlBerence. ArloTlBCQS had been twei 
four miles north of Caeaar's camp. 

3. lull monte: at the toot ot 
Vosges Mountains. 

poatrldl J elm dlfil = poilrulify 
now on 47, 5. 

(hat Caesar could not safelj' attack blm 
as be passed the Roman camp. 

B. snpport&retur: mode? App. ZTi: 
Q.-L. eea, l-. a, IW3: B. 3Z4, 1:H.-B. ASS: 

Interoiaderet; Ariovistus did not 
encamp on the road which the convoys 
of provisions would have to take, for he 
preCerred ^ safer posltjon on the hills; 
but he was near enough to the road to 
cut off the supplies If ibey tried lo pass. 

e. pti eaatrll; this was tbe favorite 

position tor a battle, since the camp 
formHI a place of ratuge if the Romans 
HbODld be defeated (Int. it). Altbough 
Caesar coutd not tempt the Qermaos to 
flgbt blm In this position, be at least 
encouraged bis men by making it dear 
that the Qennans were not anxious to 
flgbt them. 

7. aelem . . . habnlt, "kept bia line 
drawn up." . 

utdeeMet: a purpose clause, although 
nils regularly used in negative purpose 
clauses Instead of uC nSn. Bero n^n 
belongs closely with the verb, non 
dteiiit. lit. "might not be lacking"=: 
"might be offered him," 

S. Taltet: Implied indirect discourse, 
for the thought in Caesar's mind was tt 
EU«,"Hh6 wishes." 

9. Gftltrl*, "In camp." Why not in 
ca»(rw? App. 151, c: G.-L. 3811: A. iOB: B. 
21B, 7: H.-B. 123: H. 478, Ariovlstus had 
a superstitious reason for refusing U> 
Sgbt, as apt)ears later. 

pToallO: cl. references on caitrii. 


. exerenerant, "the kind 

■, Google 



qnd B^ Oermanl eiorcuerant. Eqnitnm milia ersot sei, 
totidem numerd peditea velocisaimi ac fortiasimi, qooa ex omni 
cdpia singnl! singul&B suae salutis causS delegeraat; cumhia 
in proeliiB Tere&bantuf, ad eOs a6 eqaites recipiebant; hi, 8i 
ti qnid erat durius, concnirebont ; si qai gravidre vnlnere accepto 
equo deciderat, circnmaiatebant; si qnfl erat longins pro- 
deaudnm aut celwins recipiendnm, tanta erat honim eier- 
citatifine celerit&s ut iubls sublevati equorum curEnm 
adaequarent. ' , 

49. TJbi eum castris sg tenure Caesar intellesit, ne' diutins 
commeatu prohibergtur, nltra eum locum qu6 in loco Germaiil 

[■UtO, stand], stand. Dock or nOj 
around, surround, h«m In. ^ 
<ln6, adv. (aid ilat. eate form of QuL 
nan;, the same anmber. wbo. wbleh), (1) inltrrog., wbltber? lo 
wbat place? (2) rtt.. to nblch, to whom: 
to whore, whither: toward wbleb; 
; (3) indff. , to anf place. 

-aeii, , 

14. TariO. 1, Ir., turn; deal with: 
pan. at depontrU, turn one's selt; be, re* 
main: engage In: Qgbt. * 

IB. iltlniB. •&, -nm, ixV; hard, 
rough, aimcult. dangerous; severe, in- 

ooneurrO. -ourrar*, -ciittI, -our- 

mim, inCr. [cUTr6. run), run or rush lo- 
re»cue:conie, gather. 2, 

X8. lUeidO, -oldera, -oidi, — , intr, 

(0»d«. rail], fall from Of oB. 1. 

olraumsiatfi, -slttsra, -itltl, — , Cr. 

13. snouTft: ablative ol spectflca- 
tion, with totidem. 

13. (Isgull ilDsutO' UUcarftDt. 

lit, '■ Individuals had chosen individu- 
als "=" had chosen, each for himself." 

14. TerB&b&ntUT, etc.: tenaaf App. 
I»l, a: G.-L. 2S3: A. »T0: B. 2M, S: H.-p. 
484: H. &S4. 3. 

Ill . . . ooncurrtljant, "if tberewas 
anything too hart {tor tbe cavalrj- to 
accomplish), the infantry ran to their 

16. qui: the substantive IndeBnlta 

prSdeO, -Ira, -a, -Itum, fnfr. cptA+ 

a6. go. App. 81]. go or come tonb. go 
forwart. advance. 3. 

IS. cslertl&B, -titli. /- [ealar, 
swift], swiftness, qulclmess, speed. 41 

ouTSUi, -tti, m. [corrO, ran), running, 
speed; course, career: passage, voyage. 

pronoun, Instead nt the more us 

It. qnS: this adverb, like ibe i 
noun quii. Is used as an IndeBnlle at 

I . . . proUbiretur; tbe plan shows 

t tbe second camp commanded ihe 

road and protected It from the Ger- 




cOneederant, circiter paBsus seacentijB ab iis, castrie id^qeam 
locum dSlggit aci€qiie triplicT iDatructa ad earn locma v^nit. 
Frimam et secnndam aciem in armie esse, tertiam castra munire 
inssit. Hie locus ab hoste circiter passes sescentos, att dictum 
eat, aberst. Ed circiter hominnm aSdecim milia expedita cum 
omBi eqnit&tu ArioTistoa misit, quae cdpiae noetrSs perter- 
rerent et munitifine probibgrent. Nihilo B^tins Caesar, at 
ante odnstituerat, duaa acies hostem propulB£ir«, tertiam' opna o 

3. IdSnani, -t., -nm, a4S: Qc, anU- 
able.&dapl«d. f 
t. MUlUi'V'f't lesB. otberwlae ; nllil- 

18 attllUi Doae tbe less, i 
10. prepnlaB, i. it. i/r 


?, Camp of Uie Germana. 

d, The ffi 
eutrla: d&tlTe with 

4. acU trlpllel: see Int. 5«. usaaliy 
the army marctied la calunm: boc on 
tbls occasion it bad to expect an attacit 
at any moment, and ttaeretore U marob- 
ud la balild formation. 

e, The German in/anfrj/. 
t. The koman aiixiliaries. 
g. The Roman cavalry 
h. The German caralry. 

B. In armlB : to repel the eipect«d at' 

T. lioiiilniun . . . azpadlU, lit. 

"sixteen light-^Fmed thousands ol men'' 
= "sixteen ibonsaiid Ugbc-armed In- 




perficere iassit. Munitis castrts du&B ibi legiones reliquit et 
partem anxiliorum, quattnor reliqi^as in castra maiora reduiit. 
^ SO. Proximo dig institute buo Caesar ex castrls ntrlgqne 
copias suas gduxit, paiilumque a maidribua castria progressus 
aciem inatruxit, hoBtibusque pngoa'ndi poteat^tem fecit. Ulii 
ne turn qiiidem 608 prOdireii^ell5xit,circiter meridie exercitum 

6 in castra rediuit. Turn deiniiia Ariovistus partem saarum 
copiarnm qnae castra minora oppognaret misit. Acriter 
ntrimqne usque ad vespernm pugnatum est. Sdlis occ&eu suss 
copias Ariovistus multia et illitis ^t acceptis vnlneribus in 
castra reduzit. Cum ex captivis quaereret Caesar qnam ob 

w rem Arioviatus proeliS n5n dScertaret, banc reperiebat causam, 
qnod apnd Germauos ea consugtudd eeset, ut matres fainiliae 

pell(>, drive torword), drive back, repel ; 

9. pftulnin, atii'. [pauluB, Itttte], a, 
little, somewbac, sllgbtly. i|i 
pregredlor; -srAdl. -greHni Bum, 

OUr. (gradieir.Btep], step or go forward, 
adTaoce. proceed, go. :^ 
4. msUdliB, -ei, ra.. [/or madMiei, 

T, ntrimqus, a<A\ [aterque, eacb of 
f too) , on eocb aide, ou both sides. 3. 

UBqua, oite. (l)D/j)Jac<. all chewayto. 
even to. as far aa : (Sfo/ (tow, np to, liU ; 
«*A ftd, untlL 3. 

IS. rellqnii; sc, ifffion?!. 
rftdHzlt; altbough Caesar's forces 
were divided, he liad regained thecon- 

aposlclon to tall upon Ariovlsius's Bank 
tr he should attack either ol the Roman 

fWy attackstheBmallercamp, Caesar 
leams'lliat he wishes to postpone the 
decisive battle. 
1. inBtitQt6: ablative of accord - 

3. paulum . . . pFOgreBSua: Caeaar 
had (ailed to secure a battle la the posi- 
tion most favorable lo himself <see48, 

battle In a position equally favorable to 

T. utilmquB pngn&tum eBt, "botb 
■Ides fongbl." 
9. quun Ob rem. " wbj, " Is hei* in- 

terrogative and Inlmduces a: 


a general and 

10. proallO: see note oi 
deaert&ret: i.e. figbt a 

decisive battle. 

11. quod saodaau^ttdSsBMt, "that 

there was this custom, "Is asabslaniive 
quod clause In apposition with Aanc 
caiiiam. The subjunctive is due lo Im- 
plied Indirect discourse. 

ut dlclftT&reut: a substantive clause 
of result In apposition with ea eoniua- 

mktifis f&mllias: Tacitus lells na 
tbat the Germans ascribed prophetic 
powers to their women. He describes 
the lots (»oMiJu8, l. I2)as twlga.cutinto 
small pieces, marked, and scattered on 
a white cloth. Three ol them wern 
picked up at random, and an examina- 
tion of the marks (runes) disclosed tb« 




eOrum sortibus et vatlcinati&nibas declararent utram proelium 
committi ex nsu esset necne; eas ita dicere: Non ease tia 
Qermanoa superare, si ante noTam lunam proelifl contendlBseat. 
61. PoBtHdiS eina diei Caesar praeeidio atrisque castria 
qnod satis esse viBnm est relTquit; alarios omogs in cAnspectA 
liostiam prO CMtris minoribus constituit, quod minns mnlti- 
tndine militum legidnariurnm pro hostiam nnmerd valebat, at 
&d speciem ftlariis uteretur; ipse triplici instrficta acie asqne i 
ad castra hostium accessit. Turn demnm necesaftrid Germ&ni 
snSs copi&a castris Sduxgrnnt generatimqne constitugrnnt 

II, eon, Bartii,/..!ot,chaQee, Eate; 
casting or drawing ot I019. 3. 

T&tlclaktl«. -tmia, /., dlvmatlon. 1. 
. did&rO, I. tr. [alirns, clear), make 
plain, declare. I. 

13. naims, taitf. [ii«e, nor+-iu],Dr 
nol, 1. 

-no. irUerrog, tnclitic- in direct {fuu. 
tiom, simply lign of a guotfon (App. 
S13, a); in indirtct gutitlom, wbelher; 
•He . . . -ne, -ne . • . an. utrum . . . 

fti, n.. fndeci., tight, divine Hjtlit. will 
ol Heaven. 1. 
14. lana. -ae, /.. tbe moon. I. 
S. Uftrlui,-&.-imi.iKU. [Ua,wln8], 

B. ipeclea, -«!,/. [BpeoU, see). Be» 
lug, slgbC; look, appeaFanoe. sbow, |se 

14. et conMndlMsnt. "if thejr should 
Dght." conUnditifnt standa for a future 
perfect of the direct torm. 

uoTam Ifinani: this fell on Sept. IS. 

ir battle. 

9. Qttod . . . Tlenm eit. " (a garri- 
son) which seemed to be sntBcient." 

U&rlSe : the word got tbe meauliig 
"auxiliaries" from the tact that In 
earlier times the Romaoa pos(«d the 
anikllarles on Che vrlngs of tbe battle- 
line. For Caesar's use of HDch troops 
s«e Int- 47. 

S. multlt&illiie: ablative of speclB- 

evldeatly about to attack them, and u 
there wiis no room for a battle-Une In 
their camp, the; bad to come oat. Cae 
oar probably bad to make the attack up- 
hill, but there was a ureat advantage in 
torclDg tbe enemy to Sght al a time 
when they bBliered tbey could not oon- 

7. gensr&tUn, etc.: aboat IGO rears 
later, Taclcua speaks thus of the Ger- 
mans: "And what most stimulates their 
courage is. that their squadrons or bat- 
talions. Instead of being formed by 
chance or by a fortuitous gathering. 
are composed of [amilles and clans, 
those dearest t« 

Infants. They are 
to every man tbe mo«saered witnesses 
of his bravery— (A<v are his most gener- 
oos applBudera. The soldier brings his 
woonds to mother and wife, who shrink 
not from counting or even demandlQB 
them, and who administer boUk lotA 



paribus inteiralllB, Harudge, Marcomannos, TribocoB, Vangi- 

ones, iN'eaietes, Sedusios, Suebos, onmemque aoiem suam raedii 

10 et carrls circumded^runt, ne qoa apes in fuga relinqueretnr. 

£o mulieres impoaugrunt, quae ad proelium pro Be i seed tea 

militgs pasBia manibuB flentea implorabant ne se in servituteiii 

RomaDia traderent. 

■^ 52. Caesar singul IB legidnibus aiagulda lggS,tOa et quaeatorem 

^ praef6cit, uti eds teat^s suae quiaque virtutia habgret; ipseil 

dextr6 cornu, quod earn partem minime firmam hostium ease 

animadTerterat, proelium commisit. Ita nostrl acriter iu hoateB 

a sigud datd impetum fgcSmnt, itaque hostgs repeute celeriterque 

prOcurr^mnt ut spatium pila in boates conicieudi ndn daretnr. 

Reiectia pilis comrainua gladiis pugu&tum est. At (Jermani, 

^ ' celeriter ex cdnaugtudineaua phalange factfi, impetus gladidrum 

^^ '' except runt. Reperti sunt complurSa nostrl qui in phalangem 

8. HareODUUUil, -Orum, >n. (Bl).ibe 

MarconiamiHmar"k5-man'il. 1. 
Irlbool, -Orum. m. (Bgli), the Trtbocl 

VMislonta, -nm. m. (Bgb). Uie Van- 
Klones (Tto'lVft-nez). 1. 

•. KMitaMt, -um, BL <Bb), the Nem- 
etes (nim'i'tiz). I. 

BBduall, -firum, m. (Bb). the Sedusli 

tee^&'Bbyi). I. 

13. pandfi, Euilera, puidl, pu- 
■Um, Ir., sjireaii orstrelch out, extend; 
paiBis OftPlllU, with disheveled halri 
ptiils inuii1)SB, wlUi oatBtrelcbed 
hands. 2. 

1. qnaeatOT, -SrU, m. t!<liia«rO, 

(Church and Urodribb'a C 
the Germania). 
S. bLterrUlli: ablative 

Chap. 63. A. fierce battle Is fongbt. 

1. ilngnlli . . . prftaOelt: Le.each 
or ihe alx legions was pat under the 
oommand ot either the quaesrar or one 

seek], a, quaestor (kw^tfir), dim of a 
clan of offlcert in charge of thi jwUtf 
rttenuaorthejlnancaoftluarm}/. 3. 

3. deztar, -Itk, -Irum, ad}., on the 
Tight, right 4. 

aarnQ, -U> »-, horn; {of on amy) 
flank, wing. * 

B. repanta, adv. [rap^ni, sudden], 
auddenly. unexpectedly. S. 

e. prOenrrJ). -auirera, -ourrl, -cor- 
aum, intr. [currS, run].runorrush for- 

T. eommJnua, adt. [mknna, hand], 
hand to baud, In close uoat«st. 1. 
9. axalplG.-elpsra. -adpi, -oaptnta. 

(r. anllintr. [OKpld, take], (r.. take up. 

a legatea. See Int. K. 3S. 
B. earn partem: i.e. the enemT'B 
B. alsnO dCitO: br trampeiars. 

e. pila . . . oonlelandl: on this and 
other details ol the battle aee Int. Et, 

T. rAleotla, " throwing aside." The 
jnfa were intended only for castlog. and 
were useless In a hand-io-hand enconnUT. 

e. pbalMice: on this formation 

i. Id phalaagam Inalllrant: !.*■ 




imilirent et scuta maoibus revellerent et desuper valQer&reDt. lo 
Cum hostiam aciee & sinistrd cornu pulga atque in fagam 
coniecta esset, a dextro cornu vehementer multitadine saorum 
noBtram aciem^remebant. Id cam auimadTertisBet P. Crassus 
adnlescens, qu! equitatui praeerat, quod ezpeditior erat quam 
ii qui later aciem reraabaatur, tertiam aciem labfirantibue noB- » 
tria eubsidio misit. /ii !-,(■*'* ^ 

53. Ita proelium mtitutam est, atque omn^B host^B terga 
Tert^rnnt nee priuB f ugere dgstiterunt quam ad flumeo Bh€niim 
milia passuum ex eo iocd circiter qulnque pervSnSmnt. Ibi 

viUigtand ; relieve {of toldlert in battle) ; 
Mr., follow. » 

ID. Inalll&.-Elllrs, -lilul, -•ultnin. 

Ir. [Mils, leap], lesp upon. I. 
T»T«116, -TelleTB. -TBlll. -vuliuin, 

(r. 1M.+T»I16, pluck], pluck or war 
iwaf, poll out. 1. 
diinp«r, <K(r. (sapar. abovel, trom 

13. pT«io&, -premera, -prMti.-prei- 

inm, tr., presB, preES upon, press bard; 
oppress, burden. anQoy, barass. if 

OroBiui, -I, m. Publlos Llclnlus 
Crassus (pfiiyii-QH U-^d'I-Qb krfis'ils) 

i, n. [BUlMldefi, 

sit near or Id reserre] , altllng In reserve ; 
reserve roTce. rtaerveei help, aid. aa- 

1. teTpini, -1, H., the back: Xntt, 
T«rMta, to flee; poil tngum or ab 
tarKO. <■> tbe rear, « 

S. Tert6. vartare Tartl Tamun, ir., 
mm, torn around; tngt, Tart«ra. 
flee. * 

Uieioldlen leaped on tbe root ot sbields. 
I( ttae Romans had been able to beKin the 
battle with the customary ToUey ol 
JsveUns, this solid array of shields 
would bsve beeo tiroken up as It was in 
the battle with the Helveth. IS, J-IC In- 
iltlrant: subjunctive in a clanse ot 

11. cum, "ihougb." 

t BlnlstrO eomtk, "on the left 
wing," which was the weakest part of 
the German line. 

14. axpadltlOT, " freer to act." 
Crassos and the cavalry werelposted be- 
hind the Roman left wing (see plan, p. 
tM}. out of the wa; of the German cav- 
alry, tor whom they were no match. 
They were laklng no part Id the battle, 
but were waiting to pursue the enemy 
wh«D tbe leglonsBbould win the victory. 

labfifantlbui noitila lubaidiS, "to 

:e resoned. 

ir flight. 

1. torg&Tartirunt: t 

OUB <G1, ») might hinder t 
could not entirely prevent It. It is pos- 
sible, too, that during the battle the 
Germans had advanced so far tbat 
there was space enough tor Bight be- 
tween tbe wagons and tbe German Una. 
9. flAmen Bhlnnm: as the Rhine Is 
macb more than five miles from the- 
batllefleld. It Is probable that tbe lU 
river Is meant, and tbat Caesar mistook 
it for the Rhine. 

■, Google 


perpauci ant TiribuB cdnfTsi traoire contendSrunt ant lintribni 

B iaventls sibi salutem nfi^el^ruDV; in hia fnit ArioviBtDs, qui' 

naTicuIant dglig&tam ad ripam nactus ea profugit; reliquoa 

omiies consecuti eqaites noetri iDterfecSrunt.^Duae fueraat 

ArioTiafcl uiorei, flna Sneba oatione, quam domo sScum 

duxerat, altera Norica, regis Vocoionis Boror, qaam in Gallii 

H duxerat, & fr&tre miasam; utraque in ea fog& periit. Faemot 

daae ftliae: h&rum altera occiaa, altera capta est. C. Valerius 

Procillas, cam & castddibae io fag& trinis catgDls viiiGtaa 

traherStnr, in ipsum Gaesarem host^s eqnit^tu inseqaentera 

incidit. Quae qnidem rga Gaesari nun mindrem quaiA ipai 

» rictoria Tolapt&tem attalit, quod hominem honestiBsimnm 

proTinoiae Galliae, saam familiarem et hoapitem, greptum ei 

manibua hostinm sibi restitatnin vidSbat, neque eius calamitate 

4. trtnS, I. intr. ItriM+im, swlmj, 
swlni across. L 

B. inT«nt6, -vanlra, -Tinl, -Tan- 
turn, tr. [Teiilfi, coioe], come upon, 
flad. meet wllta ; find out. learo. a. 
■ *. nftylciilft. -fte, /. [dim. of uiTla, 
Ship), small boat, skin, 1. 

d«llg4, I. tr. IligS, bind], bind or Us 
down, fasten, moor. S. 

naitalioDr, nanoisct, naotns sum, 

tr., gal, obtain pasaesaioD ol ; meetwlili. 

8. n&ue, -SnlB./. iniBoor, beborn]. 

race, uibe, people, natlou, t 

». Voccl6, -tmia, m., Vocclo (vfik'- 
shyS), c king of Woricam. I. 

10. petefi, -ir», -11, -Itnm, intr. [eO, 
(•0. App. 84), be deslroyed or hllleii, 

la. trlnt, -m, •*, dittr. num. adi; 
threeeach; tbree, triple. 1. 

Tlnold, Tlnclra, vlnzl, Tlnetum, tr., 
bind. 1. 

IS. trAhS, tiabete, tz&^, tTUtuin, 
tr,. drag, drag aloog. 1. 

11. inoma, -cldare. -cldl, , intr. 

[oAdO, rail], [all Into or upon; tall in 
wltb, meet ; bappeb, arise. 3. 

IS. TaliiiiUa,-titis./. [Toie.wlsU. 
wAat oiu iciilui; pleasure, delight, en- 
joyment. 3. 

haneatnt, -&, -am, aiH. [hosOi, 
honor), honorable, vorth;. dlsllngQiali- 

B. AllOTlBtUB: tour years later wi 
bear llial tbe Oermaas desired ii 
arenge bis deacb. Possibly he died o 
wounds received In tbis battle. 

(. e&, "la tbl3," Is an ablative o 

. duaauzBres: among the Germans 
polygamy was permitted In the case of 
the nobles only. 
8. nkti6ne: ablative oC speclflca- 

10. dlkzerat; "bad married": while 
aSxtrat In I, 9 means " bad brought. " 

I. ProelUui: cf. 47. e. 

i. Inaaqneutain, " wbo was follow- 



^e Unt& Tolnptate et gratuUtidae quicqnam fort una deminiierat. 
Is Be praesente de se ter sortibus consultum dicebat utrum 
igni Btatim nec&retur an in aliud tempus reaerv&retur : sortium n 
h^eficio Be ess^ incolQinflia. Item M. Metius repertus et ad 
eum redactor est. 

S4. Hoc proelid trins RheQum n&nti£Lto, Snebl qui ad 
ripSa RhenI venerant domum reverti coeperunt; quoa Ubil, 
qaiproiimi Bhennm incolunt, pertflrritos inaecuti magnum ex 
iia nnmemm occidSrunt. Caesar, una aeatate duObus muiimia 
bellis coofectia, maturiuB paalo quam tempns auni postalfibat, ft 
in hiberna in SSqoanSs exercitum deduzit; hibemis Labi^nnm 
praeposnit; ipse in citeridrem Qslliam ad cOQTentua agend&B 
profectns est. 

IB. ErUul&tlft, -Bnla,/. (srfttalor, 

cipns^ ioj] , eipressloa ol Jo; . coograt- 
nlatlon, relolcine. I. 
19. tdr, num. adv. [ct. trjs, tbree], 

c6nBuI9. -are, -nt, -torn, ir. ami inir. ; 
Ir., lake counsel, oonsull, consider; inlr. 

keep tack, save up. i 
91. looolqnUa. -i 

3. DbU. -ftrnm, " 


(ABgb), tbeUbU 

Ultfcf, -titU. / , summer. >* 
B. pauID, /"if- [p&uluB, utUe|, % 
Ultle. somewhat. sUghlly. ;|i 

7. prftapanS. -pftneie, •poaal.-pM- 
Itum, f- Ip8n6, plaee|, place bsfnreor 
over, put la command of. pui In cbiirge 

lessened 1 

y degree Caesar's great 

1 and rejoiclag"; lit. "les- 

KQed anytbing ot/' quicquam belug tbe 

direct object!. 

19. ai praeianta, "in bis pres- 

cfinsnltum: sc. cm. 

30. nec&rfitur: ihls is an Indirect 
question, but the subjunctive U doc due 
to tbat ru;l; App 2lO;Sfa:Q.-l..seA;^7: 
A. 444; BT5. b; R 27T;30O, 2: H.-B KQ; H. 

eee. 4. 

3M. Q. 1: A.43i.a: B. Ul. 3: H-B. 380, A: 
IL43&. Z. 

B. rnktOrlUB V«ulO: in the latler 
bait or September. The army oeeded 
rs9t after sucb arduous labors. 

6. in SSaiUmOa: probabl; Id Veaon- 
tio. Tbe quartering of the army on 
Gallic sol! slgniBeil Caesaii'i itit«Tition 

thus brought about the Belglo uprising 
ot the following year. 

T. ad conTmtlka ■.genddi, " to hold 
the proYlnciai courCi, " This was a paro 
iduty as governor ot the province. 


n order to lieep li 




hes\-ily; especially the Nervii, who made the last desperate stand and 
were slain almoet to a man. 

The battle of the Sabis was decisive. Only the Atuatuct dared to 
mm a brave but ineffectual opposition. They were quickly subdued, 
and on account of an attempt at treachery were sold into slavery. The 
conquest of Belgium was complete, with the exception of the Morini 
and the Menapii, who were not attacked and who sent no envoys. 
With his customary moderation Caesar was content with a general 
disarmament and the furnishing of hostages. The treacherous Remi 
were raised to supreme power In Belgium, and were thus firmly attached 
to the Roman interest. 

Meanwhile, the states of northwestern Gaul had submitted to Pub- 
liuE Crassus, Caesar's legate, appare'ntly without fighting. 

This is one of the most interesting of the Gallic campaigns in its 
presentation of the strong qualities of the Roman leader. His tactical 
skill, celerity of movement, energy, and courage are seen at their best. 
Yet the surprise at the Sabis was due to his failure to observe the most 
common rules of prudence in the presence of the enemy. That it was 
not a disai^trous defeat must be attributed chiefly to the excellence of 
hia soldiers. 



For the meaning of the colore, eee the explanation of tbc campaiga 
map for I, 1-29, facing p. 42. 

The same territory is colored red as in the campaiga map for I, 
30-64, facing p. 117. In addition, the Nervij, the Viromandui, the 
Atrebates, and the Atuatuci are colored red, for they seriously fought 
with Caeaar. 

Most of the rest of Belgium is colored blue, though it is hard to decide 
between blue and red for some of the Etates. Althoi^h all the ststn 
had promised to send quotas to the great army which melted awaj 
before Caesar at the Axona, we cannot be sure how many did so; and 
it can hardly be said that Caesar won the submission of the seveni 
states by defeating tliat army. The Suessiones prepared to fight, but 
did not do so. The Bellovaci and the Ambiani did not even prepaie 
to fight. Therefore these three states are colored blue. The states 
which are not mentioned must in general have sent embassies of sub- 
mission; but the Morini and the Menapii are left uncolored, becausB 
in m, 28 we are told that they had never sued for peace. 

The northwestern states mentioned in chap. 34 are colored Uue. 
Crassus went to them with only one legion, and the events of Book 
III make it certain that one legion could not have defeated thoae 
states in battle. Evidently they submitted without fighting. 

The battle-fields on the Axona and on the Sabis areas certain u 
they well can be. The site of the town of the Atuatuci is very uncer- 
tain. The one indicated on the map is Mont Falhize, championed bf 
Von Goler (Caesars Gallischer Krieg, pp, 90 ff.). Caesar does not tell 
us that the town Was on a river; but all the other sites which hav« 
been suggested are open to more serious objections. 

.■V Google 

campaign MapforBook II 

n„jN.«j.-v Google 

.■V Google 


I. Cnmesset Oaeear in citeriOreGalliii, ita'utiBnpr&d€mOii< 
BtraTimns, crebri ad earn rQinorea afferebantnr, litteriaque item 
Labieoi certior flebat omnes Belg&s, qnam tertiam esse Oalliae 
partem dixeramas, contra popnlnm Bomanum conifiriire obsl- 
desqne inter sG dare. Conjurandi has esse cana&s: primum, > 
quod verSrentur iie ooini ^acatu Gallia ad e5s exercitns noster 
adducerHur; deinde, quod ab non nullis Gallis Bollicitarentur, 

1. tOVtk,aav. and prep. wUh ace. m 
tttailD.. before, previously; is) ai prep. 

%. cribar, -brk. -binm. adj., tbick, 
close, repeated, numerous, frequent, al 
■borclnurrals. Contp. nibilori tup., 
OrebeTTlmiu (App. 10). 4. 

rfimor, -Orli. m., hearsar, report, m- 

affera, Affane, attull, klUtum, tr. 

[•d+ferS, carry. App 81], bring, t«lte 
or carrr to, presenl; occasion, cause; 
bring forward, allegei report. 3. 

4. conllkrft, 1, intr. (iftrO, Bwear], 
■wear i>r lake an oalb togetber, league 
together, conspire, it 

7. toUlelU. 1, tr., move violently, 
stir up, agitate; Incite, tempt, Instl- 

agains- ' 

>e iblrd. 

. The Beleaa form a league 

. olurlOre QalUk: Caesars prov 
fikM Boulb ol the Alps; now northern 

demiBni&TiiuaE: in t, BL Caesar 
tmes the rhetorical at. Caesar the wri- 
ter Is spoken of In the flrsl person, Cae- 
nx the general In 

S- Labliul: as coi 
winter quarters, he of course sent reg- 
ular reports to Caesar on all matters of 

Mrtler fiebKt. ''waa Informed from 
ttane to time." The Imperfect of re- 

B«lK&a: see Int. 2S. 

gtiam . . . dlznUnua, " who, as I 
said, are a third part of Oaul.'^ qua^ 
refers to BelgEt, but agrees In gender 
and number with the predicate noun 
ptrtmL. The pluperfect dtreramiu Is 
1 In such statements 

Instead ol the more common per. 

4. contOrtTe, "were forming a 
league," not "ccuBplrtng." TheBelgae 
were not rebelling, for they had never 
been subject to Home. Caesar bad no 
scruples about conquering tbem. bnthe 
did Dot treat tbem as rebels. 

e. quod trerirmlur) aaubstantlvE 
^od clause, in apposition with causiii. 
The subjunctive is due to indirect dla- 

, OaUli, " 

1,1 all Qaul 


T. lOUIclUnntar: the Indirect dis- 
course still couilnuee. but slops at this 
point. Apparently Lablenus reported 
the two reasons for the action of the 
Belgae. but Caesar himself supplies Ihe 
three reasons why Celtic Qauls Inslk 
gated a rising ol the Belgae. 



partim qui, ut Germ&nos diutius in Gallic >TeT8&rT ndlaeiwit, 
ita populi Rdmani exeroitum hiemare atque inveteraacere in 
10 Gallia molestg fergbaot, partim qui mobilitate et levitate animl 
noTis imperiiB atad^bant, ab doq nttlliB etiam, qttod in Gallia a 
potentidribns atqae lis qui ad condflceDdoa homines facultates 
habebant Tnlgfi regna occupabantur, qnt minus facile earn rem 
imperio noatro oonsequi poterant. L 

i: deal with; pa». 

ecgagBlii; flgbt. * 

9, InTMariBOfi, 'TeUrkanara, -tc- 
tBriVl,'Tftt*rltum, infr., grow Qld; be- 
come established, l. 

10. molBitii adv.. with snnOTance; 

8, paitlmqul, "aomeorwbom"; I.e. 
tbe opponentB oF all (orelgoers. 

10. putlm Qul. " oihars or whom . " 
mftbUlUteetlenUtai CaeaaroCMii 

apeaks of these qualities as character- 
istic at the Oauls. 

11. Ui nftn nfiUIi (toltuuarmiar) ; a 
iblrd class,sacbmeii)ui:>rgetorli(l, S), 
CastlcDB (I, )),aailDumDorlK(1, 18|. 

molests fsrra, be ancoyed. I. 

laAbUltfti, -t&Us,/. [meumB, mov*- 
ble], movablfDess. activity, speed; 
chaugeableness, Scklenesa. InconsMnc;. 

lentia, -ttCU, /. [l«vii, light] . Ugbc- 

11. »A . . . bomlnds, "for emplor' 

log merceaarles." 
IS. qui . . , poteruit: see IdI. St 

eod. Of course tbls power of the nobles 
woud beheld In check b; a strong cot- 

•1. esiet: mode! App. HO; 242, ai 
Q.'L. BTS, U.a: G8&: A. MS: B.SS8, 1, A: 
H.-B. 021: H. eOO, II. 

1. UUerlCCase? App.l13;a.-I>401: 
A. 408: B. 2IS: H.-a 03: H. 176. 

8. LKbUnl: caser App. K: Q.-L. Ses, 
1: A, 343, n. 1: B. 1»: H.-D,344: H.44a, 1. 

oartlor: caseP App. 156; ibt: Q.-L. 
aW; 206; 211; A. SS3; 2S4; £86; B. HSi, 2; 
a34; H.-B. 816; SIT, S; H. 3M, 

Batg&a: case! App. 123: O.-L. 313, 2: 
A. aer. c B. 184: B.-B. SM: H. 41&. 

4. coniDTftte: conatructlonf App. 
SW: G.-L. 6N): A.680:B. 311, ]; H.-B. b34, 
I : H. 642. 

Oblldis; CBsef App. 124: G.-L. 380; A. 
B8J: B. 172; H.-B. SBO: H. 404. 

B. Tertrenlnr: mode?App.20ft:G.-I. 
tiO: A.5B0:B. 314,1: B.-B.G3<,2.I: H.643. 

Oallli: case? App. 1^: O.-L. 401; A. 
405: B. 216; H-B. 406,1: H. 468. 
9. popull: case? App. 09: G.-Xj. 362. 

■These grammar references are! 

91 chapl«rs ol Book I. 



2. His nSntirs litterisque commOtiiB Caesar du&s legidnes In 
iut«nore Gallia noraa cdDscripsit et inita aeetate, in nlteriorem 
Gilliam qui dgdiiceret, Q. Pedinm Ugatum mielt. Ipse, cnm 
primam pabali copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum Tenit. Dat 
negotinm Seoonibas reliqaiaqae Gallis qui flnitimi Belgis erant * 
nti ea quae apad eos geraQtnr cognSscant eeqoe d6 hia rebus 
certiorem faciant-^/Hi cOnstanter omnes nQntiaTgrunt manns 
cOgl, exercitnm in uQum locum coiiduci. Turn Tero dubitandam 

1 IneB, -Ira. -11, -Itnm, tr. [eO, go. 

App. U], goluto; enter upon, beglnj IiL' 
tiacADBllluiii, lorm: Inlra rfttUnsm, 
malie an estlmaw, drcide: Inlia giif 
tlan, gain; Inlia numamin, en 

S. didDoS, -dfieara, -doxl, -Ana- 
tnm, Ir. [dtkcS, lead), lead down o\ 
away, withdraw; bring, conduct, lead 
iDfliiencei launcb (tAlju); give In m&r- 

q., abbr./or QillAllu,Q<ilntiis(kwln' 
tia), a Soman praenomtn, a 

t<lB pe'dl-Os), one itf CatMOr'i Itiulauuitt 

B. nafOUiuii,-tI, n. [iieg-+BUiuii, 

trouble, dimculty, labor; uagOtluB 
dkra, employ, direct; «iild nes6tl, 
wbat boslness; nlliU ueg6U, no dlffl- 

flanonja, •um, »>. (Bef). the Seoonea 
<Ben'5-n6EX 1- 

7. cBnatajitar, ode. [a&natfi, stand 
Snn], unltormlr, conalatently ; resolute- 
ly, a. 

8. T4rB, adr. [Tirua, true]. In tratb, 
truly, really, tudeedjbut, bowevec, on 
the other hand. i|i 

Chap. 3. Caaasr makea MeparB- 
Uooa a.iid moves againet the Belgae. 

1. du&a leKUnSa: Caeaar now had 
eight legloDs. numbered consecutively 
rrom VII to XIV. approximately 31,000 
l%tODar7 soldiers. In addition he had 
aailllai? cavalry and Inlantry, on 
whom, however, be placed little reli- 
ance. See Int. SS. SS. 

1. InltA MaUta, "arter the begln- 
nlng of warm weather. " AetlSt Includ- 
ed more than our snmmer, and the 
time here meant Is spring. 

In nlterlOram O&lllun: i.e. to Join 
the other lesions in Vesontlo. See map 
(adng p. 162: 
o[ teachers who 

arches to Bel- , S. qnl ("O*) dM&oeiet, "to take 

aum prlmum: in June. Cam primum 
usually takes tbe Indicative. 

6. garuitur: Caesif said ta qua* gt- 
ruitturM>^n^rfe<. "Bndoutwbatis being 
done. " geranlur is tbe subJnnctlTe of 
Implied IndireL't discourse: App. >Ta; 
Q.-L. 828: A. BSa, 8, note: B. aS: H.-B. 
535. 1, a; H. 610, 1. 

7. tnajifia eSgl, " that armed bands 

8. dubltftndiun (liAi ttte) quin pro- 
ficlBcerStur, lU. " that It ought to be 
hesitated by hlmtbat beshooldsetout." 
= " that he should hesitate tosetont," 
When 4abiUI means " hesitate" Itis usu- 
ally followed by the inanltive. S«e App. 
a2», if: G.'L. A(fi, i. R. B: A. l»S.a,n. £: 

:hers who begin the study of Caesar with Book II. Retereaces are given three 
toreacbol the moat common principles ol syntax, in order that it may ba 



HOD eiistimavit quia ad eos proficisceretur. Re frument&ria 
10 comparata castra moret digbusque circiter quindeoim ad finee 
Belgarum pervenit, 

3. Ed cum de improviso celerioBque onmiuiii oplnidne 
Tgnisaet, Eemi, qui proiimi Galliae ex Befgls eont, ad enm 
leg&tos Iceium et Andebroginm, primos civitatis, mlsemnt, qni 

1. ImprATlBUB, -ft, -urn. aii}. [tn- + 
prOrlaua. rureaeec; pT(Vv1de6], unfore- 
seeu. unexpected; lU Impt6vll6, un- 
eipecledlf , suddenl;. 1, 

Opinio, -fiDlH,/. [oplnor, ihlokl. way 
of lhlukiDg> opinion; Impression; ex- 
pectation; reputation; oplal6 tlmOrta, 
Impression of cowardice. * 

3. RCmna. -a, -um, <ui}- beioagiiig 
to oroneof tbeRemI: pi. at noun, Ual, 
m. (Befl, tbe Reml (ra'mi). « 

S. leelu, -el, m.. Icclns (Ik'shTtls). 
achltfoftht RtnA. 3. 

AndebrogluB, -si, ">-, Andebroglos 
(an"ile-liro'iyiis). 1. 

B. 296, b: H.B. 531, 3. b; 586: H. Wb. 

tm. I. 

10. adflnSl; It WBB about ]4Smi 

lo tbe bouQdary of (be Reml : but C; 
saf probably passed tbe boundary a 
nearly reaclied Daroconoram, their ci 
Ital. in the fifteen days. Seemapfacl 
p. isa. and Inl, M. 
Chap.8. TbeRsmlBubmitt 

1. afi: I 


onmium opInlfiiM. lit. "than tbe 
opinion of all," = " tban any one bad 

a. Efimir a Bel^an state, of appar- 
1. l«Kl6nei.- case! App. 124; Q.-L. 
-330^ A. 387: B. 113: B.-B. 3>0: H. 404. 

3. fteitite: case? App. ISO: O-L. 
4W; 410; A. 410; 420, 1: B. 327, 2, a; H-B. 


I, 31S: 

p&bull: case? App. lOl: O.-L-SST; 
388; A.34B, 0, I: 8.201,1; H.B. 318; H. 

Inolperst: mode? App. 340; 243. a: 
G-L^ &TI), II. a; 5Sb: A. MS; B. £88, 1. B: 
H.-B. IS24; H. «>0, n. 

S. Senonlbiu: case? App. IM; G.-L. 

Ui: A. sea: B. 187. I; H,-B. 366, a: H.424. 

ently only moderate »trengtli,wblchs»w 
an opportunity lo Increase Its power by 
Ireacberously desertlOK Its fellow states. 
In reward for lis services Caesar made 
It tbe leader of a confederation, and 
It remained constantly faltbful to blm, 
proxlml . . . Bal^l, " tbenearestat 
tbe Belgae to Qaul"; i.e. al the point 
wbere Caesar entered tbe Belgian rroa- 

•X Belgis: the ablative with di or tz 
la often used Instead of the partitive 

S. qnl dleerent: purpose. Tbe rest 

T. oertlOrem: case? App. IM: G.-i^ 
340: A. 3Sa; 3S3: B. ITT, 1: H.-B. 302: H. 

muilU; case? App. 123; G.-L. 313.3; 
A.39T, <: B. 184: H.-B. 898: H. 4tS. 

8. cSkI: conBtructlOD? App. 906: 
Q.-L.CU: A.S80: B. 314, I: H.-B. KM, 1: 
H. fl42. 

10. diebiu: case! App. 1S3: O.-I. 
303: A. 423: B. 331: H.-B, 43»: B. <ff7. 

11. BelK&rum: case' App. M: O.-I*. 
363: A. 343: B. IX: H.-B. 33»: H. 440, 

■, Google 



i suaqne omnia in fid^m stqae potest&tein popnli 
R&tnani permittere ; nequa Be cum reliquls Belgis i 
c5Q8ensie8e, neque contra populam Romanam coniurasBe, 
parittosqne esse et obsideB dare et imperata facere et oppidia 
recipere et frumento ceterisqae rebus iavare; reliqiioB omnes ' 
Belgas in armis ease, GermanoBque qui his Rhenum incolant 
sese cam his coniunxiase; tantnmque esse eornm omnium furo- >< 
rem ntng SueBaiones quidem, fratres con«anguine69que auoB, qui 
eodem iureet iBdemJegibus utantur, unum imperium unumque 
nugiBtr&tuDi cam ipsis habeant, dcterrgre potaerint quin cum. 
his con Be Dti rent. 

t. jwnnlttA.'-mittora. -mill. -mU- 

nuUgtr. [mlttft.. send] , ^ta up or aver. 
Bnrrender; eotruBt. oominlt ; penult, al- 

T. trnperfttum, -I, n- [ImparO, <:< 

maud], uommanil. order. 8. 
8. c6 t«r l, -ae, ->. aitj.. the rest 

malnlng. olbers. 4. 

9. alt,prtp,aUhiKr.,oaaii>iaiaeot, %. 

10. eanlnABA, -iDDK*'*! -tdnxl, 
•lltnatum, tr, [InnsB. loii). Joio wkih 
or together, connect, unite, bind. * 

furor, -Brll, "L, rage, frenzy, mad- 

ol Uie cli3ipt«r Is In Indirect discourse. 
Tbe direct Form Is given after Book VII, 
4. se is tbe object of ptrmiittrt. An- 
olber If must be supplied as Us subject: 
" (bat theyentnisied tbemselves and all 

S. I 

. nequs . . . que, " 

1. oplniene: cuae? App. ]3»: Q.-L. 
»8: A. 406. a: B. SIT, 1. 4: H.-a 418. >: 
H. 471. 8. 

3. Tfinlsset: mode' App. 3S9: O.-I- 
HI: A. MS: a 380. 3: H.-B. SSK: H. M8. 

proximl: case? App. ise; 15T: O.-L. 
a»; Zofl; 311: A. 383; 284; 2S6: B. !33. 2; 
134: E.-B. 318; 317.3: K. 8M. 

Qalllae: case; App 193: O.-L. SSO: A. 
384: B. IBS, 1: H.a 3*3, tootDOle t. (o): 
H.434. 3. 

3. leg&Ue: case! App. 13«: O.V. 
340: A. 362; 393: B. 177. 1: H.-R 3»: H. 
41ft I. 

B. B«1^h: case? App. 140: Q.-L.Sfl!t: 
A. 413: B. 222: H.-B. 4re. I : H. 473. I. 

9. oonttUiiaa: form? App. 73: a,-L, 

f, facert, redptrt, and iu- 

vHre depend on pari 

11. nt: viib petuerint. 

ausBBlftnt*: ohieel ot dettrrtrt. 

18. d8t«iTiTaiiuln. "prevent from .' 

esO: A. BBO: B. 314. I: H.-B. 534,2 

t App. !09: Q.-I^ 

I. S43. 

frUrfii: case! App. K. b: G.-I. 
120: 331: A. 3»I; S»i: B. m. 1.3: H.B. 
8ie: 3IT. 3: H. 393. 

13. lOrs: caseP App 146: Q.-L, 407: 
A. 410: R218,l; H.-B. 42B: H. 477, 1 

13. potuerlnt: moder App. 336: G.-Ij. 
U3: A.S3T, I: B.S84. 1:H.-B. Ml,3. H.iVy. 



4. Cum ab ila quaereret quae civitates qaaotaeqae in btvbSb 
dsaent et qaid in belld poBsent, 8io reperiebat: Pleroaque Belgfts 
esse ortoa a, Germaiiia, Rbenumqne antiqnitas traductos propter 
loci fertilitatom ibi cdnsediBse, Giallasque qui ea loca iucolerent 

s expulisse, sulOsqae esse qui patram nostrdram memoria, omni 
Oallia vexat^ Teutonos Cimbrosque intrft suOs fines ingredi 
probibaerint ; qua ex re fieri ntl earnm rSram memoria magnam 
sibi auctoritatem magnosque spiritus in re militurl gumerent. 
De nnmero eorum omnia b€ habere explorata ROmI dicebant, 

10 propterea qnod prop inqaitati bus affmitatibosque coniuncti, 
quantam quiaque multitudinem in communi Belgarum concilia 

■lo, adv.. 

VDg were tbe Oermans. * 
so. thus. In tbts mitmier; 
ro . ■ . tbftt: so . . . aa. t 

plirlqoa, -aequa, -aana, aitj. ?'■• 
TerymaQ)'. the moat ot; ainoun, agreac 
many, very manr- 3. 

S. uitlqnUuB. adv. [uitlqnui, an- 
dent}. from earl; or onctent times ; Ions 
mgo. anclentlf. 1. 

4. farUlll&i, -t&Ut, /. [fsrtllii. 
{HroducUTel.producliveness. 1. 

B. axpellB, -pellere, -pult, -pul- 
mua, (r. [poU6. drlTBl, drlva out or 
forth. sipeL 1. 

9. Tsutoni, -6ru)n or TentoDSi, 

-am, m., the TeuUinl (tu'to-ni) or Teu- 

8. aplTlttM, •U, "••[■plrO, breaUka], 

breath, air; i»|il.,baughtlaes9. pride. 1. 
•. axplfirS. 1, tr.. searcb or find OM, 
iavestlgaui, apj-out. recoaaoller. S. 

10. proplnquit&B, -t&tu, /. [pn- 
plnquiu, nelgbborlng. near). neamaM. 
vii^lnlty; relatlonsblp. 3. 

11. conimlUilBi -e, o^., commcuit 
general: ria eammaals, the comnuw 

1. lis: i.e. theenvo73ot tbeltemL 

9. quid: cBseT App. 138, b: G.-L. 
334, B. 1 : A. 390. e: B. 176, S: H.-B. 387. 
Ill: H. 116.2. 

pUrftsque Balgii: the remainder of 
the chapter U ta Indirect discourse. 
Tba direct tonn U given alter Book 

Tbe tradition that most ot the Belgae 
were descended from Oermans was not 
•trlctlf true, but tbe Belgae prided 
tlieniaelves on thesupposedlact because 
OI the Oermans' renown in war. 

4. Qaues: tbe object. 

e. Ttutoiifts Olmbrdaque: .on tbls 

InvasioDsee Int. 37. 

liiBt«dI pTohlbuaTlnt, "prevented 
from entering." Ciesar always oau 
tbe InBnltlve after pToblbafi, instead ot 

T. prohlbuerliit was subjunctive In 
the direct form See App. 230. ft: Q.-Ia. 
SSI. »: A. 63e, b: B. 293, 2: H.-B. Ul, 1: H. 
5B1. I. 

B. di unmaTS: I.e. the numwlckl 
strenglhot tbe Belgian army. 

omnia. . . axpldrata "that tb»r 
bad ascertained averytW^ " Sa» ral- 
erences at the end ot the chapMt. 

11. qnlsqua: Le- each <U ~ 



adidbellnm polltcitus sit, cognoverint. Plurimatn inter eda 
SelloTacda at virtiite et auctdritate et hominum Qumer6 valSre; 
boB posse cdoficere armata milia centum; pollicitds ex ed nn- 
faero electa mtlia Bex&ginta, tdtiusqne belli imperinm aibi posta- u 
lare-V^ueseiones suoa ease f Initimoa ; finos lutUsimos fer&ciBsi- 
ffloaqoe agroe possidere. Apad eda faiase regem nostra etiam 
memori^ Diviciacum, totluB Galliae potentisBlmum, qni cum 
m&gaae partis haram regionnm turn etiam Britanniae imperinm 
obtinaerit; nunc asae regem Gslbam; ad hunc propter idstitiam « 
T>rudentiamque summam totius belli omniam Tolantate deferri; 
jppida habere namero Xii ; pollic6f i milia armata qninqungintS, ; 

U. BallOTkoI, -Oram, m. (BAe), the 
BeUoTacl (be-ldWa-si). * ' 

14. arms, l, Ir. [ftmw, anus], arm, 
equip; |Hti., arm one's salt: amitu*, 
f>/. pari, at ad}., armed: armfttl, at 
lum, armed men, « 

IB. «Ug&.-liger«, -l«Kl. -lictuni, fr. 
llefO, cboose], cboosa or pick out. se. 
iH'i: JUotna, Pf- part, at ad]., picked 

MlfcHiiU (LX), card. mm. adi . in- 
iM. Ilex. Bii], SI117. 1. 

poatnU, 1, Ir.. request, ask, demaad : 
Rqnlre, necesBllate. 41 

I«. ftr&x. •iiili, adj. IAt6. bear], 
producUve. fertile. 1. 

IT. pOMld«&, -•ld<T«, -IMI, -Ml- 

■lun, tr, [leileO, sltl, occupy, bold, pos- 

rCs.regU, )n..lilng. « 

18. DlTiolftaUB, -1. m.. Dlvtclacus, 

(i»T"l-ghi-&'kils), a chitf of the aueiila- 

IB. tagU, -OnU. /. [regS, keep 

straight], line, direction; quarter, re- 
(^on. country, territory, place; 6 n^ 

gtSna, 'sio irm.. opposite. ^ 

Brttansla, -a«,/. (Aabcd), Britannia 
(brl.tin1-a). brltrr Britain, OreaC Bri^ 
aln (.England and Beotland). ntvtrBril- 

30. nana, adu., now. at present, at 

Oaltia. -ao, m. . Qalba (gUli^), a ttttg 
of the Satitiona. i. 

31, prftdentla, -m, /. CprDiUu, 

foreseeing], prudence, toreslght. I. 

defers, -ferre, -tull, -Utam, tr. [ft. 
rt, carry. App.BlJ, bringfroinordown, 
carry, take; report, disclose; tiring be- 
fore, refer: bestow, confer: dflllituB 
(lonHCtnMa). falling ; coming bychauca 

U. polllcltiu Bit: an Indirect ques- 
tion, and tberelore Bubjuncclve In the 
ittrect form. 

Plblmiun: compare note on giiid, 1. 

It. annita mUla cmlum. lit. "one 
hundred armed thousandK." — "one 
hundred tboasand armed men." 

polUeltdat supply eiie. 

16. 8u5i: I.e. ottheReml: see map. 

17. poaaidSre: supply edt lauitii- 

18. DlTlclliGiiln: of courw not the 
Haeduan mentioned In Book I. 
cum . . . turn, " not only . . . bat 

IB. partli and BrltaunlM both de- 

BrltMinloe: not the vbole of Britain, 
but only parts lying apposite the Bel- 
gian coast. TbU is tbs drsl notlceot 
Britain In I.atln literature. 

perlatlve adjective. 



totidem Nervioe, qui nmsime fed inter ipsos habeantnr loDgis- 
aimeqne absiut; quindecim milia Atrebiites, Ambiands decern 
m milia, Moriads XXT milis, MeoapioB Til milia, Oaletds s milla, 
VeliocasBes et ViromandiioB totidem, Atuatncds XI5 milia; 
GoDdr^os, EbnrOnga, CaerosoB, GaemanOB, (jui uno Ddmioe 
Oermaci appellantnr, arbitrari ad XL milia. 

, inded. aili. (tot, & 

ITerTlUB, -a, ■ 

xd). (Aef), ot the 
n.uueot ibeNer- 
NervU (ngr-vl- 

ftruB, -», -nm, a4}., wUd. savage 

M. AttBbii, -b&tlf, m. <Ae). an At 
rebatlan; pi,, the Atrebaies (&t"re-ba' 

AmbUnl, -Omni, ra. (ABd«), the Am 
btacl (&ui"bl-&'m), 2. 

as. ltl)IlIll,-Bnun,'».(Ae),theMor 
iDl (mar'l-Dl). * 

HanapU, -6riun, m. (Alg), the Me- 
naiili <me-DB'pM). i|i 

Hptem (VII), card. > 

a. adi.. m 


OklatI, -Gtiim (, -u: 
the Caletl (kfil'e-ti). 1. 

S«. TellocuaCi, -um, »>■ (Bd), um 
VeLlooassea (Ye"ll-o-lri^'ez). 1. 

Tlromuidiil, -Onmi m. (Be), the vir- 

omandul (vlr"6-mSn'du-il. a. 

AtUfttucl, -Brum, m. (Af ). the Atuat- 
ucl (at"u-at'u-Bi). 4. 

37. Ooiulc&st, ^iruin, n. (AI). tm 
Condnisl (kOn-drO'el). 2. 

ZbUlSBfil, -um, m. (Atg). the Bburo- 
uea l£b"u-re'iiez). a. 

OaerSiI, -Otuid, ">- (Ag), theCaeiosI 
(Be-r5'si). 1. 

Oft«III&n1, -Snun, m. (Af ). the Caema- 
Hi (BB-mft'Dj). 1, 

3>. HervlIK; with this and the (ol- 

southern frootler. But the map sbovs 

lowlnB proper nouns BnpplypoiHcwi. 

niulm* ftii: the aaperlaUVB. 

longlBHlnie abslnt: le. from tbu 

tW, a: H. 413. 

B. patniin: caseF App.SB: O.-L. 363. 
l:A.318.n.l: B. 199: H.-U. S44: H.440. 

rBrom: cose? App. 88: 
A. 347; 34B,n.: B.200:H..£ 


L. 363. i: 


App. 138: O.-L. Me: 

B. (tbl: caseF App. 1 

BOmsreUt: mode? App. 239,A: G.-L. 
553,3: A.E«a.a: B.«n,Z: H.-B. GSl. 3. a: 
H. 671. 1. 

B. axpIOrktaruseF App.3S«,&:0.-L. 

238: A. 497. b: B. 337, S: H.-B. 005, &, a: 

18. memorU: case? App. Ili2: G.-L. 
993: A. 4^3: B. S31: H.-B. 439: H, 487. 

19. reglSnniD: case? App. 101 : a.-I> 
968: A. }(«. o. 1: 3.301,1: H.-B. S4lt: H. 




6. GaeBar Retn53 cohortAtas Itber&literque dr&tidns prdse- 
ciilQs omnem eeD&tam sd ee convenire principumque liberoa 
absides sd a& adduci inasit. Quae omnia ab his diligenter od 
diem facta Bont. Ipse Dlviciilcnm Haedoum magnopere cohor- 
t&tus docet qnautopere rei pubUcae comiauuiBqae salutis intersit i 
manus hostium distinert, ne cum tant^ maltitadine un5 tern- 
pore cAnfligeaduQi sit. Id fieri posae, si auas copiSs Haedai in 
flneB BeUovacdrnm introduserint et edrom agros popularl 
coeperint. Hia datia maDdatis enia a ag dimittit. Poatquam 

1. litMrtUter, adn. [Ubar, free]. 
gnciOLislf , onerously, kiodly- ^ 

PTfisequor, -■■qnl. -••cQtui aum, 
Ir. lisquor, (cilli>w]. follow, accompany; 
pursuit; with BrtitlSDS, oddreas. 3. 

I. dUlgentir, odE. [dlUctlu, citre- 
lul]. carstully ; wlUi eiaotnesa, ptdns. or 

S. doceA. dootra, docvl, dootnm, 

(r.. show. t«acb, iDBimct: Inform. i|i 

qoftUMpar*. adu. [qnanttu, haw 
niu«a + »ptt8, work]. (\i interrog,, bow 
ereatly? how much? (3) ril., as mnch 

t. Olitlnafi, -tfntos, -tlnul, -tui- 

tum. (r, {t«Iie6, hold], hold or keep 
apart! divide. Isolate, t. 

T. eSnfllKO.-fllaata, -lllil, -fiietnm. 

Mr. (BlgS, strike], strike againBC, oon- 
tend, aght I. 

S. iutrMfiea, -dHoera, -dBzI. -dno- 
tnm, tr. [IntrO; within -t-attafi, lead), 
lead or bring into. 8. 

9, BUuiiUtniii, -I, B. (mmndS, com- 
mand], charge, injunction, order, com- 
mand; message. * 

llLely really Germaoa who bad Bettled 
iDQaul just as Ariovistus tried to do, 

appcllajitur: the Indicative shows 
ibat this la an explanation by Caesar, 
not a quoutlon from the Remi. 

«Ibltr&rl ipollUeri). "they ((he 
Beml) thought tbeCondrusl , . , prom- 

CaeBar sands Hia Haedol 
one BtBte, and himself 
meet the whole Belgian 

5. qoantopare; interrogative. Ei- 
plain the mode of interiit. 
commluilB aaltttis; 


champion of Gallic 

lateralt . . . dUtinSrl, UI. "the bands 
Df the enemy to be kept apart con. 
^»med," = "lt concerned . . . thai the 

bands of the enemy be kept apikrt, " The 
clause maniU . . . dittinfri is the subjec* 
ol the Impersonal verb inltriil. 

9 ne cenlllKaiidum sll, lit. ' that it 
might not have -x) be tonght," = ■' that 
they might not have to flght." Tneverb 
is used impersonally, but English Idiom 
will not allow an Impersonal traosla- 

7. Id: 1 e. keeping the bands of the 
enemy apart. The sentence id , . . co»- 
pirint ts in Indirect diacoucse. depend 
Ingondocef, 1.6. 

In fines BellOTftcSrum: the Bellor 
act were no doubt angry because they 
had not obtained leadership of the 
league (see 4. lA and 20), and the rava- 
ging o( their territory would probably 
draw them away home. 

a. IntrUaxarlnt.eoeparlnt: perfect 
subjunctive In Indirect discourse, tor 
future perfect indicativa oC the direst 



IB oiqdSb Belgarom copiis in unain locnm coactda ad ei venire 
neqae iam longg abesee ab He quos miserat exploratoribiu et 
ab BemiB cc^novit, dumeQ A20Dam, quod est in extrSmia 
Bemoram finibue, exercltum traducere muturavit atque ibi 
castra posait. Quae res et latuB unuin caetrdnim rlpis Suminis 

iG munigbat, et post earn quae erant tuta ab hoBtibua reddebat, 
et commeattia ab Remle reliqaiaqne clTJt&tibas ut sine periculfi 
ad eum portari posseot ef&ciebat. In ed flumine pone erat. Ibi 
praesidinm poait etin altera parte fliiminis Q. Titurinm Sabi- 
Dum legatum cum aex cohortibna relinquit. Castra in altitudi- 

13. Axons. -M, m. (Bt). the Aiona 
Itk'ao-aSiy.arintr.noictAtMiaM. t. 

IS. tfttvi, -a, -uu. aiif. Itncoi. i^v- 
Met), protected, sale. Mcnre. 4: 
NddS, -dere. -dldl, -dltnm. tr. ii»d> 

+ dB, give], ifiTB back, retom. restore: 
BlTe $omtlhing dot; make er cause 10 be. 

pUes, provisions, tf 

17. affleiS. -floarB, -ticl, •fBctoni. 

tr. [ez + beU. malte]. mklie or do com- 
pleMly, complete, accompllBb.coDBtruci; 
nube, cause, brtnfi abonl, render, i^ 

18. Sablnui. -I, m..QiiliitasTltiirliis 
Sablnus (kwlu'tas tl-ta'H-OsBa-ia'DQt). 
ont of Cciiar'i luuttnanli. i|i 

IS. eobon, •tU,/.. cohort. * 

10. In ttnum locum: somewhere to 

cofcet&i venln, lit, "bavlng been 
Baihered were coming." = "had gatb- 
ered and were coming." 

TSnlTB. AMtae; indirect discourse, 
depending on cognocil. 

11. kl>llBBzpl6r&t6rtbuacDgii6Tlt. 
■■learned trom the scouts." 

14. caatrs: the encavatlons made bj- 
Itae englueers or Napoleon III bave&xed 
berond question the site of this camp. 
It Is a bill situated on tbe north bank ot 
tbe Alsne. between that stream and a 
little marshy tributary, the Mlelle, 
which termed an excellent defense in 
front. See plan, p. m. The hill Is 
eighty feet high. 
quaaTfla at. "this position both." 
llttUB bnum: tbe left side, for the 


. reddibftt. ' 

him": I.e. that part ot the Semi trom 
wtaom be bad J uet marched, and the road 
by which supplies were comiag. 

IB. oomDMituutportfcrlpoMuit 
BffleUbat, ut. "made that provisions 
could be brought up," =" made It pos- 
sible tor," nt . . . poaaaut is a sub- 
stantive clause of result, the object of 

in altari, paxtB, "on the other side": 

This guard was posted 10 protect, tbe 
bridge In case some ot the enemy sbould 

1*. Hxcohortlbuarbowmany men'r 
Sec Int. 33, 

castra: the main camp on the UlL 
For a plan of this camp and for detaJls 
or camp tortlflcatlOQ, see Int. IMS. 


nem pedum xii valid foasaqae dnodeviginti pedum maniri n 

6. Ab hia caetris oppidum Bemorum Qdmine Bibrax abemt 
fflilia p&esunm octd. Id ex ibinere magno impetu Belgae oppng- 
nirecoepemat. Aegre ed die suBteDtatam est. Gallorum eadem 
atque Belg&rnm oppngD&tidesthaec. Ubi circnmiecta moltitfi- 
dine bomioum totiB moeniboa andique ia mQruni lapidgs iaci k 
coepti Bunt murueqae dStSnadribus audAtus eat, testfldioe factft 

1. Blbr«X.-Ctll,/.(B«>,Blbnz(U'- 
briks), B Iowa of tlu Semi. 1. 

1. taxMaXb,i. tr. andUUr.lfrtq.of 
nutiiMfi. hold op], hold up. snsulii. 
nuliuin; bold oat: endure, wlUuMtid.. 

1. oppnfnfcUS, -Bnii,/. [oppntnO, 

Slcna}. a suirTnliig, besle^lag, sle^, ba- 
Buli.utacli: plan or method ol storm- 
1D«. I. 

eirenmiolO, -Icara, -Iflcl, -Isotnm, 

tr. [Uelfi, tbrow, App. T].ltarow,set, or 
pUc* aroDDd. I. 
f. moenla, -Imn, n- pi-. defeiDiive 

the width. The depth vraa about ten 


Chan. 6. The Belgae asaanlt a. tovn 
1- nSmlne: ablative of speclflcatlon. 
Bibrax: see map lacing p. isa. 
1. ex Ulnar*: i.e. wliboat Btopplng 

1. aoMant&tnmasI. lii."ltwaBheld 

1. quae:use?App.iT3.a: O.-l.Sio, R. 
1: A. 306./: B.3>1,S: H.-B. 284, 8: H.bia 

Ua: case? App.l3T:G.-L.4ai: A.M5: 
B. 2ie: H.-B. 406. 1 : H. 4Sa. 

E. doeet: tense!' App, IM). a: Q,-L. 
t»:K.m»: B.35g,3:H.-B. 4fll.I:H.&a2,3. 

case* App. HO: 

walls, cltr walla, ramparts, bnlwaiita, 
ton) fl cations, defenses. S. 

lapli, -Idla, rn,. atone. * 

laclfi. iaaara, ISoI, Ikctiui. fr.ptbrow, 
cut, hnrl; {of an aggar). throw np, 
oonatt^ct, * 

e. defbiaor, -Sni, m. [dWandO, de- 
tend], defender, proleclor: (mcaiH efy 
defense, -i^ 

ntiaS, I, tr. [nfidua, bare], strip, un- 

taattidS, -inla, /., tortoise: shed; « 
tescndo, a colunut of mtn. holding Outr 
lAUldM ofierlapped ovtr thflr luadt. I. 
out"; bnt translate penionall}'. 

aadamataua Balgfcnun, "(wblcb ls> 
tbesameas(tbal) of the Belgae." Sea 
atqtu Id the Vocabulary. Ia sueb ex- 
pressions Latin never ases a word tor 

■' that. 

4. Itaaa, " as follows," 

elreumlacti: tbla ablative absohita 
is best translated by aclause: "wbeoa 
great number has been thrown amamt 
. . . and stones have begun, etc." 

6. eoaptl aunt: why not eotpfnaUf 

7. oSnfllgendum alt: modet App. 
225.9: Q..I,H6, B: A. 631, 1: B.!«a,l: 
H.-B. £02, S: B. MS. 

IS. dognSrll: modeand tense* Apit, 
231: G. L. Ml: A. M3: B, US, \: H.-B. 

G. L. 331. R I: A. 385, d. 1: B. m. V. 

H.-B. 380: H. 413. 

). p«dnm: casaT App loo: O.-I^ 
R.2: A.34&,»: B.3[B,3: a.-B. B»l 




Buccgdnnt murumque subrnnot. Qaod turn facile fiebat. Nam 
cam tanta multitudd lapidgs ac tgla conicereat, ia murd coaaU- 
tend! potestas erat nulli. Cam finem oppngnandi nox fecisset, 
ic Iccius B^mug, samma n&bilitate et gratia inter suoa, qui tarn 
oppido praeerat, unuB ex iiB qui Ugilti de pilce ad Caesarem 
veQeraot, nuntida ad aum mittit: Wm subsidium eibi eubmitta- 
tur, bSs^ diutius sustinere non posee. 

7. Efi de media iiocte Caeear, tsdem ducibus iiBua qui 

lerre; reserve force, reaerves: Help. aid. 
assistance. i|i 

■ubmltti. -milter*, -mlal, -mto- 
■uin, ir, [mltU, send], send up, sead, 
ot. ♦ 

See App. 8fl.a: Q.-I* 175.5.0: 
B. 133. 1: H..B. 1W.2: H. SM. 1 
e Plate HI. 3. 

8. aonloerent agrees wlita (be mean- 

colleclive noun muUUadS. 
10. sniiuiii, "(a man) ot ihe blgh- 

posliioa w 

IS. rabmltUtur; tbe aubjuncclre 
here stands for a future Indicative of 
the direct tonn. nuiUiSi miltii Implies 

a. mUU: a 

A. IS-. B, 181: 
Impatb: cbe 

■ App. 142: Q.-L. 3»: 
H.-B. M5, 2: H. 473.3. 
a»: case? App. 15J: G.-L. 393: A. 

E. moenlbua: c 

le? App.IlA.1: a.-L. 

L. S70: B. 1S7. Ill: H.-B. 378; H. 

8. COSptl sunt; mode and tenseF 
App. 33T: a.-L. 561: A. 543: B. 2S7, ]; 
H. B. Ki4; 557: H. 802. 

aefinafirlbua: oasef App. 134,6: G.-L. 
390,2: A.401: B.ZI4.1.&: H.-B. 108. 2: 

S. Gonlcet'ent: mode* App. 240:242, 
a. G -L. 570, 11, o; 5K: A. 546: B. 288. 1, 
b: H.B. 5'!4: H. 800, 11. 

9, nDlU: case? App. IIT: a.-I,3»: 
A, 373: B. IW; H.-B. 374: H. 430. 

10. nfibllltftte: case? App. 141 : G.-L, 
400: A. 415: B. S24: H B. 443: H. 473, 2. 

660: , 

App, 123: G.-L, 313, 
H.-B.S88: H.4IB. 

3.314,1,2: 1 

As explained under II, 1, each o( tbe 

lerrea to three tlmas in the notes on 
Book IL At the end of the chapter In 
which the third reference to anj- con- 
struction has been given, attention is 
called to the tact; and if the pupil hsa 
not yet mastered the Ci 

Third Uefehbhces: 

Sultiect of m»iittve 
Ahlattnf of Ilmt 
IfarralU-f cam clauie 
ZnfiniliBt in indirtct di»einiTM» 



Duntii ab Iccio venerant, Kumidas et Cretes sagittarida et 
fouditdres BaleSres snbeidiO oppidanis mittit; qnorum adventa 
etBemia cum epS d5fSnsii>nis stndinm prdpngoandi acceB8it,Qt 
boatibns eadem d€ causa spea potiundi oppidi disceseit. Itaqne ■ 
paDliBperapadoppidummoruti agrosqae Remdrum dC-populati, 
omnibus tIcIs aedificiiaque quo adire potuerant ioccDSlB, ad 
castra Caesaris omnibua cdpils contenderunt et a milibna 
passuum miaus dnobus castra posuC-runt; quae castra, ut fumft 

a. Hnnitdu, -fcnun, m., tnoNumi- 

die (Du'ml-de). bttttr the Nmaldlans, a 
ftoptt •>! North Africa, in modei-n Algirri. 

OtAMb, -um. m-, thBCretp8[krB'iB7), 
bttler, Cretans, ntUtvtt of tht itland of 
Crett. 1. 

Mglttkritu, -n, nt. [•kgllta. auar. 
low], bowman, archer. 3. 

i. fimdltor,-<rU,m.[fiui(U,sl]iii[|, 
alinger. 4. 

BaJUrlB. -«. adj., Balearic (bU"e-ft'- 
rik), (I.e. coming from tht Majult Majorca 
and Mnorca) I. 

oppUUtnoi, -k. -uin, adj. [appldnB. 

town]. o[ or pertaining to a town: in pL 
04 noun, townspeople. Inhabttauu at & 
town, a 

4. dtnnalS, •Onla, /. [d«fauiU. ds- 
lend], a deleiuUng. defeiiBe. l. 

prtltnCBfi, I. fnCr., ttglit tor, defend i 
rush oat to Qghl, attack. I. 

t. paulUpsr, atlv. [paulua, little], 
for a short time, for a little while, 3. 

adifi, -In,-li, -itum, 'r. and intr. [tt, 
go. App, W]. go to, approach, visit; a» 
sail, attack. « 

). nmui,-l.'n.. smoke. I. 

>. mlttlt: the auiUlarles probaWy 
enwred the lown on the Boulh side, 
where the slope of the hill was very 
steep. Tbe Belgae could not attack ot- 
lectlvely on chat side and would be like- 
ly to leave It aoguarded. 

OUfirum a<lTentIi, ■■aithelrarrlvar': 
an ablative at time, but with a sugges- 


• et. 

e. bOStlbUB dlBOMllt. Ut. "we 

away [or Ibe enemy ■="lelCthe6nBm) 
hoititrug Is a dative or rererence. As t 
ideabere Isone or separatloo, It may 
called a dative of separation. 

potlandl: the older form of the gi 
iindlve.rorpo(i*n(fl. How can potior, 

Intransitive verb, have a gerundlvol 
App. a», r, a: g.-L, tZ7, 4, i: a. SOJ. a. 
Si B. 339.4: H.B. 613.3. 6, Q.: H. BBS. I. 

6. morfctl, d jpopulfttl : as moror and 
d^opalor are deponent verbs, their per- 
fect participles have active meanings; 
therefore they agree wiih the snbject of 
contmderurtC. But asiBcsiwuila passive 
In meaning, the idea "baring burned 
their villages" must be eipressed by tlie 

T. que; 

he adverb. 

duObuB, -less than two 

■; I.e. from Caeear's camp. 

06 la here 

■sed adverbially; rnUibut la 

i minui not atfectlng th« 

1- See App 13». 6: G.-L. 

S94.R.4- A 

40T.c: B, 317.3; H..B.*l«,il; 

■, Google 



■I atqne igDibus significabitnr, amplius milibus passnmu oct5 in 

Utitudinem patebant. 

8. Caesar prlmo et propter multitudinem hoslinm et 

propter eximiam opiaidnem Tirtutie proelidsupersed^restatnit; 

cotidiS tatnen eqtieatribas proeliiB, quid hoatia virtate poaaet et 

quid noBtrl auderent, periclitabatur. Ubi nostrds n&n egsa 
i inteiiurSa iiitellSxit, loco pro castriB ad aciem iaatruendam 

10. ■isnlfleO, 1. (r. [■Ifnum, sigQ+ 
ftctt, mahej, make Bigos; sbow, indl- 
cBte. BlgDiry. 4. 

1. pilmS, advl [itrlmiu, sm], at 
tlrat, !□ ibe first place, hi 

3. axlmlui, •», 'Uin, atij. [exlinfi, 

take oul], latfn from tki matt; kcnce 

■uperssdefi, -it«, -bHI, -aeuiuD. 
latr. iMdeSt sit), Bit above, be above, M 
Buperlor to; relrain from. I. 

4. parlclltor, l, tr. and iatr. [peri- 
CuliUK, trial, danger], try, test; be in 
doD^w or peril. 1. 

10. mtUbua: ablative >tt«r tbecom- 

paratlvo amfliut. Tba refaienceB on L 
SBayonly ihaxplSt, mlflut, (tnipIfu.aDa 
tongif are not neceasarll; tollowed bf 
the ablative. 

Chap. S. Caesar fortlfles his posi- 
tion and pr«paiea for battle. 

1. mulIltMinein; ir tbe states sent 
tbe quotas promised ta ebap. 4, the to- 
tal was SM.OOO meni but probably Dot 
all were sent. 

S. opInlSnem Tlrtfitll, "repntatlon 

proellBi ablative ol separation. 

4. nostrl: especially tbe Gallic cai. 
airy. Tbe Belgae were thougbt lo b» 
belter figbters tban tbe Celtic Gaala. 

6. Tbe loUowing descrlpttOQ Is less 
clear Ibanmostot Caesar's descrlptlona 
of places, so tbat It cannot be under. 

plan. Tbe camp and trencbes were dis- 
covered in (be course ot eicavallona 
made at the order ol Emperor Napoleon 
III, Tbe ridge on which tbe camp lay 
1^ about two miles in length, extending 

. mtdift: meaning; App. ii 

Iriem: caseT App. I4K; O.-L.40T: j 

3. lagltUTlBi: caseF Appli»;a.-L. 

8. BUbtldlB, Dppid&nlt: caseF App. 
119: a.-L.35e.D. 1: A. 382.1: B. 101,3. S: 
H.-B.3flO,i: H.4S3.3. 

4. dtrtnalBDi*; case? App sa:0.-L. 


287; 291: G.-L. 42: 
B. 338, I. a: B.-B. 

1: H. e»iS!5; 

^.343: B. 198: I 

B. 339: H. 140.1. 

eOptla: case? App I4Z: G.-L. 399: A 
412: B. 220.1: H.-B. 445.3: H. 473. 3. 

mUlbue duAbua: case? App 14B: 
G.-L. 403: A. 414: B. 333: H.-B. 424: H. 

10. mUibUI OCt«; case? App 139; 
G. L. 396: A. 40t: B. 217, 1: H.-B. 418; H 

Third Refebencis: 



naturS. opportUDo atque idoned, qnod is collis nbi castra posits 
erant paulnlum ex pl&nitiS editus taDtam adversiia in latitudi- 
nem patebat qaantum loci aci^e mstrncta occupAre poterat, atqne 

6. opportbiiui,-a,-niii,<iiV..QUop- 

portune, luck; . suitable 1 favorable, ad- 
Tunageous. * 

UtiMiii, -a, -nm, atl}-- Oi. suitable. 
adapted, it 

T. paulnlum, adv. [pkului, UiUr], 

pUnltle*, -a!,/. IplbiuB, level), li 
si ground, plain. 1. 

tdltva. -a, -nm, aaj. \pf. part, of M 
live ont, raise up], elevated, lofty. £ 


nearly ea^t and west. The camp wh 
tbe east, end, facing nesl. Tbe RomaD 
army wnB^diavm up along tbe ridge, lac- 
ing nortb. Therefore the front of 
camp was tbe west Bide, looking low 
Ibe battle line; but the frontol tbe bill 
was ibe north side, looking toward tl 
enemy. Caesar calls the north and tl 

•outb slopesof tbe bill its loCtra. 
loed opportbiift, "BlQcetbeplaeewi 

■nliable." The ablative absolule he 

has a causal mean lug. 
pre oaatTla: i.e. to the west oi tl 

8. ODlUa is the subject of paObat, 
^iM?aC, and redibut. 

T. tantum . . . potarat, tit. "ei- 
inded so much opposite (to tbe enemy) 
K of space a Hoe drawn up could Qll" = 
was as wide on the side facing the en- 
uy as a bat lie line could eii«nd." 
In Ifttltbdlnem: le. from the camp 
> the nest end of the bill- Perhaps 
e should call tbla tbe length of the 

8. lOOl: we sboulrt expect Ibis partl- 

, Google 



ex utraqne parte Uteris delectus habebat et in fronte leniter 
10 faatigatus paiilatim ad planitiem redibat, ab utrdqae latere 
eiu8 collie tranaTersam foasam obdiixit circiter passunm cd et 
ad estreoias f oseiis oast«lla constitait ibique tormenta collooarit, 
ne, cum aciem instruxisBet, bostee, quod tantum moltitudiDe 
poterant, ab latenbus pngDantgs suds circumvenire possent. 
i& Koc facto, duubus legionibus quas proxime conscripserat in 
caatris relictis, ut, si quo opus esset, subsidio duel possent, reli- 

9. uMrque, ntraqus. ntnunauB, 
04). tutar, which of two\, eacli of two, 
either of iwo; both. :)[ 

deisctus, -ftB, m. [d#lcU, coat down], 
decllvICy, slope, desoenL * 

ftona.frontla,/, torehend: IroDU S. 

ISniter, otfi'. [lanl*, smooth), aonlj. 
Bmootb)y. gently, gradually. 2. 

10. fiutlgltiu, -a., -nm, adj., slop- 

paul&tlm, adv [piulns, little), little 
by little, by degrees, gradually. * 

11. tr&HTersui, -a, -mn, adj. 
[tianarerM. turn across], turaed 

II. [toratiai, 

tiTlstk means of twlsttog ; aa CDgltM for 
hurting mixilu, e.g. cotapuUii and balS^ 
fa; wtadlass,liolst: device for torturing^ 

18. quB. adv. [old dot. eat of qd, 
who, whiohj, (1) Interrog., wbltbra'T W 
what placer (!) ret., lo wblcta. loffhom; 
to where, whither; toward wUcbi 
where, wherein; <B) iiKJ<f., to any pUw 

OPUB, ituttct. fwun, n. [of, opw, 
work, deed), need, neceEslCy; opUl Mt, 
it Is necessary, there is nkud. thi thing 
netdtd bfing fXpreased githgr by the non. 
or the oftl. <App. IM). * 

t. «... laMrli, lit. •' at each end 

13. InBtrOilBBet: 

Implied Indlreet 

of the sia6- = "at each end"; i.e. the 

discourse tor the f utu 

east and west ends of the hllL vtraqu4 

Bar's thought was "t 


all have drawn iw 

or the Hides. As latui meana one of the 

my line." 

long sides of the bill, vtragaipartt latent 

14. ab lat«rlbuB 

"on the tlanlB." 

InfTOUU; Le. Lbe norttaeru slope. 

10. ab utrdque latere, "ou each 
aide"; i.e. on tbe northern and southern 

11. trftnsTBiBam, "atrlghtai^les" 
to the ridge. The plan sbows that OQe 
trench ran from the camp to the Miette, 
the other from the camp to the Axona. 

la. eztrJniftB: i.e. the outer ends. 
tormenta: see int. £3. 

flank of the army, but the left was sulB- 
clenll J prowcied by the Miette. 

15. qu&B . . . oAniorlpserat: cf.S, 

1. These leglous were not sufllclently 
disciplined to be brought into the battle 
unless It were necessary. 

16. QUO: the adverb: supply dSa; 
" If tbere )<bould be need of tttelr being 

•ubsldlft: dative ot purpose. 




<liiaB sex legidnes pro caatris in acie cOnstituit. IIosteB item 
sa&3 oopias ex castrlB eductas instruxerunt. 

9. Palus erat nua magna inter QOEtrnm atqne hostium 
eiercitnin. Hanc si nostr! transirent, hostes exspectabant; 
noetTiaateiii,siab illls initium tranaeundi Eeret, nt impedltds 
sggrederentar parat! in armia erant. luterim proelid eqaestri 
inter dnas acies contendsbiltur. Ubi nentri transonndi initium s 
lac'innt, secundiOre equitam proelio nostris Caesar buOs in 
t^tra reduxit. Hostes pr6tinns ex eo loco ad flumen Axocnm 
oontandenint, quod esae post nostra castra demotistratum est. 
Ibi vadis repertis partem Baarum cdpiarnm tradacere conati 
saat, eo coaBilid, lit, si poBsent, castellum cni praeerat Q. n 
Titurias iegatus espugnurent pontemque iuterscindereat ; el 

I. palfta, -tkdli, /-, manb, marssa, 
I. neuter, -trk, -tnun (gti- -trim, 

int. -trl), a4f. uied at runm [UB- +Uter, 
vlilcb of t(o0j. nelcberj in pi., neltber 
aide, neither party. 1 . 

liitoTMlna6, -Bclndvra, -■cidl. 

(k1d^6, cut, destroy], cat 
Hirougli, cut 1q two; destroy. I. 

Chap. 9-11. The Belgi 
home withoal riskin- - 

^clBive bat- 
Chap. 9- Not Tentnriiig to attack 
Caesar, the Belgaa attempt to pass 
him by a fold. 

1. palaBer&t,"theFewasamarBb": 
Le. the marshy eroimd along theMletM. 

1. (i tranalrsnt: construction r App. 
K4, b: a.-L. MO, b: A.&TO, a: B. 800, 8; 
B.-B. GS9, S, a: H. MS, II. 3. 

I. •! . . . SbtM, " if they Bhould be- 
grlD to cross," The clause depends oa 
ii( oggredtTtnlur, and the subjunctive is 
dne to implied Indirect dtBcoorae; lor 
Caesar's thought vfaa " I will have my 
men ready to attack If they shall begin. " 

ImpadlUs: I.e. byerosslng the marsh. 

8. foolnut: historical preseot, (or 
the more usual perfect arier uU. 

■HundlOl* pro*110: ablative abso- 


s. contenOfimiit: ( 
this movement, probably because oC an 
Intervening [oreal. 

a. T>dlB: the probable looatlon of 
these torda Is Bhoim io tbe plan by 
crossed sabres. 

10. o6c6nalll8,nt, etc., "With this 
design, to slorm, it they eoold, etc." 

poBBsnt: implied indirect discourse 
tor the tuturs Indicative; for tbey 
thought " we will storm It we shall be 
able." But pToetral la Indicative, bo- 
cause it Is an eiplanatlooadded by Cae- 
sar, not a part of their thought. 

S. proeUla: caseF App. US: O.-L. 

A. 418: 8.828: H.-B.+41: H. 480. 

»l: A. 400: B.aiB,T: H.-B. 423: H. 47«. 

B. pat«bat: mode? App.244t Q.-r. 

poiaet: mode? App. BBS: G.-L. IW: 

540: A. 640: B. 288.1; B.-B. 55*: 5M: H. 

A.B73; 674: B. MO, l,a; H.-B, B37, 6- H. 

BBS, I. 

■, Google 



miniis potnissdat, agros Remuram popnlarentar, qui magnft 
nobis uBui ad bdlum gerendum erant, comme&tuque noetros 

10. Caeaar certior f actus ab Titurio omnem equitatum et 
levis armaturae Numidas, funditorea aagittariOaqne pontam 
traddcit atque ad eda coateodit, Acriter in ed loci> pugnatum 
©at. Hoatea impedltoa nostri in flumine aggreaai magnum 
s eoram numerum oeciderunt; per edmm corpora reliquos auda- 
ciaaime tranaire conantea muititudino telomm reppulgrunt; 
primoa, qui tranaierant, eqaitatu circumventoa interfecertmt. 
Hostes ubi et du expugnando oppido et de diimino tra,ii3euadd 

18. ego. aiBl <App. 51). flrit perl. 
Jn-on-.I; pt.nOB,, Blc. ifi 

BtUB, -08, m. illtor, use}. USB, experi- 
ence, practice, sltill; service, ftdvantage; 
need, necesall;; tkBus eat, there Is need : 
ftBuI BBia or ex fia& BBaa. be of lulraii' 
tage or servlca; asQ venire, come by 

necessity, happen. 41 

3. levlB, -e, adj., Ilgbl (In laeiglU), 
slight; light-minded, BcUle, Inconstant. 

arm&t&rft, -»•. /. [armft, arm], ai^ 
mor. equipment; lavla arm&tbra*, 
llght-anned. 3. 

potulseent stands for a futur 
poputiitentur. prohlMTent; 1 

Chap. 10. The Belgae are repulsad 

lit the ford and decide to return home. 

1. equitatum: the caralry and light- 

armed troops were not equal to the le- 
g\OBa In fighting power, but tbej' could 
get »> the ford morequickl;. 

S. In eB loc6: le, at the fords. 

4. noBtrl la the subject ofoceidBruii*, 
nppalrruitt, and Inter/iamitt. 

B. Ubi lutroduces intfllaxmnt, vidi- 
runt, and coepit. 

3. trftnseuDdi: 

SST; 2»1: G.-I.. 125; tl&: A. Ml; 502; 504: 
B. 338, H.-B.SU; 612.1: H. SSt; 025; 

4. aggrederentar; mode! App.SSS. 
a.3:0.-L. MS. 1; A.53I, 1: B.2a2, I; H.-B. 
eoa.!: H. 563. 

6. nostria: case? App. 132: G.-L.3S9: 

' App. 138: G.-L. 

OUl: case? App. 116.1: G.-L. 34T: A. 
310: B. 1ST. in: H.-B. ITS: H. 43B.S. 
11. Hx&tUB: case? App-SS.A: G.-U 

330; 321: A. 281; 28Z: B. 16B. I, 2: H.-ft 
319; 317. 8: H. 303. 

13. iiAbiB tkeul; caser App.llB: G.-Ii. 
asfl: A.3a^l: B,IB1,3.6; H.-B. 360. A: 
H. 133. 3. 

gerendum: construction F App. 2S8; 
380; e03: G.-I^ 477; 433: A. 503. o; 500. n. 
2: B. 339, 1, 3: B-a 609; 610; 61:1. Ill: H. 
623; «», footnote 3. 

comme&ttt: easer App. I34: G.-Ii.300k 
3: A. 401 ; B. 314, 3: H.-a 406, 3: H. 461^ 


■, Google 



gpem B$ fefellisse intellexenuit neque noatrdB ia loonm inlqai- 
Srem prdgredi pogaandi caaB& Tlderant, atqne ipsda res v 
frumeataria dgficere coepit, conciliO convoaatd cooBtitn^rant 
optitnum esae domum suam quemqne reverti, et, qadnitn in 
fiues primnm Bomiiiii ezercitum introduzisaeot;, ad e5a d^ten- 
dandos audiqne cooveDlreat, ut potioa iaauis qtiata in alignis 
Hnibua decertareat et domoetioiB copiis re! frumentariae uter- ii 
eutar. Ad earn senteatiain oum reliquis causis haec quoqod 
ratio eos deduxit, qaod Dmcincum atqae Haeduos finlbns 
Beilovacorum appropinquare cognoverant. Hia perauaderi ut 

9. fblie,r&llere.fefem.rauum.(r.. 

dec«lF?. cbeal, dlsappoial. 2. 
uuquus, -a, -um, mij- [ln-+M<ium, 

sren, Just], uneven ; UDjust, uatiilri un- 
tavorable, dlsadvaatageous. it 

10. prSgradtor, -STadk -gresniB 
inm, tntr. igradlor, step], siep or go 
(orward, adf atice, procee<1. go. :): 

11. deflolS, -floan, -flcl, -faetun. 

Ir.amliBtr. [tkal6, make], fall, deaerl, 
tail away, revolt. *r 

14. potlus, adu. [camp, of potll, 
sbJe], riLiher. 2. 

la. UoartS, l.fnfr. [oartB, contend), 
Sgbt to the ead, fight out, Btruggls 
fiercely or oomeatly. vie, contend. * 

donMitleni, -a, -um, adj. idomui, 
boose], belonging to the home, domes- 
IB. MiitaiLtlk, -aa, /. [HntlS, 
thlnkj.irarollhinltiag, opinion, senti- 
ment; purpose, design, scheme, plan; 
daclsion, resolve; verdict; sentence. % 

18. appToplnquS, t,f»(r. [ad+pro- 
plnquiu, near] , come near or close, ap- 
proach. -^ 

>. Ubl . . . intelliximut, Ut. "when 
they saw that tbeir hope about the toifn 
to be taken . . . bad dl3appomt«d them" 
= "when they saw that they were dis- 
appointed In tbeir hope of taking tbe 

asqu* = tt nSa. 

noBtrSa . . . ptSgradl: Le. the le- 
gions would not descend the hill to the 

10. IpaSa: the enemy. It requires 
taorougb orgaulzatloQ to supply so large 
an army. Caesar'a superiority to the 
Gallic leaders is always evldeot In this 
matter no less than on the battle flelil. 

a hostile country, where It U hard co 
seehow be secured supplies: but we bear 
only once it a, (allure to keep his army 

U. cSnatltuSEiuit has two objects. 

ty\opiimum etee. "that It was best" {In- 
direct discourse), and (3) (uO«nn»ir«<, 
"to assemble" (a substantive volltlvo 

13. IntrOdtkxlMentilmplledliidlrect 

discourse (or the future perfect Indica- 
tive, Thelrthougblwa8"letusas9em- 
ble topTOtflcl those Into whose territory 
the Romans shall have led. " 

16. eum.'-lnaddlUonto." 

17. DiTlclftcum , . . approplnqD&ra: 
In accordance with Caesar's dlrectlona 
SeeE, T. 

flnibu: Indirect object of the com- 
poQQd verb appropinquSrt. 

la. bU penu&itarl 11611 potarat, 

III. "It could notbeperatiadeiltoUieBe." 
Turn Into English. It wlU be remem 
bered thai the Bellovact had reason to 
be lukewarm lo their allegiance to (Iw 
confederation. See note ou B. I> 


diatina mor&rentur neque snis auxilinm ferreat ndn poterat. 
11. Ea ro coDstituta eecund^ vigilia magoo cum atrepitS 
ac tumnltu castriB egressi niillo certO drdine Qeqae impend, 
cam Bibi qnisque prlmum itineriB locam peteret et domnm 
perrenire properaret, fecerimt ut coQBimilia fugae profeotio 
B videretur. Hac re statim CaeBar per specalatores cognita 

1. atrspltUE, -fis, m. latreps, mnhe 
ftiiolse], noise, raltle, uproar. 2. 

3. tumnltnB, -lU, m. [tmneS, swell], 
nproair, confusloa. disorder, tumuli; up- 
rising, InsurrecUon. 2. 

firdfi, -InlB, m., row, tier, layer; rank. 

B 0/ t. 

mgemenl, order; 

t. proparO. 1. inir. rpropanu. 
qntcltj, hasten, hurry. 2. 

eeiiBlinUlB, -e, aO]. [slmlllB, U&el, 
very lllte, similar. 1. 

D. aUtlm. adv. imb, stand], at out 
ttandi. hetict, torUkwltta, inmiedlately, 

-6rtB. 1 


18. neane = (( not. 

Chap. II. ThoBelgae are paiBned 
vlt^ great slaughter. 

1. ■Munda Tlglllt: I.e. durlns the 
■econd qoarter ot tbe nlK^l. A3 tba 
niebts were sbort, this w 

9. Oftst^s: Bti1at;ve of separation. 
4. fecerunt ut profMtlfi Tldeietnr, 

" they made their departure seem." 
fti(U: dative. 

? App.15 

IT: Q.-L. 

»4: H.-B. 310; »\1. 3; H. 394. 

ab TlttkrlO: case? App. 137-. G.-L. 
4D1: A.W5: B. 216: H.-B. IM, I; H.4CS. 

S. ftmiktlirfte: case? App.ioO: o.-l. 

MB: A.S«: R 203: H.-B,S55; H.M0.3. 

vaultitnm, pontom: case? App. 12T; 
O.-L. 131. K. 1: A. 385,11, 1: B. m, 1: 
H.-B. 38a: H. 413. 

B. •drum (numerum): case? App. 
Wl: Q,-L. 387; 368: A. 3«,a, 1; B. Ml. 1: 
B.-B, 349: U. 440,5; 441. 

8. •zpugnandO: construction tA-pp. 
„ -IBT; 433: A. BOS. 0; 


9. IntelllxiTOnt: mode and t«nae? 
App, 237: G.L.M1: A. 648: B. 3ST, 1: 
B^a KM; UT: H. 802. 

10. pngnandl: constmctlon? App, 
IBT; 291: O.-L. 4»; 428, K.: 

B. l.c 

I; 812.1: 

12, domoin: case? App. l 

V. 1», Z: B. IG2. 1, b: H.-I 

IS. cosnfiTerknt: constmcilont 

App.34B: O.-L. 623, D. 1; 524; 62&. 3: A. 
&T2: B. 2W.1: H.-B. MS; £52, 1: H, 588. 

1.-6.389, a; 

Predicatt iidjectivt Indirect object 
Partitive genitive Ablative of agtni 
6tnmd Oenatdim 

Too abjecti vMh compound verba 
aubtlantlvtvoliUve iparpoie) c/ousat 
Claatti with ubi, pottquam. etc. 
Sependint clauett in 



insidias Teritns, quod qn^ de caosa disoederent ndndam per- 
spexerat, ezercitam eqnitatumque castris contiotiit. Primi 
l&ce cooSirnata le ab ezploratorlbuB, omnem equitatum, qai 
noTissimam ^men moraretur, praemisit. Hie Q. Fedium et 
L. Anrancaleiam Gottam ligatoa praefScit. T. Labieunin u 
ISgatnm cum legionibus tribns subsequi inssit. Hi novissimos 
adorti et molta milia passaum prosecuti magnam mnltitQ- 
diuein edroni fagieatium oom^dgruiit, cum sb extremd agmiae 
ad qnos vQDtam erat cdnsUtereat fortlterque impetam noa- 
trOrnm militant anstiQereot, priOres, qaod abesse a perlculd u 
TidereDtnr neqae vdlS. neceBaitate Deque imperio contingrentur, 
ezanditd clamore pertarb^tis ordiaibaa omnes iu faga Bibi 
praesidium ponerent. Ita sine ullo perlealo tantam eoram 

I. persplcia. -aploera, -iptzi, 
■tptatniD: tr. [apeclA, look], look orsee 
IliTOngh, viev, examine, tnspect; per- 
oelTe, realize, leani. find out, aeeer- 

tn.. Lucius 
Aonuiciileius Cotta (lu'shjUs ^w-riing"- 
kfi-le'Tas c{lt'a) , ofM of Caaar'i lUuUit- 
aiUi. 3. ' 

11. snbBoqnor, -laqul, -Modtni 
■Dm, tr. and fn^. [wquor, follow], fol- 
low closely, follow up ar on, follon. if 

IS. mglfi, fugere, fBgl.fasltum.Ir. 
B^ tmr. [fUKa. filgbtl. intr., fiee, run 
vwjkj, escape; £r., shun, avoid. 4. 

■• anod peispaxBT&t; a causal 

I, oaHtTlB, "In camp"; but the ab- 
KDce of t» Bbows tbat the coustnustlcm 

8. qnlmoEiirStui, "todelay"; apur- 

II. Ifisitum: see Int. 38. 

•ubisqnl: tbe leElons could not over- 
take tlie Fugitives, but If tbe latter 
stopped to resist the cavalry the legions 
oould make sbort work or them. 

IS. mslantlnm, " in their QlgDt." 
enin . . . c&niUtarent, '■ since (those) 
in the rear, whom (our men) bad orertak- 
en, would stop." eentUttreni, tuttinirtat. 

14. fortltor, adv. ifortli, braval, 
bravely, stoutly, courageously, t 

IB. prior, prlua, aiU., amp. (App. 
13). former, previous, prior, Drat; pi. M 
noufl. tbose in front. 3. 

1>. n«c«aEitfci, -Utla, /. [naeeiaa, 
necessary], necessity, constraint, need. 

IT. axmndlO, 4. tr. landlS, bear], 

h.eax {from a dittance). 1. 

clkmoT. -drls, m. (elftmB, cry oatl, 
outcry, noise, din, clamor. :(: 

p«Ttnrb4, 1, tr. [tnrb6, disturb], dis- 
turb greatly, throw into confusiaD,ei]l- 
barraaa.distiu'b: alarm, terrify. « 
aud pdnereal are Imperfects of repeated 
action: all through the daythecavab^ 
kept overtaking bodies of the enemy, 
1 were killed in tbe mamier described 

14. Tantum vrat is Impersonal, but, 
as usual, tbe tranalatiou must be per^ 

IE. prUris, " (but) tbose [of tbe en- 
emy] In advance." 

iliwd TidfirentuT neqna eontlnfi- 
TMitnr: a causal clause: mode? App. 
374: O.-L. MS.1: A. &93: B. 321, 1: H.-B. 



■, Google 



mnltitudinem nostri interfecerunt quantum fuit diSI spatinm; 

Bub occasum solis sequi deatiteruut seque in castra, ut erat 
imperatum, reoeperunt. 

12. Postridie eiua die! Caesar, priuaquam sS hostes ei 
terrore ac fuga reciperent, ia fines SuessioDum, qui proximi 
Bemis eraiit, exercitum duxifc et ma^o itiuere ad oppidnm 
Noviodunum contenilit. Id ez itinera oppugnare cOnataa, 

6 quod vacuum ab defensoribus esse audi^bat, propter latitudinem 
fussae murique altitudiueni paucis defendeutibus expngnare 

2. tortor. -erii, m. terreft. fr^ht- 

B. TMUus, -a. -um. adj. ctm«. b. 

empty], empijr, uncKcuplea; Irea from. 

4. HoYloaOnum, -l.n-. Novlodunum 

(□o"t1 5 -afi'nam) (Be) C/u capital of tin 

audl«,4,er„ heir.heaiol; dlcWkU- 

diini. obedient, if 

19. auantum . . . ■pkUuin,iit."as 

nas ihe lenglh Of the <lay" = "iL3 iho 
lei^th of tli« day permllled." 

Chap. IZ'IS. The Sneesiones, the 
Bellovaci, and Qie Ambiani sarTender 

Chap. 13. _Cassar takes the chief 

b: H.-B. SOT, 4, ^; H. 605, a. Now (bac 
Cu^ bad brokea up ibe comblnalioa 
of siaiea. It only remaload (or him to 

3, petmt: mode! App. 139: O.-L. 

SW: A. 54B: B. S88, 3: H.-B. Sifl: H. 598, 

domum: caser App 131: G.-L. 33T: 
A, B27, b: B. 183, 1. 6; H.-B. i-0. b: K. 

S. tnagnO Itlnere: about 28 milH 
along ju soatO bank. See map (acing 

4. ax Hlnere: I.e. beCore making 
camp and wllbout letUng the soldiers 
rest, although they were tired alrar tbetr 
uausually ionic march iinx. M). Caesar 
wanted to take the town before its gac- 

method oC taking to ims see InL Si. 

5. pauclE dgfendeiittbUB. "aittiougti 

13. mllla: case? App. 130: 

3SS: A. tm: B. Igl: H.-B. 387. 1: H. 

IB. mUttum: caser App. «e; 

440, 1 

V. 3l3.n 

: B. 1»: H.-B. 344: H. 

perlculS: cr.seT App. 1X4: C -T 

B. 4ei. 

IT. BlU: caseT App. IK: O. I 
3: A. 3TB: B. 188. 1: H.-B. 366: H. 41 

Third REFE&BtiaBa: 

Suhjeciive gtrtitive 
Ablativt of lepariaio^ 
Mlatiee ofaccompatununt 
Ablativt of maimtr 
Indirtct qaation 




nOn potnit. Castris munitis TlneSa agere quaeque od oppng- 
nandum usul erant comparare coepit. iDterim omnia ex tugi 
Sueasiomim multitudd in oppidnm prosim& uocto coavenit. 
Celeriter vinels ad oppidum &ctis, aggere iaoto tumbusqae m 
conatitiitis, magQitudine openun,- quae neque Tlderant ante 
Galli neqne aadierant, et celeritSte BumanSrum permotl 
legates ad Caeaarem de deditifine mittoat et, petentibna Remis 
at conserrareDtnr, impetrant. 

13. Caesar, obsidibos acceptis primia ciTit&tie atqae ipsius 
Galbae regis duobus filtia armisque omuibaBezoppido traditia, 
in deditionem Sueaaiones accipit exercitnmqne in Belloracos 
ducit. Qui cum sS auaque omnia in oppidum Bratuspautium 
contalisaent, atque ab eo oppido Caeaar cum exercitu circiter t 
inilja pa^suum quinque abeaset, omnSa maiorgs n&tu ex oppidd 

T. Tinea. •>«, /■ iTlQum, wine], i 
Tine arbor, Zuace, a, shed /or lAt d«fimt 
sf ahisieging party. 4, | 

10. aggar, acEena, i 

oioiuii]; ramporl. « 
tOTTl*, -li./-. tOWOT. * 

11. masnittkaA, -inla,/. [magnui. 
great], greainess. great alze, size, ex- 
Kav, stature (corvorum) ; vloleuca 
(rentl); severity (pa«iiM): maKiilttk- 

T. Tine&B &B«ra, "ui more up the 
vintat." See Int. (O. d. 

quaeque, "and (tbosetIilDg;s)irIilcIi." 

8, Haul: dative o( purpose. 

t. In appldnm: tbey probably en- 
tered from tbe north by crosslDg tbe 
Aiona, There may have been a bridge 
which Caesar had not bad time to d&- 

10. a2SHetnrrlbiiBque:EeeInt. 61. 

13. petentlbUE Bimls: on tlie rela- 
tions between the Kemi and tlie Sneaai- 
onesseeS. ii. 

14. Impetruit, "they [the Sueasl- 

li. cOniarr&Tentur: ten 
Vti; 203: StH. b- &.-U 50B, 1, ! 
A. 482; 483: 48», «: B. Vfl: iSi 
tlS, 4B1, 1, Z: H H3; Mt! bid. 

sf App. 

dd anlml, courage. * 

13. oeienui, -tfttli, /. [celer. 
swift], Bwirtuesa, quickness, speed. ^ 

14. eCnMrrA, I, tr. {Mr*d. save], 
save, spare, protect ; observe, malbtalo. 

4. BTatuipantIum,-U,».<Be^Brat- 

uapantlum (brAfils pSn'shyi^m). I. 

5. nfctus, -fti, m- Ini,icor, be bomi 
btrth; miiSlfiS akn., grtaur tty birth, 
elders. 3. 

ones] obtained tbelr request-" Tbe 
verb is used absolutely. 

Chap. IS. Caesar inarches againat 
the Bellovaci. who sue for peace. 

1. obsldlbua, "aabOBtages": iu ap- 
position with prin^. which la used as » 
noun, and with JTiiw. 

3. aalbaa : who had been head ot tbe 
league ; see 4, SO. 

3. BelloTacfia: tbe strongest Bel- 
gian state. For the direction oC bla 
march see map facing p. IBS. 

S. ezopptdB; Is ee needed with this 
verb? See 11. 3. 

Impelruit: tenser App. IM. a: O..L. 
^ea: A.4W:B.%B,3;K.-B.ttl,I:H.MI.3. 

Third Refebbhce: 

HMmiciU prtitM 

:. Google 



SgressI manus ad CaeBsrem tendere et vcice aigiiificare coepS< 
rant, seBe in eiua fldem ae potsBtStem venire oeque contra 
populam Kumanum armis contendere. Item, cum ad oppidam 

M accessisaet caatraque ibi pdneret, puerT muliereaqne ex maro 
paaala manibns auO more pacem ab Rdmania petierunt. 

14. Pro his Dmciacus (nam poat disceaaam Belganim 
dimiaeis Haedufirnm cdpiis ad eum roverterat) facit verba: 
Bellovacos omni tempore in fidS atque amicitia cTvitatis Haednae 
fuisae; impulsoa ab aula prmcipibna, qni dicerent Haeduos a 

i Gaeaare in aervitutem redactds omnea indignitatea contnmeli- 
asqne perferre, et ab Haeduia defgciaae et popalo Rdmano 
bellum intnliaae. Qui eiua cdnaili principea fmasent, quod 

T. Mndfi. t«Daer«, tatanill, t«ntuln 
or teninm, tr., alrelch, Blretch out. e»- 
tead; tiretch a tent, ^ich: encamp. I. 

t8x, Tiicla, /.. voice, wne; onwiy, 
cry; word; pi., worda. language, uori- 
tnulu Irantlatfd according to conlexl. <u 
QDtreaties. complalats, tales, etc ^! 

11. puidfi, pandere, pandl, pas- 
sum, tr.. spread or stretch out, extend; 
pasJll o&plllll, with disheveled hair; 
paMll ouuilbiu, wiOi ODtstretched 

part], departure, withdrawal, absence 

4. ImpBllft, -pallsre, -pull, -pol- 
Hum, (r. [In + pflll6, drive], drive er 
nrgeon, Ineit*, lustlgate. Impel. 3. 

B. isdlsfi, -Ur«r«, -eg!, -&otuiii, (r, 
[led' + agS, put In motion], bring back, 
bring under: render, make; reduce. * 

IndlsnlUa, -titli, /. [Indlgutu, m- 
worth7]i nn worthiness; outrage, dls- 
Rraee. 1. 

T. v6M«lgnlfleba: theRomansdld 
not understand tbe lan^niLse. bat did 
understand their meaning. MftS . . . coit' 
lendtre dtpends on this expression. 

10. puerl, " children,"' both bo;saad 

Chap. 14. Dlviolacns pleads ibr the 

1. dlBoeMum: Le. the breaking up ol 
the great arm; at the Azooa. 

S. (mml tempora fuliM, "had ai- 
ways been." Divlolaous claims the Bet 
lovact as members or the league vhicb 
was headed b? the Haadul. SeelnCSS. 

4. ImpulE&a . . . Bt dfiffieUM et in- 
tnlllM, "that the; [the Bellovacl] In- 
sUgated ■ . . had both revotled and 

5. TBdkctMperftrro, "bad been re- 
duced ■ ■ . and were enduring. " 

T. qui, "those who." Tbe nnei- 
pressed antecedent la the snbjecl of jtc- 

: A. 418. a: B. !aa.3: 

I -a «»■ » 

8. n&ttk: caseT App, 149: Q.-I^ SS7: 
A. 41B: B. 23«, 1 : H.-B. 441 : H. 480. 1. 
11. m6te: cassr App. 143. a: O.-I,. 

Third Retibbnccs: 
Ablativi of iptciJIcatiiHt 
OOordinatg relatitt 



jntellegerent qQaDtam calamitatem civitati intnlissent, in 
britaQDiam prof ugisse. Fetere doq Bolum BeUoracos eed etiam 
pro his HaeduoB at ana clementia ac mansuetudine in eos la 
utiitnr. Quod si fecerit, Haedaomm auctoritatem apad 
omnes Belgas amplificaturtim ; qaorum aaxiliis atque opibua, 
Bi qua bella iociderint, enstentare couaa^riDt. 

16. Caesar hondris Dmciaci atque Qaeduorum catua aesS 
eo3 in fidem recepturum et cdnaerraturum dixit, et, quod erat 
ciriCas magtiA inter Belg&s anctoritate atque hominum mnlti- 
tudiue praest&bat, aescentda obaidea popoaoit. His traditia 
omnibnsque armis ex oppido collatis, ab eo loco in fines b 
Ambianomm pervgntt, qui sg suaque omnia sine mora dedide- 

t. profngifi. -tngeie, -tigl. -tagl- 

tDiD, irilr. [tagti. Bee]. Oee. Bee trom. 
mn away, escape. 4. 

10. olimantla. -m, /. [oMmtiu, 
geDlte], gentleness, kladnesa, mercf. 
clemency. S. 

mfcsauetttdG, •Inli, /- [mbunnoa, 
tame]. gentlenesB, clemencr, compas- 

ezpand. 1, 

13. inelde. -olden, -eldl, — , intr. 
[OadS, laU]. tall laro or upon ; fnU in 
with, meet ; happen, arise. 2. 

4. MRcentl. -««.-» (DO), card. num. 
aif ' [••z, Blx]. six huDdred. if 

6. nam, -M./', delay. 3. 

dMB, -dera, -ina, -dltum, f. [M, 

Rive), give np or over, yield, aurreader; 
devote; if dMsre. submit, surrender. 

8. qnantam Intullaisnt- indirect 

». BriUimlam: the relations be- 
iween the Belgae and the Britons appear 
to aav8 been rather close. See «, IB. 

10. Bua. " his usuaL" 

It. qnodBinceitt, "irheshoalddo 
tills." The direct lonn meant "it you 
BhaU have done this." 

11. quGnun: the antecedent la Bel- 
ls, ant,: the uaual torm ol the neu- 

10. cl6inentl&: case? App. 115: Q.-L. 

40T: A. 410: B. SIS, 1: H,-B.1S9: H. 47T, I. 

11. fttfttur; teasel App. 20S; ao3; 
Sm.a: G.-L. 609, 1: 510; 654.n.: A. 48a; 
tS3; 5B5. b: B. 367; 318: H. 543; 544; AM, 1. 

Chiap. IB. Caesar accepts the aur- 
render of the Bsllovaci and the Ambi- 
anl. The character of the NerviL 

1. bonarlBe&iui, lit. "fortheaake 

3. SdB, I.e. the Bellovacl. is the ot>' 

Ject ot reciptarvm el cdruemBtBrumifitt). 

S. multltodlne: ablative or speclB- 

8. Ambl&Qdrum: see map racing p. 

IB. QDa: use? App. 1T4: Q.-L. 10T, 
B.: A. SlO, a: B.Bl. B: H.-B.ZTB, l;H. 1» 

cOnsuSrlDt: (ormf App. 72: O.-u 
131. I: A. lSl,a: B. IIS. I: H.-B. 16S. I; 
H. S3S. 

Thiod Rbfkhencbs; 

Abiaiivt m"(A Stor, ei 




rniit. Eorum fin^s Xerril attlnggbaDt; qu5rum de n&tnrik 
mdribnsque Caesar onm qnaereret, sic reperiebat: Xullnm 
aditam esse ad eos merc&toribns ; nihil pat! riiii reliquarumqno 

» rgrum ad luxariam pertineotitiin iaferri, quod hia rebne 
relangu6flcere animSs et remittl virtutem existimareot; esse 
homines fer&s magnaeque rirtiitU; iacrepitare atqae iocusfire 
reliqaos Belgas, qui sg popnlO Bdm&nd dSdidissent pstriamqae 
virtutem proiecissent ; cocfirmare sSsg neque Iggatds missurds 

u neque nllom condicionem pacis accepturds. 

16. Cam per eorum fiDes tridnum iter fecisset, iavetiiebat 
ex captiTis Sabim fiumeu & castris suis ndn ampllua mill* 

B. adltiu, -OB, m. [u1b6, go to], ap- 
proach. meanB of approach, right ot ap. 
proach, access, ic 

vtamn, -1, 1.. wine. 3. 

10. ltxurl«. -ft«, /., luior;. high 
llTlne. 1. 

11. reluignCieO, -luigDCMars, 
-luignl, — . latr. (T«-+lMigneia6, 
becoroe weak], becoioe wealt or oq- 
teebled, I. 

lemltw, -mlttMe, -misl. -milium, 
(r. [re-+mlttd, send], seod orUeapatch 
back, recam. restore, remit; release, 
relax, give up; lamlliuB, pf. part, ai 

7. auorom, " their." 

B. nUlum . . . meTcfctGrlbuB, "that 
traders bad no access to them." 

B. Pfttl. "that (they) allowed." 

Tlnl, rSinni: partitive gealtlves vltb 

10. quod ezlBtlfflfirant: causal 
clause In Indirect discourse. 

13. dfidldlBBSnt, prSldclBBent: may 
have been subjunctive In thedlrect form. 
SeeApp.WS: G.-L.a33: A.63j,!: B.a83, 

2. erat: mode? A pp. 241: G.-L. 540; 
A. MO: B. 2M. 1:H.-B.5M; KM: H. 568,1. 

8. auct6rltftte : case; App HI : O.-L 
MD: A. 419: B. £21: H.-B. 413: H. 473, 2. 

B- merc&taribni: coseT App. in; 

la. vlttatla: case? App. 100; Q.-L,. 

ot. t 

IncbiO, 1. Ir. [oftttlft, causa or case], 
brli^ a case or charge ogalost ; censure, 
upbraid.' blame, a. 

IS. patrlui, '%, -um, aiij. [pktw, 
father], [atherly; aDcestral. I. 

1. InTenlO, -vanlte. -TenI, -t«ii- 
tDm, (''. [TentO, come], come upon, and, 
meet'nith;flndout.Iearn. S. 

a. 8ablB. -IB, m. {At), the river Sabls 

i: H.-B. 623: H. 69S. 

14. oCnflnn&ra Bist neque mls- 
BOrSl. " they declared that they would 
neither send." 

Chap. 1B-S8. Caesar narrowly es- 
capes defeat by the Nerval ,but secmoa 
theti snbmlBHion after almost entirety 
destroying their army. 

Chap. 18. The Nervii encaEaQ at 

B«9; A. 34S: B. 303: H.-B. 3:13: H. 440. 3. 

13. rellauSi: meanlngr Api>. IN: 

G.-L. 2B1,R.2: A.ass: B.24l,l: H.-B. 


Catual elautti with guod, a 



paesuum x abesse; trflns id flumen omnSs NerviOs consedieae 
sdTentnmqae ibi Romanorum exspdct&rs una cum Atreb&tibtiB 
et Viromandnte, fimtimlB aula (nam big ntrisqae perBuaserant 8 
nti eandem belli fortflnam experlrentur) ; exapectarl etiam ab 
iiB Atnatucdrnm copifia atqne esse in itinere; miiliereB qalqae 
jwr aetatem ad pugnam inutiles vidgreiitiir in enm locnm 
coniecisBe qao propter paludSB exercitai aditns nOn esset. 

17. HTb rebus cognitiB expldr&tOrga centDriouSsqae prae- 
mittit qui locum idoneum oastriB dgligaiit. Gum ex dediticiia 
Belgis reliqnlBque Gallls complures Caeearem eeoati nu^ iter 
facerent, qnidsm ex his, ut postea ex captlTiB cognitum est, 
eoram dierum consuStudine itineria uoatr! exercitus perapecta, b 
nocte ad MerviQs perv6nernnt atque hia demOnatrarant inter 

«. Bxperlor, -perlrl, ~p«rtu* •nm, 

4. quidftm.anMdani.qiilildainand 

rr., prove, try, test, eiperteoce. « 

quld&m, guaedui, qumldam. indtf. 

8. aet&B, aetktla, /.. period or life. 

pron. (App. 02 and b). a certain one, 

age. 2. 

InfitlUi, -a, atV' Elii-+ntUli, useful], 


B. c(>ilstlitDiU,-Uii./.[flBlllufiHO. 

1. cBnturl«. -finis, m. [eantum, a 

become accustomed 1. bablc, custom. 

pracUcei mode of lite. * 

Ilitefalaiir.lHiixHilhpartofalielon. « 

Forthecouraaoltheriversee map f »c- 

eM«t: moder App 380. a: O.-L. SSI. 

1: A. SS&:B. 283, 1: H.-B. 621, 1: H. Ml, t. 

mllla; accus»tlTs ol eitent ot space. 

Why not the ablative aJler the eompar- 
aUve? App. 139, 6: G.-L. 2BB. R. *: A. 

Chan. M. Ths Nerrti plan toanr- 

3. ex . . . QUlls: equivalent to a 

1. tl*nBimiiieii:l.e. OQihesouthern 

partitive genlllTB. 

bank. For the exact location see plan. 

Joined Caesar and were marchlnB alone 

B. nnltlmla; in appoaliion witb 

wltb him." 

B, •firnm , . . •zerotttka, "our ar- 

fl. abilBti-e. bytheNervll. 

my's usual order ot march during those 

7. auldue. "andCchemeiDwho." 

days.- Botb dieram and exercitat ie- 

8. sum lacum qu6, "a place to 

pendon«iiMri«. On tbeorderolmarcb 



9. CDOlSclRta: as subject supplr eB». 

a. inter ilnKUUi IcKldnfii, -be 

referrtnK to tbe NervlL 

tween every two legions." 

1. trlduum: case? App. 130: G.-L. 

9. ezsrcltul: case? App. in 


B. W»: caseT App. IIS: G.-L, 846. R, 
S: A. 367: B. 167, n, o: H.-B. 382, loot- 
note.3, ft: H. 426,2. 

Third repebences : 

Indirect vbjtet with inlrantUL 
Datioi ofpoiieaeor 





BingaUs legiones impedimentOrum magnum numerum interce- 
dere, neque esse quicqnam negdti, cum prims legiuincastn 
venisset reliquaeque legionea magnum spatium abessent, hanc 

u) 8ub sarcinis adoriri ; qua. pulea impedlmeutisque direptia, 
futurum at reliquae contra c6nBistere D5n atiderent. Adiavi- 
bat etiam edmm consilium qui rem deferebant, quod Nerrii 
antiquituB, cam equitutu nihil poBsent (aeqae enim ad hoc 
tempos el rei student, sed quicquid possunt pedestribuB Talent 

:fi cdpiie), qao taciiiuB flnitimoram equitatum, bT praedandi cansa 
ad eos vcnissent, impedirent, teneria arboribua incisTB atqae 

10. dirlpie, -rlpere. -rlpnl, -ivg- 

tum, tr, [riplGi seise], retid or tear 
asunder: plunder, pillage. I. 

11. AdluTfi. -luT&r*, -l&Tl.-mtum, 
tr. [luvS, aid]. Bid. help. Mslat: cou- 
trlbute to. support. I. 

14. qulaaulii quicquid. ind^. (or 

gauraluing} rel, pron. (App 80, ai, who- 
pcdastar, -trls, -trs, adj. [pis. foot]. 

■>□ [ooc pedestrians pBdaatrfis cSplM, 
Infantry. « 

ID. praador. t. (r. [praeda, bootj], 
make booty, plunder, rob. despoil, t 

arbor. -oiis,/., tree. 2. 
IneidO, -cidere, -eldi. • 
(caedOi cut], cut Into. 1, 

7. UnpedtmwitOrum: si 

line 16, 

thinking o{ ibe Dumber of pack animals. 
a. neque . . . negOtl, "aad that it 

cactra, "'camping-ground." 
9. Tinlaiet, abeiient: indirect dis- 
course for the future perfect and the fu- 
ture, respectively. The direct form 

. , . shall be distant," 
ipattnm: accusatl>e ol 

10. sarelnli.' see int. 31 

11. futftrum (otf) ut, 
wouldbethau" Thlsclaos 
ed with the preceding by a 

in Indirect discourae. Why Is I 
App, Safl. iI:Q,-L.6tt; A. 588, &: 

adluTkbat: the : 
guod . , , ejecirant 
Nerrii had made, e 

bject is the clause 
., assisted." 

14, •! t»l: I.e. cavalry, 
quicquid . . . cCplla. "wiiaMier 
Rirength they have consists in Inlsn- 


IS. que Impedirent: 

clause. Why Is not ul used? App. E9. 
a. 2: Q.-L. 546, S: A, &31. a: B. IS. '- 
H,.B, 602,5.6: H. B«8, 7. 

IB. TSnlBMIlt; implied indirect dis- 
course tor the lutm^e perfect IndlcatlTS, 
Their thought was " that we may cliM* 
tbe cavalry It they shall have come." 

tenerli . . . Intarlectls: a row ot 

their trunks were partly cut tbrongb 
{tnn«M) and their tops bent over (iitjlsc- 
U 1. The lops would then continue grow- 
ing slowly, and many branches would 
spring out from the sides of the trunk 
below the cut {crebrii . . . enatit). In 
all thin spots bramble bushes were plaav 
ed (ruAia . , . ialeriedu). i 



inflezis, crgbrisqae in latitudinem ramis Snatis, et rabis aenti- 
basqne interiectis, eff^cerant nt iQstar muri hae saepes muni- 
menta praebgrent qn6 n&D modo non iatrari, sed n^ per- 
Bpici qaidem posset. His rgbna cnm iter agminid nostri ■ 

IT. t&mQB. -I, m.. braDcb, bough, i. 

liUUcoT, -niBCl, -u&tDB aum, liter. 
Initcor, be bom] , be bom from ; eprlng 
np I. 

mbm, -I, m., bramble. I. 

18. Itit«rlcl6, -lOBTB, -Ucl, -laotum, 

Ir. llacld, hurL App, 7], throw or harl 
between; put or place between; IntOT- 
iMtUB, p/. port, ai aOJ.. lying between, 
lutervenlnK. Interspersed ; madlocrl 

like. 1. 
•up<(, -IB,/., hedge. 2. 
mlUiIiiinittiiii, -1, n. [mbnlS, fortity). 

delense. forllflcatloD. I. 

19. prKBbse, a, (r. [prM-fb&bBft. 
bold], hold out, oSer, tnralBta, preunh 

Intro, 1 

., go 

t Into, t 

le. •(m3arBJitutpraBbCr«nt."t 
bta mtUle these hedges tumlsb." 
19. QUA . . . pouet: a clause 



impedlrStur, nOn omittendam sibi cdnailium Nerrii existimft- 

18. Loci uatura erat haec qnem locum nostri castns 
delegerant. Gollis ab summd aeqaaliter declivia ad flamen 
Sabim, qnod supra nominavimus, Terg€bat. Ab eo flumine 
pari acclivitate coUia nascebatur adrersiiB boic et contrgriiis, 
t pasaus circiter ducentoB iBfimns apertaa, ab snperidre parte 
eilveBtris, at uon facile introreuB perspici posset. Intra eas 
silvaB bostes in occulto Bese coDtiaebant ; in aperto loco aecan- 

31. omitu. -mlttara, -tnlsl, -mts- 
■um, tr, (ob+mltM, Bend), let go or 
tall, drop; gtve up, neglecl, disregard. 

3. a*4uUiter, adv. IfteQnUlB, equal: 
aeqnui, equal], equally, evenly. 1. 

dioUTlS, -•, 14}. [oUtU, a slope), 
HloplUK downward, declining: "■ f'. <" 

3. oSmluO, I. Ir. [niDMii, Daniel, 
call by name, name, mention. I. 

4. aeellTltfti. -titu, /, [aedlTli. 

ascending], sscenc slope, l. 

olieoT. n&iel, nfctui tum, inir., be 
bora or produced; rise, sprlug up, be 
reared ; be found. 3. 

oonUfcrliia, -a, -am, aOf. toontrl, 

against], lyli^ over against, opposite, 
lacing; ez oontTftrU, on tbe coi 

T. ogoultns, -a, -um, adj-. covered, 
bidden, concealed, secret; n. ai »«uii, a 
bidden place, an ambusb. i. 

taevnAvtm,' prep. viUA ace [■■_ 
lollow], along; In ibe direction ol; bt- 
Bldea, in addition to. S. 

Chap. 18. 

iription of t}, 

i bat- 

tle&eia! ' 

1. Iiaea, "as follows." 

loenin: omit in translation. 

noitrt: I.e. tbe scon<« and centurions 
who bad been sent on abead; IT. I- 

3. oollli: Donb ot the river. See 

■umma. " the Uip" ; the ablatl 
gular ot (ummM, used as a nonn. 
«. oollli: south or tbe river. 
B. p&Hftl . 

e ol t 

a lor t' 

3. d«ligant: i«nseT App. 2M: 2M: 
SM.A: Q.-L. MB. 1,2, 1.a:Ma: A. 483: 
183; 4»,<: B. 287; aeS. S: H.-B. 

I; MI, 

e. dSintaBtr&runt: fonuT App. 72: 
G.. I* 131. 1: A.181.0: B. IIS.I; H.-B. 
1<3. I: H. £38. 

11. ftwUrant: mode; App. t2S. A: 
G.-L. M3.3: A. MB, 2: B. 207, 3: H.-B. 

I. &TI, I 


1: H.'B.HS: G62, I: H. 688 

11. omlttandum <>■* 

Uont App. 28S. U, a: Q.-L. tSl 
fiOO, 3: B. SST. T. a, t : H.-B. IM; WO 




dnm flumen paucae Btatidngs equitnm Tiddbantur. Flominis 
erat altitudo pedam circiter trlam. 

Id. Caesar eqnitatu praemiaad BabseqTieb&tnr omDiboft 
copilB; sed ratio ordoqne agminis aliter b§ habSbat ao Belgae sd. 
NervioB detnlerant. N'am qnod hostibug appropinqn&bat, 
consnetudine sua Caesar sex logioceB expaditas ducSbat; post 
eiia totlas exercitns impedimenta collocarat; inde duae legifinSs s 
gnoe prosime consoriptae ersnt totam agmen claadebant praesi- 
dioqne impedimentis erant. Eqaites Qostri cam fandit6ribDa 
M^tt&riisqoe flflmen transgresBl cum hostinm eqnitatu proe- 
linrn commisenmt. Cam b5 ill! identidem in biIt&b ad boob 
reeiperent ac ruraas ex ailva in nostrds impetum faoerent, nequ^ M 
QOBtri longios qaam quem ad flnem porrecta Iocs aperta perti- 

8. »UtiS,-OnlB,/.["«»,Bt»ndl.Blaiid- 

■om, (r. [ftadlor. BWpJ. Btsp orar^ 

itaUon; sentiiea. pickets, ontposta; la 

B. Idintidam, <><ft>. [idein. theMmeln 

■Utiansaiw, beonguard- *■ 

X »Uter, adv. i»lHM, other], otber- 

11. pomes, -El«*r«, .rtet, -t<a- 

tiun, tr. [priH-r*K9, keepatnUKbtl, ex- 

S. trinsKTadioi. -siMU. -frsHUi 

tended. In extent. 1. 

a. rldflbtiatur, "were Been," do( 

t. pedum trium; descrlpilTe geal- 

tlre. Id tbe pi«dlcal«. 

Chap. It. The Romans attAcked 
Thile torHfyiDS their camp. 

1. omnlbna oOplla: wb7 Is «um not 
osedf App. 140, a: G.-L,. SflE. R. 1: A. 
413. a: B. 222. 1: H.-B. 420: H.1T4, 2, u. 1. 

Caesar Is now picking up tbe tliread 
of tbe story which he dropped In IT, t. 

a. allMr . . . &c. lit. "had Itself 
otherwise than" = " was dlSenmt Irom 

lUtMlHlt Is singular becatue raUO ir- 

9. ad ILIuiuii: constroctlont App. 
in:G.-L.aS7: A. 42S.2; B. 183. S: H.-B. 
laS: H. 4IS. 

«. KcUvlUte: caser App.UI;Q.-I.. 
WO; A. 41b: B.3»: B.-B.«43: H.473.S. 

B. Inflmus: meanlugl App ISD: Q.'h. 
ai. S. 3: A. 9»3: B. 941, 1: B,-B. M4: H. 

ilngle Idea, al- 

Mqat is thought ot 
most " method ol ai 

4. •xpsdlUa. "without baggage"; 
wheieaa the Nervli had beea told that. 
each legion would be separated (rom the. 
neit by a long train of baggage, 

6. lagianji . . . aeuaeilptfte erant: 
aa the enemy was known to be la front, 
Ciu>3&f did not expect these legions to be, 
attacked. The same legions were left In 

10. Tcclpeieut, faoeient. "kept re- 
tiring, kept making. " 

11. longlas . . . flnem. "than the. 
limit to which." Our Idiom would lead. 


Plaet to vMdi 
DeicrijiitDt ablative 
AdjtcUoa wUk partUiBt m 




nebant cSdentSe inaequi aadSraat, interim legioaes sex quae 
ptimae Tgnerant opere dimensd caetra munire coeperaat. Ubi 
pnma impedimenta nostri ezaroitua ab lis qui in silvis abditi 

ifi latebant visa sunt, qaod tempuB inter eos oommittendi proeli 
conrgnerat, nt intra silvaa aciem ordinesqne conatituerant 
atqne ipsi s5se confirmaverant, sabito omnibus oopiis prdro 
l&Tgrunt impetnmque in nostroa equites fecernnt. His iacile 
pul&is ac prdtarbatis, incredibili celent&te ad fliimen decncm-- 

10 rgrant, at paene Una tempore et ad silv^ et in fiumine hostes 
vidSrentnr, Eadem autem celerit&te adverso colle ad nostra 
caatra atqne eos qui in opere oocupati erant contendgmnt. 
20. Caesari omnia unfi tempore erant agenda: veiillnm 

16. 1»M6, -firs.-al, — ,in(r.. escape 
notice, lurk. He ooaoealed or hidden, i. 

IT. SUbitB, adv. iBubitus, sudden], 
Biiidenlv. uneipecMyll)-. of a. andden. !> 

PTJJvoie, l.intr. [TOie. fly], fly 

19, prOturM, 


hurry down, 
1. -nxi 


ir. [turbS, distnrbl, 
[uaioui dislodge. I. 
-cuTTBrt, -BucurrI, -onr- 
[cuixd, run), run down, 

amecedenl la accracted Into tbe relatlTe 

poniotaperttnebwit, lit "extended 
atreccliedouC"=-'eiwnded." ThewbolB 

the edge of the woods." 
11. cSdentiB', sc. rot: I.e. theeuemy. 

13. dlminaO: this Is one at a tew 
deponent verbs whose perfect puUclples 
hare a passive meaning. 

14. prlm&linpeillnianta, "the head 
of the baggage train. " 

IB. quod tampui, "ihetimewhlch." 
16. OODTtlMrAt, "had been agreed 

Dt . . . Ipal Bias cOnflrm&TBrant, 

*'a.s . . , they bad pledged each otber 

30. Ut 

31. I 

. ol fortifying the 

The attack waa a complete surprlae. 
The Komau scouta had not done their 
work properly, and Caesir himself ap- 
pears to have been careless in not keep- 
ing a part of hla men under arma while 
the enemy were so near. 

the r 

! App.» 

4. cGuBDetadloa; 

Q.-L. 309. n. ]: A. 418, 
4U, a: a. 47^. 3. 

t. prasBldl6 ImpedlmantlB: con- 
struction? App. lie; O.-L. 35D, n. I: A. 

883.1: B. IBl. 2 

I.-B.SSO, b: H.43S,a 





prSpdaendtim, quod erat inaigne cnm ad arma concarri oportfi- 
ret, Bignnm tuba daadnm, ab opere reTOcandl milites, qni 
paalo longiuB aggerls peteadl cansa prdcesaerant arcessendi, 
flci^ iDBtraenda, milites cohortandi, fiignam dandnm. Qaamm t 
reram magnam partem temporis brevitfte et incnrsna bostiam 
im]}edigbat. His diffictilt&tibaa dnae res erant sabaidid, soientia 
atqne uana militam, qaod, snperidribns proeliia exercitati, 
gnid fieri oporteret non miDQB commode ipsi sibi praeacribere 
qiiam ab aliis doceri poterant; et quod ab opere singnliaque lo 
. Jegionibna singalos legfitoa Caesai discedere niai munitia castria 

ntt*, -onnl, -onr- 
mm. inir. [onnft, rao], run or nub to- 
E«lier; harry, run, nub; run to ibe 
rescue : come, gather. 2. 

S. tub», -aa,/.. inunpet. 1. 

reroeS, i, tr. [r»-+T906, caU], call 
back, recall; wictadraw. 1. 

4. paulO, adT. [piiOliu, Utile], a 
Uitla. somewhat. sllgbUr- i|i 

prAeMO, -cCdare. -cMtl, -OMinin, 
Mr. laSdOiKO^ao forth or torwurd.pnt- 

ueeBiB, 'Sra, 
send tor, Invite. 
I. breTlUB, 

■iTl, -Ituin, snmmoD, 
-UtU, /. [bnvU, 

lit. " all thinsB bad U 
sar"=- ' Caesar bad to 
rexillum: a red ba 

le Keoeral's bead' 

BhortJ, ahortnesB; brevity. 1. 

Inanrtoa, -tu, m. [InourrO, rush into 
ornpoD], attack. 1. 

T. dUBanltftB, 'UtU, /. [dlfloilU. 
dtlDcult], dUtlcnlty. trouble, embarrask- 

Ml«nlU,-M,/. [BOiS. know), knowl- 
edge. Bclence, Hkui. 4. 
' a. •xeralUtni, -a, -um, adj. [pf. 

part. (tTexarclM, train or practice well], 
well trained, skilled, versed. 3. 

a. prMMTlbA, -sDrlbara, -Htlpat, 
-KTiptniii, tr, iioriM, wrice|, write 
betoreband: order, direct, prescribe, dic- 

es, first, teUnOa atgvi Siui, "the 
theoretical and practical knowledge ol 
' ^le soldiers" ; second, 7«ori . . . vetuerai 
(1. 10), " tbe (act tbat Caesar had forbld- 

3. pr&p6ii*ndtmi; aapplj erat. Sim- 
ilarly gnppl; <r<il or trant wltb eacb oC 
the future passive participles wblcb fol- 
1. Blstinm: to form racks. 
QUI, "{those soliMers) who." 
t. pRnlfilonglaf, "a little too tar." 
aggerlB; here themalerials tor build- 
ing the i^mpart. especially Umber: for 

trench on the spot. See p. 30, fig. 5. 
aroeBBendl: by messengers. 
S. aigntun: here the signal [or the 

J. dnaa XH: explained by two appos- 

.tlve of means- 
anldfiarloportSret, "wbatought 

le done"; au Indirect question, ob- 
of praacriberg. 

. abiingttllB., .dlBo«d«re,-'eacii 
legale to leave a particular legion." It 
lanolqnlte correct lo translate "leave 
his legion," because the legates did not 
have permanent commands. See Int. 

11. nlBimanltlaa&Btrli, lU. "unless 
the camp having been (ortl Bed" =" until 
tbe camp had been tortlQed." 



vetDerat. Hi propter propinqnitfttem et celeritatem hoBtinm 
nihil iam Caesaria imperinm exspectabant, sed per se quu 
TidSbantur administr&bant. 

2 1 . Caesar necessiiriis rebus imperatis ad cohortandoe 
militSa quam in partem fors obtnlit decacurrit, et ad legionem 
decimam devenit. Militea non longiore oratione cobortStng 
qnam nti anae pristinae virtutia memoriam retinerent nen 
b pertarbilrentnr animo hoatiurnqoe impetamfortiteraustiDerent, 
qaod noQ longtas hoetea aberant quam quo telnm adigi poaset, 
proeli committendi aiguum dedit. Atque in alteram partem 
item cohortandi cauaii profectoa pngnantibas occurrit. Tern- 

19. ▼•tC-in.-nl.-lttun. f>-.,lorUd. 

Xft. ftdinlitlitT6. I, ir. [mlnlBtor, 

■STTuit}. serve, attend, wait upoDj 
manage, guide. * 

a. fori, fbrtli./.ctuutce^ftiTto, oil. 
Of odD.. b; cliance, percbaDce. 3. 

offarO, offam, obtull, obUtDui, (r. 
[ob+teri. bsarj. bring before, present; 
offer, coQlernpoD, glvei loUA ■<, eipose 
one's lelcro, charge upan. eoconnter. t. 

8. deolmna. -a. -nin, ord, nuin. a<ti. 
(deesm, (en), tentb. « 

'1th a speecb no longer tha 
III tbey should, etc." 

ennt aganda: 

ronatrocllonf App. 

lonfua, -a, 'tun, ac{j,. long, distant, 

ol longduratlou; tedious. 41 

6. adlgd, -igera. -tgi, -bttaat, (•' 
[agO, move], drive or bring br torn, 
more; tbrust, plunge, burl (tT w^'O'"!: 
bind (bg on oath}, it 

B. i»aann&,'atirr«i*, •anrri. -Bat- 
sum, i^r. [ob-l-eiirT&, run], run Intbt 
way or, meet; happen upon; go to. come 
to; oppose, counteract; occor. t^ 

A. neu: tbe regular expression ta 
•• and not" in suhataJitiTe voUClve (pur- 
pose) clauses. 

6. quod absruit: a causal clause, 
explaining tignian dedit. 

Quam . . .po*wt. lit. " than to vhlcb 
ajavelln could be thrown." OmlliTiw 
In translating. For the mode o[ foa^ 
see App. aSO; Q.-L. fft\, 3: A. 53t>.(: B. 
183. I. 3, a: H.-B. S91, Z, c: H. UO. t. 

T. In altaram partem: the Tight 

wing. See plan. 

8. pngnautlbnaoocnnlt, "be round 

(them already) flgbtlng." 

A. 414: B. 323; H.-B. 424: H. 479. I. 

10. quod Tetnerat: construction! 
App.S4S: Q.-L.5St;62S.S: A.&T3: B-tM. 
1: H..RS4B: C68, 1: H. 589. I. 3. 

. paul6: caaer App. 14a-. O.'L. 40S; 




pons tanta fuit exignitaB hOBtiamqae tarn paratas ad dimican- 
dQm animus at noc modo ad ingi^ia accommodanda, sed etiam it 
ad galeSa indUeodaB scntisqae tegimenta detrahenda, tempus 
defnerit. Qnam quiaqae ab opere in partem caeu devenit 
qofteque prima signa conspexit, ad baec constitit, ne id qnae- 
lendls Buis pugnandl tempns dimitteret. 

22. InstrijctO exercit& magiB at loc! natura dgiectasqne col- 
Ik et necesaitas temporis quam nt re! militaria ratio atqne ordo 
postalabat, cum divereae legidnes aliae ali& ia parte hoBtibns 

dlmlcO, 1, 'ncr. [mlcS. bnmllah), figlic, 
■tnigKle. contend. S. 

10. aaoonunodA. I. (r„ adjiut or 
adapt looDe's sell, Bt or put on. I. 

IL j»l«a,-ao,/.,oi«iW«-belmou 1. 

IndnO, -duera, -4nl. -dtktnm, tr.. 
put on; t« Indnan. be tmpalad or 

UftiMntnm, •!, n. [UgS, eoTer], a 
covering. 1. 

1>. eOniplcIS, -ipicata, -ipsxl, 
-ipaatnin. tr. [iptolft, look], look at, 
olMerre. descrji. perceive. « 

a. aiT«riiii, -a,-um, oil/. [K^.port. 
o/dlTartB. turn Id dloerent directional, 
diverse, dUIereat; t 

10. ftd . 


ID tbelr decorations" ; especially 
on the belmeta ; see Plate I. tttclns p. W. 
ThesB Intignia jiratnblf dlatlDiralHhed 
tbe legions. 

11. cale&O : these would be laid aside 
while tbe BOldlera were working on the 

(COUb: dative of separation. 

taslmenU: leatber coverings for the 
proiectioQ of the metal worli of tlie 

la. (Ufaarlt: note the eiceptton to 
aeqaesce; App.aOt.a: Q.-L. 513: A.4B5, 
c (incorrectl; staled. Tbe Imperfect Is 
mnch more codiidod): B. S88.S: H.-B. 

4. TlrtftUa: caaet App. M: Q.-L, 
m.S: A.34T: St8,n.: B. 900: H.-B. S54: 
H. 440,3. 

11. dUtaOTlt: model App.3ai:a.-L. 
KS: A. an, I : B. SM. I : B.-B SSI. t: H. 

qtuun In pftrtcm, "to wbaierer 

IS. 4iiA«qu* . . . eftnipoxit, "and 

whatever standards hs saw Qrst." On 
(he Importance of the standards see tnl. 

Chap. Sa. Caesar cannot plan thd 
battle as a whole. 

a. ral . . . 6Td6,iit. " tbe theory and 

arrangement of m llltar; matters" = * 'the 
tbeor; of military tactics." When be 
could. Caesar drew up bis arm; In three 
unbroken lines, the thlnl of which acted 
aa a reserve force to meet emergeucles. 
8. oDm . . . reilitorsnt . . . Uupa- 

Third RireBiHOa: 

OtOfctiCf genitire 

Refill elaute 

Ctaufg of characleriitic 



resiaterent, Baepibusque dgnsissimiB, ut ante demonBtravimiiB, 
6 iDteriectia prospectus impediretnr, neque certa subsidia collo- 
ciiri neque quid in quaque parte opus esset provlderi neque ab 
uno omnia imperia administrarl poierant. Itaque in tanta 
reram iuiqoit&te fortunae quoque eventus varii sequebantor. 
23. Legionie ndnae et decimae milites, ut in sinistra parte 
acie cdnstiterant, pilie emissis oursu ac .laesitudine ezanimatos 
Tutneribnaqne cdnfectos Atrebates (nam his ea pars obvenerat) 
celeriter ex loc5 anperiore in flumen oompulemnt, et transire 

4. dJniDi, -ft, 'Um, m^., closely set 
or packed, cliick, dense. S. 

B. prfiipsctiu, -Bb, m. [prdiplotO, 

look lorth), Tiew. proapect; sight. 1. 

6. prBTidsO, -TidSra.-Tldl, -Timm, 

tr. [vld«5,3ee]. aeebeforebaud.Iorasee; 
care tor, provide. # 

5. intanlt**, -Utis, /. [InlqnuB, 
nneqiiiill.lQeqiuUCy.iiiifalrTiesB: dlsod- 

tTMtni, -Hi, 

1. nanui 

nlntb. a. 

[CTMIU, tOTD out], 

isue. result. coDseqaeoce. E. 
ft, -um, adj.. dlrerHe. chang- 

I. num. aOj.. 

a. cvnua, -Hi, m- [ourrt, run), run- 
nli^. speed; course, career; passage, 

lasBltttilfi, -lull, /. llftHUB, weary), 
vearlness. tajniiiess. eihausllon. lasil- 

•xftnlmO. 1, tr. (anlnift, breath], de- 
prive oJ breath, render breathless, ei- 
hanst; kill. S. 

>. obT*iii6, -Tenlie, -t€iiI, -tui- 

tum, iittr. iTsnlO, come], come to, bap- 
pen upon, meet ; fall toftj/iof. 1. 

4. oompsllS, -p«Iler«, -pull, -pal* 
■um, tr, [pelia, drive], drive together, 
assemble, collect: force, compel. 1. 

tflritur gives the reaaoo (or the main 
clause, neq«e , . . polirant. 
dlTsrafte, lit. ■'separate(l'" = "sepa- 

ftllftfl . . . pftTte, "somelnoneplace, 
otbers In : 

4. I 

<el7, 1 

, IntsrlectlB, "which Intervened." 
nequa: the principal clause begins 

certft, lit, "sure" = '-so that they 
could be counted on." 

8. quid . . . aMBt: an indirect ques- 
tion, subject of pr5iiW?ri (poterat), 

quid: construction!' App. 140.0: O.-L. 
toe: A.411, »: B. Zie, 2. a: H.-B. 4S0. S. a : 
H. 477, III, n. 

T. In . . . Inlqult&ta, ''In such a 
diversity of clrcumatanceB," 

4. rsBlBterent: mode? App. 230: 

. fbrtanft*: gaaitive Uiuiune: ei 

Tho left wing repoleeB 
the Nervil at- 

the jttrebates, 
the Viromand' 
tack the eight 

1. nOufte at daclmae: these legloca 
were commanded by Labienus. 

3. ftCie = a«<i; App 30, b: G.-L. Ca, 

pllli: se 

much ot it uphill. 

curiD . . . cBnfectSa : translate an«T 

S. ea pan: the left wing of the Bo 




conant^B mseouti gladiis magnam partem eoram impedltam b 
mterfgcernut. Jpsi transire flumeD noa dubi tavern nt, et io 
locnm inlqimm progresei rursas reBist«iiteB hostes redintegrato 
proelio in fugam conieceraat. Item alia in parte diversae duae 
legiones, undeclma et octava, profligatis Yiromanduis, quibus- 
cum erant congreasae, ex loco superiOre in ipsis fluminis ripia is 
proeli&bantar. At totis fere caatris a fronte et a siDietra part» 
nudatiB, cum in dextro comu legio dnodeoima et uon magud ab- 
ea interyallo septima odnstitiBset, omnes M^ervil cdnfertiasimo- 
agmine dace Boduogn&to, qai sammam imperi tenebat, ad eum 
looam contendgrunt; qaonim pars ab apertS latere legidnea ib 
circDmvenTre, pars aummnm castrdram locum petere coepit. 
24. £5dem tempore eqaitga nostri leviaqne armiturae 

9. findaoimua, -a, -um, ord, num. 
«(i- (Wiaoolni,elB™iil, eleventh. 1. 

Oct&TUB, -a, -um, ord. num. agj. [oo- 
U, elgbi], elgbth. 1. 

PTSUsa, 1 , ir. IfllKd, slrlkej. BUike 
iowa: oYercome; put to fllgbt. 1. 

10. congredlor, -fndl, -srsisui 
nim. inlr. [gradior, stop}, meet, en- 
oiimier, meet !□ battle; Join {piac^ul- 

'y|. * 

11. proallor, I. tnir. [praalluin, bat- 

r eoEage in battle, flgbu S. 

lie], ]oln 

13. daxtM, -tra. -truiii,a4J., ontbe 

right, rlgbt. 4. 

oornlk, -lla. »-. hora; inf an armyt 
Sank, wing. i|i 

<luod«almnB. -a, -um, ord. num. aiif. 
(duoitealiD, twelve], twelCih. 9. 

14. BodUOgnltUI, -1, m., Boduogaa- 
tns (bM-'a-fig-aa'tflB). 1. 

E. oAnantfis, " ils tbc 

leel were trying," 
gladlls: see Int. 86. b. 

>j [Cbe Atreba- 
tbe river. 

8. allainparM: the center. 

dlTeraiM: i.e. separated fmm the oth- 
er legions. 

10. sx locd auparlSra, "(baring 
comedown) trom their higher position. " 

IS. ntld4ttB: by the advance o/ the 
four leKiona airead; mentioned. See 
the plan. 

18. nOn nafnO IntarrUIS, "atoo 

very great distance." Casef App. H2, 
b: G.-L.3W: B. 9SI: H..B. 422. 1: H.<T3,3. 

ttmatt HerrU: 00,000 in number. 

14. dnoe BoduOgnatS, "under the 
leadership of Bodooguatus. " Ablative 

IB. abaparWIaure; tberlgbtnanli, 
because tbe shields were carried on tbe 
left arm. The partwbich pushed on for 
the camp passed the Homau left Qanli, 
Others, or course, attacked In front. 

16. «nwiTnimi . . , looiun, lit. "tbe 
highest place belonging to tbe camp" a. 
■'the height on which the camp stood." 

Chap. 34. The panlo of the auzlll- 
aries and the camp servants. 

I, We expect Caesar to Mil UB ab 
once of tbe fortunes of the 7th and Ittb 
legions, but be pauses to give a vlvM 



peditee, qni cum its iina fuerant, quos primo hoetium impetfi 
paUos dizeram, cum ae in castra reciperent, adversis hostibns 
occarrebant ac rursuB aliam in partem fugam petebaat; et 

■ caloneB, qui ab decumana porta ac aammd iugd collis nostroa 
rictoreB flu me a tranaisse conapezerant, praedandi causa 
egreaaT, cum reapexiaaent et hoatga la nostria caatris rersari Tidis- 
seut, praecipites fogae sSbS mandabant. Simnl eornm qui cam 
impedimentia veniebant clamor fremitnaqae oriebatur, aliiqne 

10 aliam in partem perterrit! ferebantur. Quibus omnibus rSbna 
permoti equit€s Trereri, quorum inter Gallos virtutis opinio 
eat eingularia, qui auzili causa a ciritate miss! ad Caeaaren 
T^nerant, cum multitudine bOBtium castra compleri, legionea 

a. p»dSB,I«dltU,'n.(p«8, lootlfoot 

soldier; pL, Infantry, foot. I. 

6. olie, -Bull. RL , a soldier's serrant, 
camp porcer or follower. S. 

dMumfcniu, -a, -nm, a4j. (deciDiia. 
lentb], of or beloDglng to (he Matii: de- 
cumaa; deenmbut porta, the rear gate 
(o/(*««mp). 1. 

porta, -a*,/., e^te. ik 

6. TleW>r,-ilrU.»ilTlno6, conquer]. 

ooiKiueror, victor ; at adj. . rlctoiiona. t 

1. r*BpleU,-ipio*Ta,-apexI, -ipec- 

tum, Ir. [Te- + ip«alfi, look], lookback; 

look at. take notice at; coaslder. re- 

8. praao«pi, -olpttla, atU- [caput, 
beadl. beadforemoaC headlong; ataap, 
preclpiloos. S. 

9. ttamltnt, -At. fn.. a cootusad 
noise, uproar, dlo. 3. 

11. TriTlr, -Brt.m., oneoIttieTrer. 
eri; pi. TrtTerl (B(gh), the ITsTsrl 
(ir6T'e-nl. * 

13. BlnKulbla, -e, a/tj. (UaxttU. 
one each], ooeat a time, one by one; alii- 
gle, aloDS ; slugulu'i ramarkable. azm- 
ordloarr, matcbless. 3. 

picture ol [be panic elsewhere, a panic 
irhlch seemed to foretell (he complete 
deetmctlon of the Roman arm^. 
levls arm&tdr&e : a descrlptlTe genl- 

tlve. The reference la to the sUngers 
and areiiers of 19, T. 

a, lis: tbecaTalry. 

fUerant: before their repulse. 

qnii pulaSi dixerain, lit. " whom 1 

liad said to hare been routed" =^ " who, 
as I said, bad been routed." guSs refers 
to botb eguitH and picHtgi. dizi would 
be more natural and more usual thau 

3. advania, "facetotace." Evident- 
ly tbey had made a circuit and were 
enMring the camp by tbe east sate ] oat 
as the Belgae were enierlng by tbe west. 


perfects in tbe flrst part of tbe chapter 
diicribt a number of events, all going oa 
at about tbe same time. 

B. ab dsoum&na portft: the camp 
was on tbe slope, so that t he rear was 
higher than the front and gave a better 
view of the battle. But perhaps Um 
Qerce charge of the Belgae bad seme- 
tblng to do with (helrcholce of posltlcm. 

6. TiotOrSB," as victors." 

S. eOrum: tbemuleteers.notthereBr 
guard of two legions. 

B. alll . . . partem; for traosiatlon 
of.noteonia. a- 

11. TlrtfltlsepInlB. "reputatlonfoc 
courage" ; an objective genitive. 

13. emu: with nidixnit. 



premi et paene circumventas teD^ri, cfildnSs, eqnites, fundi- 
ttireB, Namidas dirersda dissipatosque in omnes partes f agere is 
Tidissent, dgspSrgtis noatris rebus domum conteuderunt ; 
RomauOs pnlsos snperatosqne, castria impedimentisque eorum 
hostes potitos civitati renuntiargrunt. 

25. Oaeaar ab decimae le^onis cohort&tione ad dextrum 
coma profectuB, abi aufts urggri Bignisqne la iiuum locum 
collatiB diiodecimae legionis cdnfertos mllitSs sibi ipsoB ad 
pngnam esse impedltneDto Tidit, quartae cohortis omnibus 
ceDturidnibns occisib, signifero iaterfecto, aign6 imissd, reliqufi' ■ 
rum cobortium omnibus ferS oenturioiubuB ant rnlner&tis aot 

U. i>rem&, -pmnatB, -prud, 

-prauiun, tr. press, press upon, prew 
bard ; oppress, burdaa, annoy, baraas. if 
IE. dlulp6,l,fr.,Biireat1oiiBnsldes. 

1. oobortkUS, -finli, /. [cobortor. 

encourage], encouragement, cheering, 
s. uigsft, uTKin. nril, — -, tr., 

press, press bard. S. 

5. BlKDlftr. -arl. m. (ilgnum, stand- 
ard + ferS, bear], standard bearer. I. 

Chap. SB. CaeBHj finds the 7th anil 
ISth legloiis in desperate straits, and 
TsanimateB them by his valor. 

1. OAesar; subject of prSetitUO, 15) 
andiiufiC (l. IS). Thla Is an ezcelleat 
Latin "pwlod," wltb the subjeot first, 
the snbordluatA clBoses In tbe middle, 
and (be principal verbs toward tbe end. 
The sentence is not hard to understODd 
In lis I^ttn order, ojid Is very enectlre ; 
for the mass of subordloale clauses rep- 
resents tbe Impression made on Caesar 
when he Bavr Dill at once tbe many details 
ol tbe tearful Btruggle. But It Is bard 
lo translate elTeclively, becanse such a 
sentence Is Intolerable In Eogllsb. After 
ibe pnpll tborougblr understands tbe 
ssnteoce be should translate It very 
(reelr. breaking it up Into a niunber of 
short sentences. Each of the following 
groups of words may be turned Into a 
two or more may be com- 
- . , . pro/tctm; ubi ■ . . ur- 

gfri; tignii . . . vidit; quSrtat . . . Jinl*. 
■a; rtliquih^m , . . oeeUi); in hit . . . 
pottet; reliqudt . . . vUart; hoiU4 . . . 
in$t^t; fff . . . poMtft; teulo . . . procat' 
lU; ctntwHdnilna . . . potienl. 

cobortHtlftne; cf. 31, 2. 

a. UM. ■■when"; with «Wit, l. 4, 
wblcb Is repeated In I. IS. 

urgtrl: ibis and most Of the other 
Inflnltlves before the end of 1. 12 depend 
on euUt. other dependent ideas are ex- 
pressed by tbe abuclve absolute. 

•tenia eollitli: tbe position of the 
Btuidards rt^utated the poeition of tbe 
cohorts. As the standards were now 
huddled together, ttie soldiers naturall; 
crowded together. 

S. ilbi . . . ImpsdlmantO, lit. "were 
themselves for a hindrance to them- 
selves tor Bghttng" = " hindered oneaa- 
other In flgbllng." 

«. qn&rtaeoobortliEtblscohorthad 
snilered eapeclally. bei^auselt was sta- 
tioned at tbe left end of the front lloe. 

B. BignfitiiniBsB: regardedasagreat 



occiBis, in hia primipils P. Sextio Baculd, fortissimd yirt, 
mnltis gravibiiaque vulneribus c&nfectd, ut iam s€ Bnstingre 
&5q pOBset, reliquds esse tardidres et ndn null5B ab noTisBimia 

desertO loco proeliS exoSdere ac tela yitjire, hoatee neqne i 
fronte ex inferidre locd subennteB intermittere et ab ntroque 
latere mstare, et rem eBse in aagusto yidit neque iillum esse 
Bubaidiam qnod Bubmitti posset, scutd ab iioTiBsiinis militi 
detraoto, qaod ipie e5 sine scutd vSnerat, in pnmam aciem 

t prdcessit centnridnibiisqae ndminStim appellfitia reliquoe 
coboTtatQB militgB aigna inferre et manipnlOs lax&re iaasit, quo 
facilins gladiis iiti possent. CninB adventu Bp6 ill&t& militdbus 
ac redintegr&tO aiiim&, cum pro sS quisqae in conspectu impe-. 

T. prImlpIlQi, -I, m. [prlmaa, first 
•l-pIlUB, & century], llie cetiturloii o[ 
Uw flret muiiuy, cUeC ceDtnrlon. 

ettUurioniaCaeiar'MOrmy. 2. 

TlT, Tirl, m., man; Imaband; a num 
al dlatlDciloQ or bonor; c[. homS, a ha- 
man being Of di$tingaii!iad/romllultn^ 
tr anitaalf. j$ 

9. tardni, -a, -nm, wO-.slon. alng- 

abandoD. desert. lorsalce; UwrtlUilt^' 
part, at adj., deserUid. soUuur. S. 

exoMS, -eMere, -eual, -eeiimn. 

in<r. letdO, go], go out or away, wltli- 
draw, retire, if: 

IS. mmnlpnliu, •!, m. [maaui, band 
-f pl«4, mil. a baDdrul<(<p. o/Aay.atvBl 
a pelt, anciently tued at attoo^ord). a 
company {of too ctntartn. tht third of a 
cohort}, maniple. 1. 

IftxS, I. tr., stretcb oat, ezMnd. open- 

T. prlmlpIlO: see Int. t2. 

B. moltligraTlbuBaufl, "manr se 
Tere," WbeumuKi and another adjec 
tlve modify the same nonn, tbe two ad 
JecUvea are usually ecnnecwdbyrf oi 

10. dSiorM Ioe6, "deserting t1 

Mla-rttire. 'M 
range or inlsslli:^>. 

naqtt* . 

getting OQi ot the 

. MlBnstfi, "and affalTB 

Tldlt: ilmply repeats tbe eUlI or 1. r 

IS. qnod . . . pMMt: a claose o( 

■oftW detr4at6, "anawblng a shield." 
Here begin a Caesar's acUon. 

mllltl: dative ot separation. 

14. M: tbeadverl). 

15. algiiK . . . Iftxkra, "toadvaDce 
uid (by ao doing) toopenoucthenuilis." 

qnC: ot. note on IT, 16. 

IT. apt . , , Milmil. " hope was in- 
spired Id the Boldlera, and tbelr courage 

IS. prft Bi. Ut "In propoTUnu to 
blmselt" = " to the best at his abUUy," 



ratoris etiam in extremis suls rebus operam navare cuperet, 
paalam hoEtinm impetus tard&tos est. m 

26. Caesar cum septimam legi&nem, quae iuxtfi cdnetiterat, 
it«m nrgeri ab hoste vidisset, trib&nOa mllitam moDoit at 
panUtim aSsS legi&Qes coninngerent et converaa signs in hostSa 
inferrent. QuO fact5, com alius alii subsidinm ferret, neqne 
timgrent ne &rersl ab boate ciroomrenirentnr, atid&ciaa reaistere t 
sc fortina pagnfire coeperunt. Interim mllitea legidnnm 
daarnm quae in Doviaaimd agmine praesidio impedimentis 
fnerant, proelio nnnti&td, coraii incitfttd, in aummS colle ab 
bostibaa .cdnapiciebantar; et T. LabiSntta caatris boatinm 
.potitns et ex loc5 saperldre quae rSa ia noatrls caetrls gereren- it 
tnr conspicatna decimam legifinem subaidid nostria miait. Qui 
cam ex equitnm et c&ldnam fngi qa& in loco r€a esset qnan- 
tSqoe in periculQ et castra et legidnSs et Imper&tor rersft* 

19. ' oparft. -as, /. [opiu, work), I 
vork. sxerUon; aerrlee; pains, atun- 
Uon; daiB oparuii, Eire atteatloiL, take I 

iULtO, 1, fr..ilo sealoosl; or vrelL I. [ 
30. paultun, ad«. [panliu, little], 
aUttle, somewhat, sllghtlf. * 
Urdt, 1, tr, [tardui, slov], make 

m. [trtbu, tribal, 
trlbDDe. a magiiiralt tleettel by Iht peopli 
voting In iriiei, to dtfmd the In 
Vit plibi; trlbunna nmitum 
tlrli, a military tribune, « 


Chap.3S. Tlio 7th and 12th lemons 
fieht more saccessfblly, and tnies 
other loEioDS come to their raSODflt 

1. loxtt; I.e. near the ISllL legion. 
In wbosoranhs Caesar WBH ftKbtlng. 

cSnBtlMral. "had taken Its poslUan.*' 
Dlstlngalsb caretnlly betwaaa «aMM9 
and cSnttittio. 

a. tm&nOi: see Int. 41. 

3. mBbS eonlungertnt; Le. lo otoM 
up the gap between tbem, 

conversn slgna InfMrmit, "to 
taceaboDt aod attack," Ot courae only 
a part of tbe Romans were to lace 
about. Probably the rear line faced 
Hooot. and tbecohorta at the ends of tba 

4. enm . . . hrr*t. " since ther pro- 
tected one another." 

B. timirmt; asnwing with niiiu*, 
which la implied In attat alU. 

kTenl. '■lo the rear." 

T. ana« . . , fnerMit: cf, IB, s. 
a. proaUO. . . lncltlhU,'-iialckeiiln( 
Uwtrslepon bearing of the battle." 
dOll*; Mtberearot theRomancamp. 
9. LMiiaiHu: ct. Qoteonas, 1. 
ID. aOM rM Kereraatur: Indlreot 

11. QUlenm, - wben they"; Le. the 
■oldiers of the lOtb legloii, 
13. aufilBiood.'tewtiateondUlnL'' 



rStiir GognOTisaent, nihil ad cel«rit&t«m sibi reliqui fScenmi 
27. H&rnai adventu tanta rernm commntfitid eat facta at 
Dostri, etiam qui Tulneribus cdnfecti prdcnbnissent, scuUb 
innixi proelinm rediutegrareDt; calones perterritos hoBt^BcOn- 
epic&ti etiam inermea arm&tis occmrerent ; eqaites rero, nt 

t tarpitudinem fagae virtute d€lSreiit, omnibaB in locis pngnandft 
b6 legidnariia militibas praeferrent. At hoateB etiam in extrend 
sp6 salutis tantam virtutem praeBtitemnt at, cam piimi eornm 
cecidiBsent, prosimi iacentibaa iDBisterent atqne ex eornm cor- 
poribaa pngnarent; his deiectis et coacerratiB cadaveribm, qn! 

ID snperessent nt ex tumalo tela in noatros coaicerent et pila inter- 

3. prMnmbB, -cumiMra, -enbnl, 
•cabltum, tntr. [oubO, Ue down], lean 
forirardB, tall down, Ue down ; be beaten 
down; Incline. 1. 

S. limlUi. -nlU, -nlziu nun, iiUr. 
InllOT. reat onl, leaa upon. 1. 

4. InsrmlB, -•, a/tf. [la-+aTma., 
arms]. wlUlont arms or weapons, on' 
armed. 3. 

D. turpltlkdft, -lAla, /. [tuTplt, diB. 
gmxiati, dUgraoe. I. 

d«a6, dHSre, dtien, dCUtnm, tr., 
rub oat. eOace. destro;. annlMlal«. I . 

5. Uslftublut. -a,-niii,<i<l)- Uesifi. 
legton], relating to a, legion, l^ooary. 

14. nlbll . . . teoimnt, lit- "made 
nothing of a remainder as regards 
speed" = "made all possible speed." 
This legion (ell upon the rear o( the 

Chap. 37. The Nervll are s l ai n , 
fightliis deGperately. 

9. qui, "those wbo." The clansa Is 
determlDatlve, not charactteristic ^ App. 
131'. H.'B. UO. Tbe subjunctive la due 
to attraction; App-ST^: 0.-I.flfl9.I: A. 
SeS; B. 334, 1: H.-B. £39: H. SiS. 

lanns; ease* App. 143. a: O.-L. 101, 
n. e: A. 131: B. 313, 3: H.-B. Ug, 1: H. 

pr««teT6, -ferre, -tnll. -Ifttum. tr.' 
[farO, bear, bring. App. 31], plaoa before. 
esteem above, prefer to wicA tmaoi; 
praef«rra at allenl, surpass. I. 

8. lk<i«6. Ikotrs, ImU, — , fnfr., 
lie; lie slain. I. 

InilstO. -alHttTa. -itltl, ,tr. and 

fnfr, [sliUi, stand], stand upon; stand ' 
Arm, take a stand; pros* on. pnrsoei 
uUft TAUOntm, sdopt, use. 4. 

S. ooaaarrG, 1, [aoerrO, beap up; 
AMmu, beap], heap or mass togeUur. 
pile one upon anotber. 1. 

DftdlTsr, •eris, n. [om19. tall], a 
fallen or dead body, corpse, l. 

10. tumului, -I, m. [tuine6, swell]. 

"(thoueh) unarmed, attacked tbe armed 

S. Btlam . . . aallktl*, "eveual the 
end of their hope ot safely"; Le. erentn 
their extreme danger. 

S. proxlml . . , Insiateraut, " (he 
□eit stood upon tbem as they lay pros 

9. Mm: Le. pnadnii. 

qui 8ap«TMMiit: of. note on {vi. L i. 

10. ut ex tumnlO, "as it from ■ 

eonlMTant: resoli. Tbe fora« ot <^ 


oepta remittorent: ut Don n&qaiqaam tantae virtutis hominSs 
indic&n deberet ansoe eeae tr&nsire l&tiaaimnm fldmen, aaoen- 
dere altisaimfis ripas, snbire inlqaiBBimnm locum; quae fitcilia 
«x difficiUimis animi magnitudd redegerat. 

28. Hoc proelid factO et prope ad intemecidnem gente ac 
Domine NeiTidrum'^Ved&ct&, maidrSe ufttu, quds una cum 
pneris mulieribusque in aestn&ria ac paludgs coniectSs dixera- 
muB, hac pogna niintiata, cum victoribuB nihil impedltum, 
rictis nihil t&tnm arbitrarentur, omnium qui supererant odn- 1 
eensu Ugatda ad GaeBarem miserunt agqoe el dedidemut; et, 
in commemonuidS oirit&tiB calamiUte, ex sescentia ad tr^ 
senatdree, ex hominnm mllibna lx vix ad qningentdB qui arma 
ferre poesent sdag redfict&a esse dixSrunt. Qnds Caesar, ut in 
ffliserOsac supplices uaug misericordiA vidjirgtur, diligentissimd w 

iwelllpg; mouDd, bUL 1. 

InMTElpU, -olpara, -ctpt, -oBptnm, 

tr. [MplS, take], take or catch tietweeu 
(oat poini and onotAir) : iQUrrupt ; Inter- 

1. tint, Btatla,/., race:c]aD, tribe. 
S. aaitnlrlum. -rl,n. Ia«itui. tide]. 

low manti'lMid, tidal InlH, estiuuT. 

6. eBnitniui, -&■, m. (otnMntU, 

agrae], imlted opinion, agraement, coo- 

8. Mnktor, -SrU, m. [miibx. old]. 

wretched, miserable, pitiable, udIoi^ 
(unate ; poor, worthless. 1. 
■nVPlBX,-loU,>n.a»ii/,,aappUaDt. 1. 

II. ut. . .MbSret. "sothatltiQuat 
be believed that not wlthont prospecia 
of success had men. etc." ; I.e. the; were 
■D braTe tbat they had a rlgbc to expect 

1>. KltlMlmka; at the point where 
the Nervll crossed, the banlt of the Hver 
Is hlgber and steeper than elsewhere. 

qua,*, "deeds which"; I.e. those 
■nmmed np In the preceding tnflnlUTes. 

U, ex, "lnsi«Bdot." 

Chap. 38. The survivors submit to 

and nothing sale lor the conquered." 

5. qui itqMraTUit: compare qvi w. 
ptrtiitnt. 97, 9. This clause bas pre- 
cisely the same meaning, but does not 
depend on a subjonctlve. 

8. Tlx ad qulngentac this has been 
considered an exaggeration, because the 
Nervii revolted again three years later, 
and pat B,0oa men in the Held two yean 
after that. Bntln so largea state there 
must have been Uiousands of bofs too 
young to fight In the present battle, but 
old enough to fight a few years later. 

qui poMent: a cLanse of characteris- 
tic. and theretore subjunctive in ttaedl- 

•. 1 


cdnaerTaTiteuiBqtieflnibiia atque oppidis uti iosBit, et fTnitimla 
imperarit ut ab iniuria et malaficid ad sudaqne prohibe'snt. 

29. Ataataci, de quibus Bupr£ Bcripslmaa, cum omnibiu 
cdpiis auiitiQ Nerriis Temrent, bfic pngna niintiata ez itineie 
domum rerertgrnnt ; cunctls oppidia castelliBque desertis ana 
omnia in Qntiin oppidum egregie n^burft munitnm contalBmnt. 

s Qaod cnm ex omnibus in circnitii partibae altiaeimaB rupes 
deiectuBqne babgret, Qn& ex parte leniter accliris aditas in 
latitudinem nOn amplina dacentonim pedum reiinqugbatnr; 
qnem locum duplici altiasimd mard munierant; turn magni 
ponJeris saxa et praeacutilB trabOs in rafiro collocfibant, Ipai 

M erant ex Cimbria Teatonleqne prognati, qui, cum iter in prO- 
vinciam nostram atque Italiam facerent, lis impedlmentia qoae 

mluTlcardlft, -oe./- [mlBsrsfi, pity 
■t-cor, the heart], pit;, mercj', compas- 

1. BcilbS, Bcrlbera, acrlpil, BCtlp- 
tmn, t^'t wTitn. record or niAke mention 

*. [epaglua.eicelleiii]. 

excellently, kdmlrabl;, remarkablj'. 1. 

H, rtpSB, -iB,/.. rock, cliff. 1. 

ftcollTiB, -B. aiX^. [ad-1-cIlTua, aslope], 
sloping upward, rising, a-iceading. Z 

a. duplex. -pllcU, a<J. [duo, tnH- 
pllc6, raid!, twofold, donble. 2. 

S pondua, -erls. n. [ei. panSb. 
velgtil, welgbt. 1. 

■AZnin, -I, n., rock, large atone. 9. 

piaaftentui, -■,, -nm, adj. [pf. part, of 
praeilCll6, B)uLrpenatt)ieend].sban>Uk 
[ront or at tbe ecd. sharpened, pointed. 

trUiB,tr&blS,/..beam.cimber,plle. 3. 
10. prtgnktiM, -&, -um, adj. [nts- 
cot, be bom], bom: descended, sprang. 

11. lusalt. ImpeT&Tlt: tbe 

Illustrates well tbe ennirostlng construe- 
tlona wltb tbeae verbs, iubeS regularly 
govenia aa accusatlvo and InflnltlTei 
impero, tbe dailve with ut and tbe aab- 

Chap. 39-33. Caesar i 

bap. 39. The Atuatuci take refHige 
1 mrouKhold. Their origin. 
. aupii: lnlS,T. 
w vsnlrent, " while coming," 

iBcSplIa; ablaiiveof maQDec. 
SuchablatlTesareoIten called "military 
-ocompaninient." but It Is not logical U) 

n ooropany 

say that tbe Atua 

wltb themselves. 
4. oppldnm: for Us probable loo- 

tloQ see map facing p. IflS. 
D. quod cum, "although this town." 
«K . . . partibut, "at all (other) 

points 111 ila circumference," or simply 

T. duetntfirum podun: deacrlptiva 
geoltlve, modifying adil-ut. The com- 
parative minai haa no ellecl on tbe con- 
struction ; et. note on mifio. 18, t~ 

8. dupllcl mfilfi: see plan, p. 3J7. 

tum; atthetlmeofCaesar-sapproacli 

le. Otmbria TeutoiiI*q.n*: 


sScnm agere ac portare Qoa poterant oitril damen RhSnnm 
depositia, cuatudiam ex buIs ac praesidinm Bex mllia homiDam 

pi. , guards, keepers. 2. 


13. »gere»cport»r8, "todrlveand 
to carry": for imptilimentit bere means 
" possessions" rather than "tingguse." 
and Includes cattle. 

oltrt: the west side. 

13. eustSdlBm . . . TeliqneriAt, 

lit. " had left along (with their pOBses- 
sloDS) a guard or their (men) and agac- 
rlson, six tbonaaiul men {In all)." 

N Google 


Qn& rellquenint. Hi post eOrnm obltnm multos annOs h 
IB flnitiinla ezagitati, cam aii&s bellum inferrent, alias illatum 

dgfeoderent, cdnsgnsli efirum omnium pace facta hone sibi 

domicilio locam delegerant. 

30. Ac primo adventii exercitiis nostri crgbrfts ex oppidft 

exonreidQea faciebant parvnlisque proeliis cnm nostrta con- 

tend^baot; posted valid pedam xn in circaitu xt milium cre< 

briaque castellis ciroummilQiti oppido sSse continebant. TJbi 
« Tmeis acl"3 aggere exstrflctd turrim procul cocstitui vidgrunt, 

primum irrldere ex murfi atqne increpitare vocibus, quod tacts 

14. obltui, -ftl, m. [obsS, go to 
death] , deslmclloQ. I. 

IB. OXBClta, 1, tr., frtg. of 
M6, drive], arlvsoni or aw^; dlBMirb. 

■111b, adv. [allua, anotber], at ao- 
Oiher place, elsewbere; at another 
time; allM . . . &1U«, at one time . . . 
at ancitber. 4. 

17. domlclUum, -U, n. [domua, 
house], residence, dwelling, home, 

parrulna, -a, -lun, (Ktj. [diia.o/pai- 
VUH, little], small, InslgQlUcant. slight; 
parrtiUprMlU, s kirmi s h es; parmll, 
children. 1. 

4, ctrowamftnlft, i. tr. fmfiBld, rot- 
tltf], wall aroand; tartitr, protect. 1. 

B. exrtmS. -itruer*, "itriud, 
-itttlotiini, tr. latmA, hulld], bnlld or 
pile ap, rear, ci 

proenl, adv., 
cbe dUcance. at i 

». trtldaS, -rider*, -rial, -rli 
intr. [In+rldeB, laugh], laush. jee 

14. aftrum; the main bodies ol the 
Clmbrl and Teutonl. 

IB. Oiun . . . difenderant: aomecwn 
clausea are best translated by partici- 
ples; so here, "sometimes making war, 
sometimes derendliig themselves against 
war made on them," lit. "when they 
. . . warded oO war lnade(on them)." 

Ifi. cftnBtUab. . . tacti, "peace was 
made bf common consent, and." (Drum 
refers to both the Atuatad and their 

bimc locum: the whole tract oC coun- 
try occupied by the Atuatuci at this 

Chap. SO. The Atoatoci soom the 
Roman preparations for attack. 

S. ft^libaut. "kept making"; Im- 
perfect of repealed action. 

a. padum XII: in height. 

XV mlUum: supply pMdun as aparii- 
tlve genlttve: "<or) 1&.000 leet In dr- 
cumlerenco"; I.e. three miles. Theplan 
shows that the wall did not cross the 
river, wbtoh itself forms a sntQclent ot>- 

4. oppldB: ablative of means, bntlo 

B. Tineia, aggere, turrim: see int. 

81 ; 8?. d. The vlneae aUorded shelter to 
the soldiers who made the agger. In 
this ease the agger was Intended only 
as a roadway up which to push tbe 




mftchin&ti6 & tantd spatiO institaer^tnr : Quibnsnam mimibaH 
snt qnibns riribns proesertim hominSs tantnlae ataturas (nam 
plgmmqne omnibas Qallis prae magDitddine oorporam BOfiram 
breritas nostra contemptni est) tant! onerie tnnim in murd w 
sese posBS colloc&re c&ofiderent ? 

31.' Ubi vSrd morSri et appropinqu&re moenibas vidgrant, 
Do?a atqae iniJait&tft specie commOti leg&tSs ad Caeearem de 
pice nuserant, qai ad hnnc modnm locfiti : Ndn sS ezistimftre 

T. mieHlnttiS, -SnU./.lmkotiUwr, 

(ODLrlieJ. a mecbiuilcBl sonuiviuic*, 
Ducbliie. engine, derrlok. S. 

Qiiiuuun, Quldnun. w^ Qulnuii, 
aa4aiiftin, quodnun, tiit*rriiii, pron. 
[App. SI OKI a), wbot wUcbT whalt 
irbotlieDlivhat prsjt I. 

8. tuitaliu, -a, -oin, aO}- [dim. of 
Untui, so great] , so small or UtUe, eo 
dlmluatlre; triOlQg. Z. 

itattra, -a«, /- [itatui; iM. stuui], 
1 Btandlug uprlgbt; slM or belgbt ot 
ihe body, stature. 1. 

>. plinunqot, adii.ipierniaa*, ihe 

KreaMT part], tor tbe monparl, moaUr. 
eeaerallr J asKln and agalii, veir otteo. 


.. before, la rroot 

ol: on aeoooDt ol : In comparlaoa wltb ; 
In ciMnTontdHi, before, at (be bead ol, Id 
fraax, rtrj. I. 

10. eonUiiiptni,-iu,m.iaoiit«iiui6, 
deeplaaL oontempt; an object of <!oq- 
tempts I. 

OnuB, -elU, Ik, load, bnrden; welgbt, 
■Ize. 1. 

3. inailUtna, -a. -uin, a4f- (tn-+ 

tkaltatUB, naual], aDUsual. niiHiinmon, 
Btr&nBB, Btkrdlng. S. 

■peelli, -n,/. IipaelS, see], seeliig, 
ilgbt; look, appearance, abow, pre- 

S. modul, •!, m.. meuure. qiuDLltr, 
lize; manner, meibod. style: elnamckll. 
of aacb a kind, SDcta, oU., atOdO, alilt 
oC.Uhe. * 

7. ft tuiM spatlfi, " Ki tar away"; 
Uu "awajby bo great a distance, " abe- 
iDg used as an adverb. Ct. T, 8. 

liutltneietiir: moder App, Hi: O.'L. 
Ml: A.540. ^; 103.3: B. S8«,l: B.-B- 536, 
1, a: H. MB. II. 

qnlbuBWunmaiilbui . . . cOnTIde- 
rant, ''(iisklng) by wbaC bands, pray, 
did thefliopeF"; Indirect discourse tor 
dttfldilU, "do you bopeF" For mode 
seeApp.308.1; Q.-UOM: A.6as; B. SIS, 
I: H.-B. K37; H. 841. 

t. Iiomiiiii: in apposition with ibe 
subject of cSn/vdermt; ■'eapedallr (as 
tbey were) men, elc." 

10. contemptul ait, "is an object 
ol coaiempt. " 

la mftiO wUoflftn: tbe Oanls Igno- 
ranll; supposed tbat ibe Romans would 

try to set tbe tower on tbe wall, tor iha 
only towers tbey knew of were built on 

Chap. Bl. The Atoatucl propose a 
conditional annender. 

1. mcTtrl. "that It [the lower] 

9. loo&tl: the rest of tbe cbapl«r Is 

In indirect discourse. tiBntf . . . poittHt 
depends on locBti; everything else, on 
iXccfnmi (1. 0), ' speaking as follows ■ . . 
said," But It makes smootber English 
to translate Ji7f^I as fofu£iru»£ and omit 
dixiraM, "spokeas follows." 



Rijm&ndB Bine ope divina. bellam gerere, qai tantae altitudinia 
G machin9,ti6iiSe tantg, celeritate promoTere poseent; se suaqne 
omnia eorum poteBt&ti permittere dixSmnt. tTnum petere ac 
deprecari: si forte pro &a& clemeutiA ac mansuetudine, qmun 
ipsf ab aliis andlreiit, Btataisset Atnatucds esse cdnservaiidaa, 
ne se armis d€3poltaret. Sibi omnSs forS fioitimds esse ioi- 
10 mlcoB ac suae virtutl invidSre; a qaibm b€ defendere tr&ditia 
arinis doc possent. Sibi praeat&re, si in enm ciUiiim dSduce- 
reatar, qnaniTis fortunam A populd Rdm^nS pat!, quam ab his 
per cniciS,tam interfici inter quos dominftri consuessent. 

32. Ad haec Caesar respondit: Se magis cfinsnSt&dine sua 
quam meritu eorum civibatem cdnserviiturum, si prinsqnam 

4. diTlnuB, -a., -van, adj. [divas, dl- 
Tine]. ol cbe goda. dlvloe, aacred. l. 

e. prBmovsa, -IllOTfil;B,•IIl6Tl,-mS- 
t^In, tr. (moTeA, more], move torw&rd. 
adTaoce, push forward, a. 

7. dSpraoor, I. ir. ondinir. [praeor, 
pray], pray for deUverance from; beg 
oil: implore, plead tor. Z. 

9. djspolia, I, (r. [spollO, strip], de- 

10, InvldeO, -TldCra, -Tidl, -visnm. 

inir. [Tldai, see], lookaskaoce al; enry. 

13. quiTli, quaarls, qnidvli, vd 
qulrla,«Tii, qnodTta, inatf- !»■«■ 

(App. 83], [qui, who+TiB, you wlshl. 
nbom OT irliat you wish : any one, ajij' 
chlug, any whatever, any. 3, 

13. cmalltui, -U, fn.[ erual6, tor- 
ture; crux, croBa). torture, torment, « 

domlnor, l, fnir. {domlnuB, masierl. 

4. qUlpOBsent, "since theycould," 
may liave been aubjunctive in ihe direct 
torm^ App. 3lp: G.-L. 633: A. 535. e; B. 
283,3: H.-B.S33: H.BftS. 

e. ftnuni, "one favor": l-e- f^. . . d^ 

"It ho should de- 

cide." The c 


perfect indicative: lit. "it you shall 

pr6. " In accordance with." 

quBjn andlrsnt, "o' which they kepi 

9. ne dSBpollAret: tbeorlgiualtorm 
was probably noii rfa^oliar*; App. 2IS; 
2«r: G.-L. 371, 3; tea: A. 450; 538: B. 27fl, 

c: 316: H.-B. 501.3, a. !; 534.2: H.5ai. I; 


BlM: with the adJaoUve ini'iucei. 

10, Tlrtftll: what verbs, tranalclva 
In English. Kovem the datlveF 

tiikdlllB axmiB, " if Uiey should, etc" 

11. alMpTMBt&re. tic. 'it waa bet- 
ter for them" = ■' they pretarred." 

cjtsum, "extremity." 

Chap. 33. The Atnatnci snrrendai 

1. cdnauitCidllie: ablative otaccord- 

3. merits: abiac 


9. Bibi; oaseT App. la 

. H. 237. 

: G.-L, 350, S: 

PatiiBi piriphraitlc co-tjugation 

native of rtferena 



mnrum ariga attigieset s€ dedidiseent; Bed dgditidnia ndllam 
esse condicionem nisi armiB traditie. Se id qaod in Nerviis 
fecisaet facturum, finitimtsque imperat^ram ne quam dediti- 6 
ciis populi Bomani iniuriam inferrent. RS rsDuntiata ad BudB, 
qnae imperarentar facere dixernnt. Armomm magnfi mnlti- 
tfidioe de muro in fosaam quae erat ante oppidum iactii, sic at 
prope sniamauL miirl aggerisque altitQdiiiem aoerrl armOrnm 
sdaeqnjirent, et tamen circiter parte terti^, nt poatefi perspec- lo 
tarn est, c€lata atque in oppido retent&, portiB patefactis ed 
die pace Bant usi. 

33. Sab veBpernm Caesar portfte clandl milit^BqDe ex 
oppidd exire iuBsit, ne qnam noctil oppidftnl & miHtibaB iniii- 
riam acciperent. Dli ante iaitd, at intellectam est, comilio, 
qnod deditione facta noBtrds praesidia dgdnctf)r&s ant deniqae 
indiligentius aervaturoa crediderant, partim cum ils qaae reti- 6 

S. »iea, ATlatK.m. aram; batter- 

11. 0SlB.I,(r„k«p™«redDrhldclen. 

Ine-ram, a long btrm for detnoHtAing 

secrete, conceal; in pan., egcape obser- 

aalli.-otiemdpfU teat capped aith iron 

in the form of a ram't hta4; brace, bat- 

pUafftclG, -facere, -thai, -faetmn. 

tr. [p«t««, be open+ftelfi, make], make 

t. Memia. -l.m-.aheftp, mass. 1. 

D. IndUlgentei. adv. [IndlUcSiii, 

equal], make level with or equal v>. 

fqaal; keep up with. 3. 

S. arlfia: see lut. sa, c Apparentlr 

8. MIts: le on the side wbere tbe 

In Ukls case the battaring-ram was hung 

In (be lowest Blory ol the lower. 

B. KKKarlB: the Roman agger, which 

aniKlHOt. dMMInent represent tu- 

had reached the trench. 

tore pertecl IndieallveB at ibe direct 


*. nlBl armli trtdltli: cf. 30. n. 

11. p&es aunt ttal, "remalDed quiet. ■■ 


Chap. i3. The Atnatuol make a 

ta, "in the cased. •■ 

nieht attack and are repulsed. Th^ 

are sold as slaves. 

■■he wotiM do ... and would command" 

a. ninnam; c(, r«(erenceBon33, B. 

means " tie would do ... : namely, be 

This care (or the safety ot the lowns- 

would commanil." 

«. rS, " answer," 

ing humanely. 

T. fao«re: wemlghie.peciafuiure 

4. piaeildla, "tbe outposts" In the 

Innnltlve; but the envoys return and 

(atUUaiSO. 4) whlchguarded tbe Roman 

saj that the people are already aiecat- 

D. cnm: with both iii[ armi» and fcBiit. 

i. quam: oseT App. IT4: O.-U 101, R. : A.8IO,a: B. 91, &; H.-B. CIS, I 



nuerant et cSlftTeraot armis, partim Bcutia ex cortice factia ant 
Timiaibna iatextis, qaae subito, at temporis ezigoiUis poBto- 
labat, pellibos induxeraat, tertia Tigilia,qua minimd ardaos >d 
nostraa monitiiSngs ascSnaaa Tideb&tur, omnibna cdpiia repeate 

10 ex oppidd Smptidnem fgcgmnt. Celeriter, at aute Caeaar im- 
peraverat, ignibua aignificatione facta, ex proximia caatelliaefi 
coDonranm eat, pugnatamqne ab hostibna ita acriter estuti 
viris fortibna in extrema ape Balutla, iiilqao loco, contra aiSs 
qui ex vallo tniribusque tela iacerent, pugnari debuit, cum io 

» UQ& virtute omnia apes aalutia coiiaiateret. OcclBla ad ho- 
minam milibna qaattuor reliqai in oppidnm reiecti aunt. Poat- 
ridig eing diei refrSctia portis, cum iam defenderat aemfi, 
atqne intr6miaala mllitibus nostris, aectidnem eiua oppidt iliii- 

10. <niptU,-4iilB,/-[<ruinpA, bmk 
tortb], ft breahlDK out, biiFatlng forth, 
sortie, HBllir. * 

11. ■lBiiUla4tU,-BiiU,/.[BlKnlflat. 
make bIeqs] , making at signs, slgiul; 
Indlcailon. imlnuttton. i. 

IT. raltlngfi, -fringara, -trigl, 
-ftiotnm. tr. [ro-f-frwixfi, breakl , brak 

■eotlft, -Bnti,/- [aeet. cat], catting: 
dividing of capitindgoodt; tjootj. I. 
QniTenua, -a, -um, a((/.[ftiiiiB. oafr+ 

haep; guard, watch; resorve. S. 

crM«, -dew, -aidl. -dltnm. i 

e. oortax, 

-loU. m.,/.,barlt. 

7. vlrnm. 

-Inls, n., a pliant 


Bwitch. oslar. 


•», -taxni. -taxtmn, tr. 

[Mia, waavo; 

weare In or togecber. 1. 

8. psllli, 


on or oS l/ti 

arduuB, -K 

Dody of on animaVi 


-um, adj., high. 


B. Bz . . . luMzUl, "made ol bark 
or o( oalera woven together." 
a. qil&: the adverb, 
mlulmtftrduiu: evidently the Roman 

wall was on rising ground. Tbe desire 
to keep tbe wall on high groand ac- 
counts for its Irregular oouree as shown 

11. Ignlbns, "by signal flres," 

13. oononraiunaBt, pugiULtiuBei 
translate personally. 

14. lit pun&ri dtbutt, Hi. "as 

ought to have been tongbt"= 'as brava 
men ought to have (ought." 

efit qtmmoerent, "men who threw"; 
a clause ol cbaracterlstic. 

IB. intnftTlrtftWoSiialBMMt, "de- 
pended on valor alone." 

aA, "about," used adverbiaUy. 

IB. MetlSnam: including tbe Inbab- 
itants as well as their possessions. The 
action was perfectly JostiSable, accord- 
ing IO ancient ideas, aa a punish mcmt 
lor tbeir treachery. Such metbods were 
probably the only means by which he 
could have secured tbe respact ot Ui> 




versam Caesar veadidit. Ab iis qui emerant capitam aameraa 
ad enm relStas est milium qainquaginta trium. « 

34. Eddem tempore a P. Crassd, qnem cum legl6ne an& 
miaerat ad Venetos, VeDellds, Osism5a, GoriosoUtea, Esuvida, 
Anlercds, Redones, quae aunt maritimae civitfttSa Oceacumque 
attingunt, certior factna eat onmSs e&s ciritfttSa ia dioiOnem 
poteatatemque populi Rdmani esse redfictfis. > 

35. Hia rebuBgeatis, omni GaMi& pac&tA, taota huins oelli 
ad barbards opinio perlata est ut! ab lis nfttionibus quae trana ' 

(aw-lir'si), a Oallic feoplt MvUUd into 
/our bratmhtt. (1) Aulercl Eburovtces 
Ceb-a-ra-Ti'sSz), (Bd) ; (S| Aulerel Cenoin- 
anl (s6-Dam'&-ni). (Bd) ; (3) Aulercl Bnui- 
novices (tiriD''5-Tl'H«z), location un- 
knoan; (4) Aolerci Dlabllii(«3 (dl"^ 
t>lln'«i),(Be), 1. 
KadDuiB, -urn, m. (BCc). the R«doiiea 

19. TindO, -dere, -dldl. -dltniii,<r. 
IThlUia, sale-fdS, givel. puc to sale, 
9eU, sell at anctton. 3. 

1. OraBViu, -I, Bi., PubUos Llcinlos 
Crasana, ont of Catiar-i litulenanli, « 

t. VanatI, -firum, m. (Cb), the Vanecl 
(Fto'e-ti). * 

Vanalll, -Orum, m- (Bo), tba Venelll 

{T6-Q«'l). * 

OalKDl, -finun, m. (Bb). the OBlsml 
(o-sls'ini). " Oallio ptopte in modem 
arittaaj/. 3. 

OorloBOllUB, -nm, m. (Bb), theCorlo- 
soUtes (ko'Tl-a-san-tSz). 3. 

BauTll, -6nuu. tn. (Bed), the Esurll 

S. Aularcli -Oruin, m.. tbe Aulercl 


nutrUlmiu, -&, -nm, a^. [mue, sea] . 
ol tbe sea. sea; maritime, oaTal, on tbe 
sea : fira, the sea shore, t 

4. dlel6, -fitlll,/.. dominion, autbor- 
Itji. rule. sway. 3. 

>. barbaxnt, -a, -nm, adj., forel,^'n 
(to Qrttla and Somam\, UDClTlUzed. bar- 
barous; pt. at noun, saraces, barba- 

IB. lia ani emaruit: slave dealers 
who were wltb Caesar constantly and 
who supplied the slave market at Home. 

numerua . . . tilnm, lit. "the num- 
ber was reported<u>be)otBS.OaO"="iras 
reported as Ht.WO. " 

Chap. 8ft. The northTestem states 
submit to CrasBos. 

1. leKlOna fink: this was tbe Tth. one 
ol tbe two which bad suffered moat se- 
rerelr In tbe battia wltb the NervU. 
Caesar most bare sent Crasaus Immedl- 
atel7 after that battle. 

9. iina«: agrees In gender with the 
predicate noun, drrilStet. 

B. eBBSradictfts: the? gam hostages 

without Bghtlng. One legion ronld nol 
have conquered these states. lor w( 
learn In tbe next book that it cook Ca» 
Bar hlmselF and most ol hla armr it 

1. omnt OaUlfc: the map facing p. 

IBS shows that Caesar now controlled 
everythtog bat Aqullanlaand twoBel- 
glc states. 

3. opInlS, "ImpressloD." 

quae Incoleiant: (or mode see noM 
on s-u, 37, S. 



RhSnum iDcolerent leg&tT ad Caesarem mitterentar qui sS 
obsides daturas, imper^ta fooinras poUicerentur. Quae legati- 

6 CaSa Caeear, quod in Italiam Illyricumqne properabat, ioita 
proximi aestate ad ae reverti iaasit. Ipse in Gamutes, Andee, 
TnroDoe, quaeqne civit&t^s propinqnae its locis erant ubt 
bellum gesserat legioDibns in bibenia dSdnctis in Italiam pro- 
fectuB est. Ob easque rSs ex litterie Caeaaris digrum qmnde- 

f cim Bupplicatio decreta est, quod ante id tenipus accidit null!. 

B. lllyrlcum,-!, ».,IUy^icum(^^^^- 
bllm].IllJTl», iviflffnorfAfaito/tAe^f/ri- 
ofii:. /orming a part of Caetar't protinct. 

6. flamutil, -um, m. (BCde), tbe 
CBmutaa (h&r'iiu-tez). 

Andii, -luin.cH', 
tbe Andes (ftn'dgz) or AndiCfiD'dl). Z. 

T. Tnroul, -Onim, m. (Cd). tbe Tn- 

ronl (tQ'T6-Di). I. 

10. ■nppUelUfi, -ftnlB. /. [nip- 
plaz, BuppUoDt], pabllc prayer to tia 
goiia in tlianiigiving for mccetm, Aowf 
chanhsglvliig. s. 

dtcemfi, -samart, -arerl, -erttum, 
'r. (eemB, separste; deoWeJ, decide; 

3. QUI poUieirantui: a purpose 

4. dattlrfca: lemlnlne, because i? re- 
fers to nJttiihiibus. 

B. lultfc proxlmt MIt&I*, "nt the 
beginning ot the next summer." At 
tuat time they bad bo far cbanged tbelr 
minds that only the Ubll sent bos- 

6, lnOkmuUs: wlth.ij«lucni. 

a. in haUam: 

L Clsalpiiie Gaul, 

He could not legally go outside ot his 
province, which included Cisalpine Oaul 
and Illyrlcum. 

9. sz, " in conseqaence of," 

10. suppllcfctlfi: a public thanfcr 
glrtng. vot«d by the HemtM In honor ol 
a victory. The Dumber ot days was sup 
posed to be in proporlloD to the tmpor. 
tanoe □( the victory. Before this time 
DO more than twelve days had erer been 

quod, "(an honor) wbleb." The ant* 
cedent Is the preceding clause. 



Since Home was to possess Gaul, she needed to coatrol the shortest 
wute across the Alps — that which leads over the Great St. Bernard 
pass. Caesaraccordinglysent Galbawithone legion, in the autumnot 57, ' 
to subdue the mountain tribes which controlled that route. Having 
apparently accomphshed this, Galba went into winter quarters in a little 
lown at the foot of the northern slope of the mountains. Here be was 
attacked by an overwhelming force of mountaineers, whom, however, 
be succeeded in driving off after a sharp engagement. He then re- 
Ireated to a less exposed position. The tribes were not thoroughly 
conquered, but as we bear of no further operations against them it is 
evident that they stopped molesting travellers. 

In 57 the northwestern states bad submitted to Crassus and had sent 
him hostages; but when he established winter quarters among them and 
began sending out officers to levy tribute of supplies, they grew weary 
of the yoke. Ignorant of the Roman resources and power, three states 
took the fatal step of arresting the o£Gcers sent to them. This virtual 
declaration of war was followed by the formation of a powerful le^ue 
of the coast tribes between the Loire and the Seine. The Britanni, 
tbeHorini, and the Menapiisent men and ships to their aid. 

As early as piossible in 56 Caesar hastened to Gaul and gave orders for 
an extensive campaign. In order to prevent any effective co-Operation 
on the part of his enemies, he divided his forces. Titus Lsbienus, with 
part of the cavalry, was sent toward the Rhine to check a possible up- 
rising among the Belgae and to prevent the Germans from crossing. 
Quintus Titurius Sabinus went to the country of the Venelli to cut off 
communications between the eastern and the western portions of the 
confederacy. Publius Crassus marched into Aquitania to prevent help 
reaching the insui^ents from that quarter. Caesar himself, with the 
assistance of a stroi^ fleet under Dedraus Brutus, undertook the con- 
quest of the Veneti, the most powerful sea-board state and the fore- 
front of the confederacy. 

The Veneti skilfully utilized the advantages of their position. Their 
country was wild and barren and their strongholds were built on the 
ends of promontories which the tides cut off from the main land. Hence 


,,, .GlKwIc 


supplies for the Roman army were obtained with difficulty and akgt 
operations were greatly hindered. The Veneti, on the other hand, bad 
control of the sea and could supply their towns at will with proviHions 
and defenders, or if necessary could transport the garrisons to other 
places, leaving the foe only a barren victory. The Roman fleet would 
have prevented this, but it was kept away by stormy weather during 
most of the summer. When it finally appeared, the much superior fleet 
of the Veneti confidently sailed out to meet it; but Roman valor and 
ingenuity won the day. The destruction of their fleet forced the Veneti 
to submit. Their prominence in the revolt marked them out for severe 
punishment, as a warning to other Gallic states. Accordingly the 
senate was put to the sword and the people were sold as slaves. 

The legates of Caesar were as successful as himself. Sabinua easily 
defeated Vindovix, the general in command of the land forces of the 
confederacy. Labienus overawed the Belgae. Crassus, after much 
fighting, subdued Aquitania. In all Gaul only the Morini and the 
Menipii had made no submission. Therefore Caesar marched against 
them; but after making strenuous efEorts to reach the foe, in almost 
impenetrable forests and swamps, the approach of winter warned him 
to desist. Quartering his legions upon the conquered tribes, aa in the 
|»eviouB winter, he proceeded to Italy. 


n,gN.«j.-v Google 

.■V Google 


For the meaning of the colors, see the explanation of the campaign 
Diap for I, 1-29, facing page 42. 

The same territory is colored red aa in the campaign map tor Book H, 
being page 162. In addition, a narrow strip leading into the Alps, 
otoet of the northwestern states, and three states of Aqtiitania are 
wbred red. In all these cases it is difficult to decide on the coloring. 

It seems probable that Galba did not completely subdue the Nan- 
tuates, the Veragri, and the Seduni, but that be did secure the route 
through the Alps. 

It seems probable that all the revolting states in the northwest had 
sent so large a proportion of their ships and men to help the Veneti, 
that the defeat of the Venetan fleet amounted to a defeat of all the 
slates. Hence they are colored red. The Redones are not mentioned 
among the revolting states. 

It is possible that all of Aquitania should be colored red; but it seems 
improbable that other states than the Sotiates, the Tarusates, and the 
Vocates were so lai^lj represented in the armies defeated by Crassua 
as to make further resistance impossible. They are colored blue on the 
theory that th^y submitted only because they were discouraged by the 
fate of the states which did fight. 

Caesar's army bad probably been quartered along the Liger (Loire). 
Therefore the routes on this map begin at the point of the probaUe winter 
quarters farthest east, where Oriesns now stands. Marching westward, 
he picked up another part of bis army, and then probably collected the 
whole of it at the point on the map from which four lines diverge, which 
is now the site of Angers. From that point he sent out Labienus, 
Craseus, and Sabinus, and himself marched against the Veneti. From 
the Veneti Caesar marched against the Morini and the Menapii, and was 
probably joined on the route by Sabinus and Craseus. 



I . Gum in Italiam proficisceretur Caesar, Serrium Galbam 

cum legiooe duodeeima et parte equitatua in XantuatSs, Ver- 

agroa, SedunoBque miait, qui a finibua AUobrogum et lacu 

Lemannd et flumine Rhodano ad sumiQaa Alpea pertinent. 

» Cauaa mittendi fuit quod iter per Alpes, quo magno cnm 

a, m. (CDr), tb* 
■ <CDg), the VfT- 

1. SarvlDi, -Ti, m,, SerrlDs (sCr'vl- 
Ss). a Soman praenometi, 1. 

GalbK, -ae, »>■. Serrlus Sulplclns 
Oalbit (sEr'Tl-JiB sJU-pIsh'Tas gftl'ba), 
ont of Canar't Ugatti, and ioid to havt 
trtn OR* of hiM atiaitiru. « 

Mutttltti, -Ul 


TtrAKTl, -Bram, n. 
agrl (TSfa-grl). 8. 

a. Bedlknl, -firum, m. (Cgli).Uie Se- 
dDQi (se-du'n!). 3. 

occaj^ee Oc- 


dar88 not wint«r in the moautainB. 

Chap. 1. Galba ie 
pasa over the Alps. 

1. cum . . . proSeliceritm: as stat- 
ed in II, SB. Tberefore iheniimliYB 
given In tbe first six chapters ot Book 
III belongs chronologloally with Book 

3. laclBne dnodealm&: this was ooe 
Dt the two legions which biwl siiflered 
most severely Id the battle with the Ner- 
vlt; ct. II, ao. 

HantUfttSt. etc. : see the map racing 
p. 817. 

perfect and the perfect Is dlfBcnlt for 
English speaking people ta grasp, but 
Caesar was as careCul In Ihelr use as In 
the choice o( modes and cases. Study 
App. ler, IBS, Notice thai In this chap- 
ter the pprrert Is used In every principal 
clause Notice, wo, Ihat all but one of 

these perfecls tell something that Cae- 
sar or Galba did; I.e. tbey all narrate 
events in the story- 

4. pertinent: several of the sabordl- 
nate verbs In this chapter are In the 
present lease, because they stale facts 
wbicb are stUl true at the time when 
Caesar Is writing. 

E. fUlt: this might have Ueeo Imper- 
fect, for It Is not an event in the story. 
Very tew such perfects will be found Ii 

auaa Tolebat. "thai he wished"; a 
fiobstantlve quod clause, In apposition 
wlthcaiua. The Imperfect does not nar- 

it m tt 

something (Caesar's feelings) as going 
on at Che time of a main act (Caesar's 
decision to send Qalba). This is the 
most common use of the Imperfect, and 
Is called the dtteriptiot imperftct. 

lt«i per Alpia: the route leading over 
the famous Great St. Bernard pass. For 
the other roots used by Caesar see map 
facing p. 43. 

WAR IN THE ALPS, B.C. 67 219 

perlcalo magQisque cum portoriiB merc&tdrgg ire cunsuurant, 

patefieri volebat. Huic permUit, ai opua eBse arbitraretur, at! 

in his locis legionem hiemandi causa collocaret. Galba, se- 

cnndla aliquot proeliis factls castelliaque compluribus eoram 

eipngnStis, missis ad eum undiqae IggatiB obsidibusqae datis u 

et pace facta, constituit cohortes duas in Naotuatibus collocare 

et ipse cum reliqnis eius legionia cohortibus in tIco Veragro- 

runij qui appellStur Octodurua, hiemare; qui vicns poaitns io 

Talle, ndn magnfi adiectu plaoitie, altisaimis montibas undiqae 

contingtur. Cum bio in du&s partes fliimine divideretur, al- u 

teram partem eius Tici Gallis 

concessit, alteram vacuam ab 

his relictam cohortibnsad hie- 

mandum attribuit. Eumlocam 

valid fosaiqne miinivit. M 

B. aliquot, inOtcI. num. ar(j. [qnot, 
how many), some, a tew, several. S. 

18. OotadBriu, -1, m. (Cg). Occodu- 
rOB (fik"tS-du'raa). I. 

1*. VtllH, -ll, /.. Tale, valley. X 
adloie, -IcBrs, -licl, -leclam, Ir. 

[Iftclfi, throw. App. 71, throw to, throw 

Dp, hurl; add. I. 

19. ttttT:«nfi, -trlbuere, -trlbnl, 
-trtb&Cum, Ir. [ftd + trlbuB, asBtsu], 
assign, allot, 2. 

odnBuerant: i 

H.-B. 187: H, 638. 1, 

7. arbltr&mur: implied iDdlrect 
discourse. Caesar said a. ' ~' 

11, oohortCs dttks: fi 

14. uOn . . . plftnltlS, ' 

tie level ground adjacent." 
IT. TaouBmrellotam, "1 

■, Google 



2, Cum dies hibernornm complfires traneiBsent frumen* 
tumqae eo comportfirl iasaisBet, eubito per explQratores cer- 
iior factnB est ex eS, parte vicT quam Oallie concesaerat omnSs 
noctu disceeaiase taoiiteeqne qui itapendereDt & maxima mald- 

• tudine Sedundrum et Veragrorum tengri. Id aliquot de ^ausls 
acciderat, ut subitd Oalli belli renovandi legionisque oppri- 
mendae cOnBilium caperent: primum, quod legiouem, ueqne 
earn pleniaaimam, dgtractis cohortibna duabus et compluribua 
Bingillatim, qui commeatiiB petendi <»aaa misBi erant, propter 

10 paucitatem dgspici^bant ; tum etiam, qnod propter inlqnlt&tem 
loci, cum ipsi ex montibna in Tallem decairereiit et tela con- 
icerent, nfi primum quidem impetum eaum posse auatineri 
ezistimabant. Accedebat qnod sn&s ab se liberoa abstractos 
obsidum Domine dolebant et R5m&nda ndn aolum itinernm 

tt causa, sed etiam perpetuae poaaeasidnis culmina Alpium occu- 

e. lenoTft, 1. tr. [Te-+iiovus, new]. 

each], aingly, one by one; IndlTldn- 

aUy. 1. 

opprlmO, -prliiMi*, -ptmiI, -prei- 

10. PnuolWa. -Utla. /■ [paucna. 

•um, tr. [ob + premB, preaa], presB 

few], fewness, anull number. * 

It. abitrana, -trabeis, ■trkzl. 

-tTSetum, tr. [trahS, draw], to drag 

8. pUnui.-a. -um, <utf. [plefi. QUI, 

awtt7, carry away by force. 1. 

full, wbole, complete. S. 

IB. perpetnui, -». -nm, a-tj., con- 

». ilnBUlStlm. adr. [atngiill. one 

tinuous, uuluterrupted ; permanent. 

Chap. 3. The mountalueerB revolt 
and occQpy the neiehboring heightG. 
- 3. afiT I.e. Inlo th« winter quariera. 

S, qnuu . i . 'coneeBaBriit: tbla la 
not a part of the quotation, but Is an 
explanation added by the writer; there- 
fore It Is not subjunctive. 

1. montis: the foot-hills, bordering 

S. aliquot dB oauBli : these reasons 
are(]| gtu>a dapicutiant, 1. T: <!!) qvod ex- 
Wbiuraanf. 1. 10; (3) accedlbal guod do- 
abant, L 13; <4) {flcciilibat qvoi) habibant. 
Note that tbe Imperfect Is used in these 
clauses because they all describe the 
condition of things existiDg at the time 
the aaulB revolted. 

B. utflMwreut: a substantive clause 
of fact (result), In apposition with id. 

T. neque Bam plinlBBlmain, "and 

that uotatltstnll strength"; explained 
by the ablatives absolute which follow. 

B. aomplBrtbus ■inslll&tlm, 
■ many men Individually." 

11. cumdeeurrarsnteteonloBteiit, 
" when they should. el«.." is a part of 
the indirect discourse. They tbongbt 
'' when we shall run'down . . . theycan- 

IS. aacBddbat qnod, ut. ' 
added that" = " a further r 
that" or"besldes." 

libera s abstractes ieiie\. 

'under Ike 



pare coaari et ea loca fioitimae prdTinciiw adiangere sibi per- 
Em&sum habebant. 

3. His uuntiis acceptia Galba, cum neqne opna bibernorum 
fflunitioDeaqne plen^ essent perfectae neque dg frumento reli- 
qaoqae commeatu satia esset prOviaum, qaod dsditione factti 
obsidibuaqae acceptis nihil i& belld timendam eziBtim&verat, 
Gonsilio celeriter convocatd sententifia ezqnirere coepit. Quo i d k 
consilid, cam tantaiu repentinl pericali praeter opinidnem ac- 
cidiaset ac iam onmia tere superidra loca maltitudioe armatu- 
rnm complsta cdnspicerentor neque aubaidio veniri neque com- 
meatua aupportari intercI^Bis itineribna poaaent, prope iam 
desper&ta aalQte non nullae eiua modi sententiae dic^baotur, ti 
at impedimentiB relictts Srupttone fact& Tsdem itineribua quibus 
eo perrgDissent ad ealfitem contendorent. Maidri tamen parti 

wn. -InlB, •>.. lop, Tidge. i. 
sdlnngB, -ioDseie, -Ibnxl, 
[luBfB, ]o1d], Join u>, 

3. pl«Iia.<idr. [iiUnui,lull1.faUr. 1. 

S. aiquIrO, -quirvra, -qutilTl, 
-qulEltnin, tr. [aiu«i6, searrb], B««k 
or B«arcboul. laqulrs, Investlg&M t. 

9. fiipporU), 1 . ir. [ sab + porM, 
C!UT7), cany or bring up trom beneallii 
bring, convey; Boppir, fumlsb. *. 


le province bounded 


BSmUndi . . , adiiaigere Is ibe object of 
AoA^Hiitt, and ptriuSiam 1b a predicate 
adjectlre In tlie oenter. ajcreelna <rlUi 
the clanse; Ut. " the; bad . . . persaaded 
to themselves" = " they were persuaded 

Chac. S. The Romans reeolve to 
defana their camp. 

1. opus lilb«ni6nim: eapeclaUy the 
making or huts. Although they were 
occupying part at a, village. II cannut 
hare tieea large euougb to house all the 

I. «M«ut parfteta* aerees with the 


t pTfi^aum; translate per- 

10. altu modi, " to tbls effect." 
dloCbUltor: IhlH uarrales a new event 
Intheslory. ao that the perfect might 
have been used: but the imperfect is 
used U) eipresa repealed action ; App. 
181. a: G..I_ t3S: A- tm: B. iM.I. H.-B. 
«BI: H. 631. S. 
IS. perrSnlNent: implied Indirect 

N..,j-, Google 


placnit, hoc reservato ad eztremnm cdnailio, interim rei even- 
turn experiri et caatra defendere. 

4. Brevi apatio iateriecto, riz ut iis rebus quas cdustituis* 
sent collocandls atque admimBtrandis tempus daretur, hoates 
ex omnibus partibus signo dato decurrere, lapidea gaeaaque in 
Tallum oonicere. Noatrl primo integria Viribua fortiter pr&- 

6 pugnare aequo uUum frustra telam ex looo auperiora mittere, 
et qaaecumque para castrorum niidata defenadribus premi 
Tidebatui', so occurrere et auxilium ferre; sed hdc superari, 
quod diuturnitate pugnae hoat^s defessi proelio ezcSdebsnt, 
alii integria Tiribus succedebant; quarum rerum a nostria 

10 propter pancitatem fieri nihil poterat, ac ndn modo defesso ez 

IS, plaee6. 2, iiUr. [ct. pl&oe, ap- 
pease], please. BStlsTy: nflin im 
seem good to om, Atnct, decide, resolve, 
determine. 2. 

r«i«rvd, 1. tr. [t«- + aerv6, 
keep], keep back, save up. reserve. 

1. br«TlB, -e, aii).. short, brief, ti 
sltory: breri, In a shore time. ^ 

I. BlABUm. -I. n,, a /uaty iron ; 
«lln (0/ the Qauli). 1, 

4. fDMaar. -grt.. -grum, o^'.. 

touched. Intact, v 
fresh; rfi intasri, h 

6. frortrk, ■ 

. wltbout eaecc, 1 

e. quloumque, qnaeciuuqn«,auod- 

cumque. ind^, wr generalizing) ril. 
pron.. wboerer, wbatever; whosoever, 
whatsoever, any . . . wbatever; every- 
one who, everything that. 4: 

dl&tuinU&l, -t&tls, /. (OlfttBt- 

g dura 

5. dSourrere; an hlatortcal Influ- 
Itlve. In what case Is Its subject, hoi- 
taf App.381; G.-L. 647: A.»«3: B. 886: 
H.-B, 5K; H, fllO. 

4. IntearlH Tiilbua; ablative abso- 
luifl, " while their strength was fresh." 

6. as loo6 aupflTl6T«: the tap of the 

7. Ii6c ■upsr&rl. quod, " they were 
overmatchBfl in this, that " 

8. BXcidebant. suecedebant, "kept 

withdrawing, etc.": Impertecls of re- 
peated action. 

•. inisKrls Tirlbua: descriptive ab- 
latli-e. Cod trast the constructloa of the 

quirum . . . poterat, "while oone 

10. poterat and dabatur are de- 
scriptive imperfecta, describing a. condi- 
tion of things that went on all chrongb 

nAn modo dSfesBo facultaa dalA- 
tor, "not only was an opportunllr 
not given to an exhausted man." E. 
066. 3; "Hon modo (of adlum) nOB. 
Bed Hi , . . auldemnieansnotoniii'i'>l. 
biU not even, and d6ii modo (B&lum), 
■ed nfl . . ■ qnldem. has the same mean- 
ing when Che verb standing in the second 
claose belongs also to tbe Qrst." 



pngn^ excedendi, sed nS Bancid qaidem eius loci ubi coastit- 
ent Telinqueodi sc Bui recipiendi facultaa dabatur. 

6. Cam iam amplius bdris sex coDtineiiter pugnarStnr, ac 
non Bolnm TlrSe Bed etism tgia DoetrOs dgficerent, atque hoatee 
scriaB inst&rent, languididribnaque noatris vallum Bcindere et 
fossae complere coepissent, rgsqae es3et iara ad extremnm per- 
ducta caBum, P. Sextiua BaculuB, prim! piH centurid, quern » 
NervicS proelio compliiribua cOnfectum vulneribua dlximuB, et 
item C. Volaaeoua, tribuniia mllitam, vir et conBilT magni et 
virtntis, ad Oalbam accumint atque uoam esse apem salutis 
decent, ai gruptioue fact& estremum anxilium experlrentiir, 
Itaque coDToc&tia ceaturionibas oeleriter militga certidres facit w 

11. H,uelufl,-A,'Um,ii(U.. wounded. I, 
t. luguldui. -«, -um. adj.. we&k. 
blnC aluitslsb. I. 
■EiudS, BBlnlti* scldl, BelBBam, 

tr, split; teardown. d«H[ray. 1. 

B. plliu, -I, m., century of loiaurt; 
prlmui pllni, flrst century of a ligUm; 
ptliBi pill eantnrU. or prlmlpllni, 

(be centurion or the first centnTy, chief 

centnrioa. I. 
«. Harvtcut. -a, -um. adj. (tFar* 

Tlu»], ot tha Nervll. 1. 

7. 0., abbr. for praenamen QiXam 
(ga'rus). * 

TolaiSnui, •!, m., Qklua Vi>lu«». 
nns Quadraiuf (kS'tIIs vO|-'U'9«'Da* 
kwa^drk'tOs). a tratmt of Caaar'i arra^, 
afltrreard commandtr of cavalry. 4. 

IL •ZCMendl: .geruud i 

loal rellnqu«ndl: gerund or geran- 

13. aul realplendl: conBtroctlon? 
App.»l, a: G.-L. 4M. R. I; A.KM, c; B. 

3».Et B.-B.Bii^ 

Chap. E. As a last reaart Qolba de- 

1. aum pusnftlttUT. '-whentbebat- 
tle taad lasted." The Imiwrtecl snb. 
lunctlTe Is to be translated on tbe same 
principle u is laid down lor tbe impei 

IcaiJVB In App. 

I. J: Q.-L, e 

8. aocurrnnt: the principal verbs tc 

(bis chapter are all historical present*. 
Tbe btstorlcal present narrates a new 
eyeni In a atory Just as tbe perfect does. 
It may be followed by either tbe primary 
or the secondary letisesaf tbe sub]unc- 
tire. In tbls chapter the dependent 
subjunctives are all Imperfects, as 11 tbe 
principal verbs were perfecls. 

ftnAm . . . il expcTlrantur, lit. " told 
him tbat there was one hope of safety, 
il ibey should try'' = '- tbat their only 
hope of safety was to try." 

a. sxtrimnmauzlllnm, "tbelrlaat 

espsrlrgntur: Indirect discourse lor 
the future indicatlTS. 

10. ml]lt4i certUrfii flLott, " he di. 
reeled the soldiers." This phrase is fol- 
lowed by Indirect discourse, as usual; 
but alt the verbs are In the subJunctlTe 
mode, because they represent Unpera. 
tlvea of tbe direct form. 



paulisper iDtermitterent proelium ac tantummodo tela miam 
exciperent sgque ez labdre reficerent, post dato Bigno ez castiiB 
firmnperent atqae omnem spem saliitia in virtute ponerent. 

6. Qnod iaesi sunt facinnt, ac subito omnibus portis emp- 
tifine factfi Deque cognoscendi quid Seret neque aui coUigendi 
hostibos facnlt&tem relinqnnnt. Ita commutfi,t& fortnna eos 
qai in Bpem potianddram oaetrorum venerant nndique circun- 
• Tentos interficiuct, at ex hominum milibas amplins XXX, qnein 
namerum barbarorum ad castra veuisse constabat, plus tertia 
parte interfecta reliqnds perterritos in fngam coniciimt ac n£ 
in lociB qnidem soperioribua cdneistere pationtar. Sic omnibus 
hoBtium cdpiis fusis armisqiie exutie s6 in castra munitidneB- 

11. tantninmodo. adv., 011I7. i. 
II. exoipifi, -elpen, -eipl. -a*P- 

tnin, tr. and tfUr. [oaytS, take] ; tr., Uike 
np, catch. recelvB; tolie up (in (urn); 
mmt. wllhstond; relieve (0/ MMkri in 
b<uai);intr.. (ollow, * 

labor, •Arls, m.. toil, eOort. strlvliig; 
labor, bardBblp. * 

r*lioU,-floera.-not, -foMum. (r. [n- 

•tAclB.iiuike].remake,repalr; allowM 

net; wi/Ati, relresboue'sseH, rest s. 

IB. taump(, -I umiMn, -rupt,-rup- 

tum, inlr. irumiifi, break], break forth, 

8aU7. I' 
3. ooUUO. -lUere, -Ugl, -ItctiuB, 

''■- [oon+lBgO, gather), gather CogethH, 
collect; acquire; 14 colllsera. eeUtei 

S. ofinaUi, -•t&n, -stltl. -it&tniii, 
Mr. [Btfi, stand], stand firm; depend 
on; becomplat*; coat; imptTionai. l\,ia 
agreed, certalD. evident, known, if 

9, funds, fludere, rodl, tluum, (r., 
pour, throw; rout, put to fllgbt I. 

ezuS, -uer«, -ul, -Dti]iii,(''',drswoDt 
or ott. put or strip OH, divest, despotl. I- 

la. •xoIpWBllt, lit. "catch," oatheir 
■bleldB = " sbleld tbemselrea rrom. " 

pOTt: the adverb. 
iap.8. The Qanls are routed with 
It loss. Qalba retires tVom the 

1. Quod tuHl lont faolunt, 

tunt Is used Instead of a plupertecl, ]ust 
as f octant Is used liisi«ad of a perfect. 
Notice bow r^ularly the Indicative 
tenses are ns«d lu this chapter: all the 
principal verbs are In the perfect or his- 
torical present; all the subordinate verbs 
except tiuri nmt are In the Imperfect or 

a, Buloomgendl: ct,noteon4.12. 

s. eomiiittti,tfc rortbni: the danger 

ous plan succeeded, partly because Ibe 
Bomaos. like otberi men, fougbt irltb 

more spirit on the oflenslve Iban on lb« 
defensive, partly because the enemy 
were taken bj Borprlse. and partly be- 
cause the Oanls always lacked perslat- 
ence and ability to rally from a reverse. 

4. poUDUd6rum «as(i6ruiii: bow 
can tbe Inlransitive verb potior be oand 
Id tbe gemndtve construction* App. 
2SB.I,a: Q,-l..i^.*,t: A.W3.I1.S: B.3IS. 
1: H.-B. CIS. 2. e. u.; H. S33.1. 

olroumveiLtlii; translate by a coordi- 

5. ex mllltiui XXZ depends on Ur- 
tia parte. Qalba probably exaggerauid 
the number In his report to Caesar, tat 
those irltKs cannot have bad aa.COO sol- 

B. annli: ablative ol sepacaUon. 
Tbe Gauls tbrew aw^ their arms Id 
tbeir night. 

■, Google 


que anas recipiunt. Qdo proeliO facto, quod BaepiuB fort&n&m hi 
teinptare Oa]ba nolebat atque alio ae in hiberna consilifl vgnisse 
memiDerat, aliis occurrisse rebuB viderat, maxime frumenti 
commeatuaque ioopia permfltua, postero die, omnibaa eiufl vici 
itedificiia incenaiB, in proTiDciam revert! coiitendit ac nulld 
bogt« prohibente ant iter demorante incolumem legionem in u 
NaatnateB, inde in Allobrogea perduiit ibique hiemavlt. 

7. Hia rebus gestis, cum omnibus de causis Gaeaar pacatam 
Qalliam exiatimaret, superatia BelgiB, expnlaia Germanis, TictiB 
in AlpibuB Sedunia, atque ita inita hieme in lUyricum profectua 
easet, quod e&s quoqne nfitionea adire et regifinea cogndacere 
Tol^bat, Bubitum bellum in Gallia coortum eat. Eiua belli t 

11. memlnl, -Use <App. 8S).rr.. re- 
member, bear in mlrnl. 1. 

IS. dimoror, i, ir. [morOT, delay], 
binder, delaf, I. 

IncalmniB, -e, adj,, unhurt. udId- 
Jnred. sate and soiiDd, unimpaired. 1. 

). blMna, -mii, /., wtnter time, 

t. •ubltna, -a., 

10. quod . . . nSItbat: Gaiba fell 
tbat It would be toollsb ui coun anotber 
attack by remaining in bo daDgerous a 
poBiiion. The complete victory which 
be had gabled made It possible lor him 
to retire with honor. Since Caesar nev- 
er fought these tribes again, we may 
Buppose tiiBt they were taught by this 
battle not (o molest Roman travelers. 

11. $iiA cAnslliA, "With oae pur- 
pose": namely, to spend the winter there 

13. allli . . . rfibu*, "that he bad 
met a'dlffereni siateol affaire" ; namely, 
a dangeroDB battle- 
IB, in irantuftMB: there, ol course, 
be plcted up ihe other two cohorts ol 

Chap. 7-11. The Aremorioan 
states revolt, under the leadership of 
the Veneti. Caesar prenares a fleet 
Tor their subjugation, ana takes meas- 

— ' T. -wide-apread npria- 

Chap, T. The Aremorioan states re- 
volt because Ciassua deuuuds sup- 
plies ftom them. 

1. omitlbua it OAUBli, "for every 

reason": explained by the ablatives ab- 
solute iBperStU , . . SedBnit, which 
should be translated by causal clauses. 
p&c&tam ("It) QaUtun: this beliek 
was pren>ature, for it took Caesar seven 
more years to subdue Gaul thoroughly, 

. s. superMli Bslgla: cf. n. i-ss. 

expulHls CMnufcuIs: cf. I, SO-H. 

TleUi SedlUilB: cf, l-<. The SedunI 
were the most important of the tribes 
there mentioned. 

4, QDOd . . . TOlfttat: under Augus- 
tus. Caesar's successor, the Romans were 
obliged to conquer the tribes between 
the Adriatic and the Danube, Nodoubt 
Caesar foresaw this necessiiy and hoped 
to do the work himself, but Qaul kept 



haec fuit cansa. P. Craaans aduleacgna cum legidno aeptimi 
proximas mare Oceanam in Andibus hiemabat. la, quod is 
his lociB iDOpia frumentl erat, praefectos tribundsque militum 
complurea in finitim&s ciTit&tga frumenti cansil dimlsit; qnS 

n in nnmero est T. Terraaidiua miasus in EsuvidB, M. Trebiaa 
Gallus in CorioaoUtes, Q. Velanins cum T. Sllifl in Veuet5a. 

8. Huiaa est ciTit&tiB longe amplisBima auctOritaa omnia 
orae maritimae regidnum earum, quod et u&vea habent Yeuetl 
plurimas, qoibas in Britanniam navigire consuenint, et acien- 
ti& atque &s& r5rum nauticarum cgterda sntecgdunt, et in 

s magno impetQ maris vast! atque aperti paucfs portibua inter- 
iectia, quOa tenant ipai, omneB fere qui eO mari flti cunangrant 
habent vectigalSa. Ab his fit initium retineadi Stli atque 

aUa,m. [pre,, pari. 

sll'l-ttsl. a military 

ribuni i 


<y adol«wl6. grow 

up], youth, foung 

armv. 3. 

2. «rft, -ae, r 


7. mare, -U, «. 

num. Uie ocBEiii. * 

a. ai-nei. u intr 


ship), wl 

rerseer, prefect, com- 

, captain (u<uallir of 
canalTy). 4. 

10. Tirruldiua, -dl, m., Titus Ter- 
rasldtus (tl'tas t«r"a-sld1-tls), a mitilaty 
Mbum in Cattar-i army. i. 

Treblni, -b1, m., Marcus Treblus 
Oallus (m&i'Icits tri'btOa g&l'fls). a mtli- 
iary Cribaiu In Caeiar'a armt. 2. 

11. Telfcnlu*. -nl, m., Qulutus Ve- 
laniUB (kwlD'tda Tg-ia'-Dl-fls}, a military 

BUtUI, -11. 1 

MiMoMd, -oMeT«. -a«Ml, -asMom, 

Ir. aadialr. [eedd, go), go before, prv- 
cede, excel, surpaus. 3. 

T. proxlmua . . . 

seeApp. m.b: G.-L. 3 

9. In floltimfci eI<nt&teB: especiallr 
the seaboard stul«e of tbc northwest, 
called AreiaorlcanBtates. Tbese bad all 
aubmliied to CrasBus In ihe fall; see II. 

Chap. 8. I.ed br the Veaeti, the 

1. bnlua elTltfttii; tbe Venetl. who 

were laat mentioned. 

3. 6r»8: partitive geoltlvo. depend- 

regl6num: depending on orivr. 
quod; belongawith Aaien(,l,2; antnO- 
duM. ]. 4: and habent. 1. 7. 

4. In magna , . . InMrleetlB, "tberv 
beiiii; only a few barbors Id ibat dan- 
gerous stretch (lit. great violence} ol 
vast and open sea," 

T. habant TeotlBftUa, "tHey u«at 

. ..c:oo'-ic 



VeUnI, qnod per eos bqob. se obBidea, qn&B Grassd dediBseiit, 
recuperaturds exiBtimibant. Horam aactdrit&te finitimi ad- 
dncti, ut Bnst Oalldnim Biibita et repentlna cdnsilia, e&dem d6 lo 
cauBa Trebinm TerroBidiumque retioent, et celeriter misaia 
leg^t^ per snoB priDcip^B inter 86 coniurant nihil niBi commuui 
cdnsilid Acturos enndemqae omnSs fortOnae exitum eaae laturos, 
Teliqn&sqae oivitates BoUicitant nt in efi libert&te qnam k ma- 
iOribos acceperint permanSre qnam Bfim&ndram serritatem u 
perferre maliiit. Omni drft maritimft celeriter ad snam Benteo- 
tiamperdact& communemlgggtidnein ad F. Craasam mittnat : 
Si velil euoa recuperare, obaidSe sibi remittat. 

9. QuibuB de rebOB Caesar ab Grassd certior faottu, quod 
ipee aberat loogias, naves interim long&s aediflc&il in flumina 
Li^eri, qnod influSt in Oceaniun, remigSs ex prdvinci^ iustitol. 

». TMUwrO, t. Ir.. recoTOT. regain. 

16. mUft. mUle, mUuI, — (App. 

aS), tr. and Intr. [macU, more+»Ol6, 

IS. exltns, -fti, m. iexe«, go out], a 

wlah],vnshmoreorraUieT,prefer. t. 

EDlng out, exit, passage; Issue, result. 

). MdlfleS. 1. tr. [udta, houae+ 

eud. B. 

IhoUt, matae], tiiiUd, oonstracb 1. 

IB. peniuuiet, -iiMn«T*. .mbul. 

>. llgsr, -«m, m. (Cw), tM r*w 

-minBimi. inir. [muiefi, rem&ln], ata; 

Llgerdl'Jfc), &*««»■ the Loire. 1. 

(trougb or to tbe end. stay, remain; 

rim«. -Idi. <»• Icf- rtnim. oar], 

eonllnae. perBlBt 3. 

oarsman, rower. 1. 

ab . . . reUnandl, lit. "a beg 
li made by thesa of arreBllng" = 
tegan by iirrestluic." 

•. flnlUml: tbe£BiiTllaiidUi 

,10. at, " aa." almosf'sliice," 
IS. commfliil cBnalllC, "byei 
■greement. " 
U. totfirte («"), '• tbat thej 

It. nt permvKrs Quam peifeiT* 
nUlDt, " to prefer lo remain (racber) 
tbarx to endure." 

Ifi. ftcoAparlnt: implied Indlrectdls- 

3. rtemtlongiua, "wasWKifaroff," 

to take command In person. 

n&vSB lonsfcc Gl, Inu M. 

In fltunlns Lif erl; on (be map facing 
p, SIT, notice tbat there ore tbree towns 
along the Llger. connected by a line ot 
march. These were the winter quarters 
of the army, and no doubt ships were 
built at allot them. 

S. ex proTlncU: the Qanls were not 
competent oarsmen, tor their ships wers 
managed by sails, not oars; otherwise 
oarsmen might have been secured from 
the friendly maritime states, Che Att> 
des and the Plcconea. 

Iiwtitnl, "I 

■, Google 


nautSs gnbemiLtdreBque compararl inbet. Hia reboa celeriter 
B administr&tiB ipse, cam primum per anni tempuB potuit, ad 
ezercitum contendit. Veneti reliquaeque item civitatga c<^- 
nito GaesariB adrentu, Bimal quod quantnm in b6 facinna ad- 
mlaisBent intelleggbant, Iggatda, qnod ndmen apnd omnga ni- 
tiones s&nctum iaTiolatnmqne aemper fuisBet, reteotoa ab aS et 
in in Tiocula coniectds, prd magnitudine periculi bellum par&re 
et maxim€ ea quae ad usum navium pertinent prdvidere 
institnnnt, hdc maiore ape, qnod multum nfitur£ loci cdnflde- 
bant. Pedeatria esae itinera coDOisa aeetaariis, navigatidnem 
impeditam propter iuacientiam locfimm pancitatemqae por- 
iB tnum aoisbaut, neqne noetrds exercitas propter frumenti ino- 
piam diiltiua apad a& mor&rl posse cdnfidsbsnt; ac iam at 
omnia contrii opinidnem acciderent, tamen Be plarimum navibos 
posB*, RomanoB neqne uUam facultatem habere uitTiuDi neqae 
eorum locorum ubi bellum gesturi essent rada, portus, insulas 

4. nauU, -M, •»- i/or uftTtte; 
n&Tla, ship), sailor, t. 
KQMmftMr. -ftrta, n. sieer 

T. foclnni, -noiii, n. [f««l<i, do], 
deed: misdeed, outrsKe, crime. Z. 

9. luielS, iuiaIre,B&iixI, Bftnetum, 
(r. [cC. laoBr, sacred], muke sacred, 
■ancllon: bind; H&natni, pf. pari, ai 

%d eiATcltum eoiit«ndlt: proi>abir 

Indicated OD tbe Llger (see map [aclng 
p. ZIT). and ctieo marched west, tbuscon- 
centrallng his axmy at Angers, where 

T. quantum.. . ftdmliiiBwit, "bow 

Krealacrlme thef bad committed"! an 
Indirect question. 

8. l«gllt4lT«t«nt6B((Ue), "(namely), 
that envoys bad been arresl«d."explalns 
faciaut; syntactically It Is Indirect dls- 
course af uir inlilltgebant. 

QUOd ll6lllfin, "a name wblch"; Le. 

(»{/,, sacred. Inviolable, established, a. 

InvtoUtuE, -«, -um, ac(;.[fn-+Tioli- 

tni, iQlnred], nninjnred: InvlolaM. 

13. iifcTtK&ti6, -ami, /. [nkTic*. 

sail], sailing, navigation ; voyage. 1 

14. liucinLtla, -a«, /. (inicltaa. 

Ignorant!, Ignorance. 8. 
IB. Insula. -a«,/., island. * 

10. pro, "iDproportlon to." 

11. Ii6c: ablative of cause, explaliMil 
by gaod . . . eStifiiabant. 

Bfct(tr&: caser App. 143.a: Q.-i^«n. 
n.9: A. 431:6.219. 1:H.-B. 437:,a 

la. pedeitrlKliliMra, "land routes." 
14. impeditam ('»«>, "waaditncnlt." 
16. naquepoiaecAilflditiuit, "and 

tbey trusted tbat . . . would not ba 

Ut: translation' App. 247: O.-C. OX: 
A. 5?7, a: B..B. 532. S. b: H. 588, U. 
11. ti pDBBe. sc. tci^bant. 
IB. faoultitsm. " supply." 
IB. loeftrom, depends on vada. etc. 


njlTiBBe; ac longe aUam esse n^vigiitidiiem in concluso marl m 
atqne in Tastiseimd atqae apertiBsimd Oceano perspicigbant. 
Hia initiB conailiis oppida muniunt, frumeuta ex agris in op- 
pida comportant, naves in Yenetiam, ubi Gaesarem primnm 
bellnm gesturam coastilbst, qnam plurim&a possnat cognnt. 
Socids Bibi ad id bellutn Osismda, Lexovids, Namaetga, Am- » 
biliatos, Morinds, DiablintSs, Menapi&s aaciBcant; ausilis ez 
Britaniu&, quae contra eas regidnSs posita est, arcessunt. 

10. Erant hae difficnltat^a belli gerendi quae supra osten- 
dimns, sed tamen multa Gaesarem ad id bellum iacitabant: 
iniuria retentonim eqnitum Bomaaornm, rebellid facta post 
deditionem, defectid datls obsidibus, tot civitatnm coniiirfitio, 
in primie ne h&c parte neglects reliqnae Diltidaga sibi idem ■ 
licgre arbitr^rentur. Itaque cum intellegeret omnSs fere Gal- 
loa DovTs rebus atudere et ad bellum mobiliter celeriterqne 

30, nSicS, nGBOer*, nivl, uatuin, 

(r.. Leam, become acqunlnteil or familiar 
with; nOrl, p/., have learned, Imict, 
know; nfitua, pf. part, at (utj.. koawD, 
well known, tttmlllar. 4. 

concindS, 'Ci&dBr«. -citkil.-aiaium. 
tr. IciaudS, close], shut up; eonclfi- 
■om mare, aa Inland sea. 1. 

Sa. TanetU. .»•,/., Venetla(ye-Qe'- 
■hyal, tlu coaatrs of tilt Tmtli. 1. 

3(. LezoTll, -Brum, m. (Bd), the 
I^iovii(iek-Bo'v[-i). 4. 

HumieUa, -um, i". <Cc), tbe Nam- 

Amblllatl, -Grum, m., the Amblllatl 
(am"W-li'a-tl). 1. 

as. Di«,blliit«i, -nm, m. (Be), the 
Dlablintea (dl>-blIa'[Si). 1. 

>. TebaUtS.-Oiiti,/. [rebelU, renew 
war), reoewal ol war, rebelUon, re- 

i. (UfeetU, -finli, /. [diflcdfi, raU], 

tailing away, desertion, revolt. 1. 
tat, titdect, adj.. bo manr- 1. 

B. nesIegS, -legere, -lixl. -Iflotnm, 

tr. [negH-lSKG, cboose, regard], aot 
heed, disregard, ueglecl. * 
7. mfiblllter, adu. [mAbllU, mor- 

20. allain esBa atque. "wasdlOer- 
Ont (rom (what It was)-" 

ts condfito m«Tl; i.e. the Mediter- 
ranean, where tbe tides are very small. 

23. In Vensttun: probably In the 
bay of Qulberon. See map, p. S3^ 

prlnmin: the adverb. 

as. Amblllataa: their location Is en- 
tirely unknown. The rest or tbe states 
8tu>ul(l be looked np od tbe map. 

Cbap. 10. Casaar plans to prevent 
a spread of the upriHing. 

1. SUPT&: in cbap. B. 

3. IntbTla . . . Miuitnni, lit. ■■ the 

outrage ot kolgbts arrested "»" tM 
outrage o( arresting knigbia.- 

G. ti«, "the tear that.' Thlsclausa, 
like the nouns iniBria, etc, la in apposi- 
tion wltb malia. 

ti&c parte negieotBi: translate by a 




excit&ri, omnSa antem homines n&t&r& libertftti stndSre et 
condicionem serritutis ddisse, prinsqaam plGrgg ciTit&tgs con- 

M spir&rent, partiendum sibi ac latins dietribueDdnm exercitoni 

I I. Itaque T. Labignnm ISgatam iu Trgveroa, qui proximi 
flumini Ehetid euDt, cum eqaitatu mittit. Hnic mandat Re- 
in58 reliqndsqne Belgas adeat atqae in officiS contineat, Qer- 
m&DfiBqiie, qni anxilio a Belgis arceasiti dicebaatar, bI per Tim 

« n&vibua flumen traoslre coneator, prohibeat. P. CrasBnm com 
cohortibas legidn&rilg xii et magno namerd eqnitatus in Aqai- 
t&niam proficlsci iubet, ne ex hie n&tidnibnB anxilia in Gallian 
mittantnr ac tantae n&tidnes coninngantur. Q. Tituriam Sa- 
biDam Iggatum cum legidnibus tribue iu Venellds, Goriosolites, 

ftble], readily, eaelly. 1. 

aXCltt, 1, fr. loltfi, rouse), call forth, 
esclte. aiilmaM, arouse; erect, cod- 
■tra<:t<(t>NW«);kliidleUtrM). 3. 

9. eftntplrS, ■, ir^r. [iplrt, breauiel, 
eomblne, conspire. I. 

10. pmitior, *. ir. (pua, part), pan, 
•bare, divide. 1. 

dlitrilraO, -tTlbn«r«.-trUiuI.-tclIiik- 
turn, (r. [tittrnft, BBBlgQ I, asslgD, divide 
distribute. 3. 

S. Offlclum, -cl, n., service, allcsl 
auce, docj ; official dnty. business : •■■•, 

maBtre, or pemuuiera in oD«U, M 

•. aSntpIrtrent: 

clause a[t«r tbe principal clause. The 
BubJUDcUve was probably used In the 
direct lorm; App. 2M, 6: G.-L« ^7T: A. 
BM,e; B.SIB.1,6: H.-B. 607.*,*: H. 006,1. 

10. partiendum (<>>') albi, lit. 
"must be divided by dim ■' = " he must 
divide." Remember that tlie future 
passive participle of deponent verba Is 
passive in meaning. 

Ifctiui dlstiibnendum: soastonver- 
awe several parts of Oaul at the same 

3. flUnlnl: nhat otber case may 
proxtmui govern? See uoie on 7, 7. 

mlttlt: probably the various expedi- 
Uoni mentioned In this chapter all 

started from Angers^ See map faclog 
p. 117, 
ouuKUt adaat: note tbe primary 

cf. note on aecurmat, S. S. Note alsc 
tbe lack of a cooJuoaUoD: App. I2S. a: 
Q.-L. EtS, R. 2: A.&efi,a; B. SMi, B: H.-B. 
MS. 3. a: a.»&,4. 

BimSi: this staM had earned tha 
hatred of the other Betgae In the pre- 
ceding year, and U may have needed 

4. ■,re«siltl: sc. e»t. 

t. (KinentUT is a part of Caesar's lit 

implied Indirect 

But ^d- 
>! the InstructionSv 
1 Is therefore indicative. 
, Qobortibua leglSnftTtli: Romao 
ilera. In contrast to the cavalij, 
Ich was Gallic 
. In Oalllam; I.e. Celtic QanL 




LexoTJdsqae mittit, qal earn manam diBtmendain cQret. D. w 
Brutnm aduleBceDtem claaai Qallicisqne n&vibaa qnas ex Pio 
tonibns et SantoniB reliquisqne pacAtis regidnibus conrenire . 
insserat praeficit., et cum primnm posait in Venetds proficisci 
inbet. Ipse eo pedestribiiB copiis oontendit. 

12. Enmt eins modi fer€ situB oppidOmm nt posita in ez- 
tremiB lingulis promuntnriisqne neqne pedibns aditutn babe- 
rent cam ez alto b6 aestuB incitiTisBet, qnod bis accidit semper 
horarnm xxnii Bpatio, neqae n&TibiiB, qnod r^rsus minnento 
aeata naves in vadiB afflictarentnr. Ita ntraqne r6 oppidornm » 
oppngnatiti impedieb^tnr; ac si qnaodo magnitudine operis 

M. Dm abbr.forpramomtn'D^eiin.JlB 

. Brtltni. -I, m,, Declmiu JnuluB 
BTDtoH (dSsl-mfls Ja'Dl-Os brn'cili), on* 
o/Caaar-i lUuUiuinU CnfAe Oolite war, 
and in tht icar viUh Pimtptv. Et took 
part in tkt eoatplracf agatntt Cottar, 
and mat Ulltd by order 0/ Antony. B. 

ClauU, -la,/., fleet. «: 

FlCtonSa, -um, n. (Ccd), me Plctones 

(Plll'16-DCE). t. 

1. dtui, -fti, tn. [ilnS, put down], 
GfiuatioD. Bite, posttion. 1. 
S. liasulft, -a*,/, [llncua, toQKne], 

n. [pTCiiiliMAt 
projectl, promoDlory, beodUud. 1. 

S. &«Mna, -U, n., h«ati bolUnc 
Burgiiigi iide; mlnuMit* aMtft, at ebb 
tide. « 

bla, nun. adv. l/or dula, /rom dns, 
two], twice. 3. 

B. aSUetA, 1, tr. i/^iq. of kHUcA, 
■trike agalnBt, damiigc] . damage groat- 
I7, abatter. Injure; bftrass. dlsli«ia. 

S. QimiidB, iiidef. nf*., erer. i 


10. 4Dl ... elkT*t,"u> see that that 
force be kept away." For tbeconstmo- 
ILon or (attiiw(ulain,.Bee App. 386, II, A: 
G.-L. «30: A. B00,4: B. 117, 7.i>,3: H.-B. 
«S,III: d. t£3. 

11. clasil, BJLTlbiiB: tndlnKt ob- 
jects at the compound verb prat^M. 
Tlie fleet bad probably assembled In tfae 
Uger, near Its month. 

14. tft: te. (n VeMlSt. He probably 
mov^d along tbe coast, laying siege to 
the towns In succession. Alter tbe dls- 
irlbDtltni of troops deactibed la ibla 
cbapt«r. Caeaar bod left three legions 
and eight cohorts. One legion was 
probably assigned to tbe Beet, leaving 
Caesar two leglona and eight co- 
borta wllb which to attack tbe VenetL 

a6pllB: why may cum be omitted! 
Add. 140, a: 0.-I.3n,R.l: A. 413, a: a 

!S3,1: H.-B4aO; H. 4T4,S,n. 1. 
Cban. la-lS. Caesar croahea tha 

1. tltbt oppldGrum: see tbe small 

plan In the lower left hand corner of tha 
map on p. IS2. 
•ztrlnili, "the end of." 

3. padtbOB, "on toot": I.e. by land. 
At bigb tide tbe low ground between 
the towns and Che mainland was over- 

S. at IncttiTlisat, " bad msbed in." 

4. n&TibUB. BC. odUumAo&A'mC. 

B. In vadlB aflUct&rentnr, "van 
stranded on tbe shallows." The anb- 
Jnnctlve Is d ue lo attraction. 

e. ■! qnandG . . . ooeparant, . . . 

dtportlbant, "wbenever tbey besaa 


forte 8uper&tT, extruso mari aggere ac molibas atqae hie oppidi 
moenibnB adaeqaatis, Buia fortunis d€3p6rjlre coeperant, m^;ii6 
namerd navinm appnlaO, cains re! summam facaltatem habe> 

9. ftpp«UB, -iMllBt*. -pull, -pul- 
■tun, tr. [Ad+p«llS, drive], bring ta 

land i bring toe;etlier. 1. 

. . Hey would carry oft. elc." dtpor- 
IHbant is an Imperfect >>[ repealed 
kctlon. tor they kept morlng Irom lown 
to town, coeperaal la pluperlacb be- 
cause In each case tliey bad begiin lo 
despair belore they moved. Latin 1b 
more exact than English la lU use ol 
tenses oF repeated action. 

operls, "of the vorks'*; explained 
by the following ablatives absolute. 

7. txtrQElfl . . . adaeQU&tli; appar- 
ently the Romans rao two parallel 
dykes from the mainland to the town. 


completing tbem at low. tide. wbeD tbo 
ground was dry. Thus the sea was shat 
out {txtru»o) from tbe space between ttke 
dykes, and ibe soldiers oonld wort 
tbere contlnoously. The outer ends of 
these dykes (or of one of tbem) were 
built as hlgb as the wall ot the town, ao 
as to serve as ^gers. 
agger* Be mMlbUB: ablatives ot 

S. rortbnls; 

I objec 


bant, sua deportabaat omnia seqae in prozima oppida reoipi- m 
ebant; ibi Be rursns isdem opportunitatibus loci defendSbant. 
Haeoeo faciliuB magnam partem aestatis faciSbant, quod noB- 
trae naves tempeetatibua dStingbantnr, Bummaque erat T&sto 
atque aperto mari, magnis aestibug, ruris ac prope oullis porti- 
bus, difficnltas navigandT. u 

13. Namque ipsdram naves ad hunc modum factae arma- 
taeqne erant: carinae aliquantO planiorga quam nostrarum na- 
Tiom, qao facilina vada ac deceasum aestus excipere poBseot; 
prorae admodum erectae atque item puppeB ad magnitudinem 
fluctnnm tempestatnmque accommodatae; nav^a totae factae ft 
ei rubore ad qnamvlB vim et contumeliam perferendam; trans- 

10. dSporW. I, tr. IpotCB, carry], 
cirry oD or away. l. 

11. DPpOTt&Illtk«,-UtUt,/-tOPIH)r- 

tftniu, fit], Qlness; flt cliue, opporto- 
nllj; advantage; tuKA lool, tarorable 
sltnaLloQ or position ; aith temporU, 
favorable opportunity. 3. 

IS. UmpeBt&i, -t&tls, /. [tempiu. 
time], lime, season; weatlier, U4uallg 
bad weather, sttirm. tempeBt. ^i 

dMlna6, -tlaSr*. -tlnui, -tentun, 

ir. [teneS. bold), hold oB or back: bin- 
der, detain. I. 

U. r&ru*. -Bi, -tun. a<ii: scattered, 
far apart; In small detachmenls, a tew 
acatlme; few. 1. 

1. namque. flonj-inaia. 'or], for. 8. 

3. eulna, -&•./.. fieel, I. 

&llqu&nt6, adv. (Kllquajitua, some], 
somewhat, a little, l. 

, level. 

plfcnuB, -ft. -urn, 
fat. plain. 3. 

S. d«aM«u«, -tki, m. tdtoMO, de- 
part]. depariure:ebb.[all(o/(A*(id«>. t 

4. prSra, -«■,/.. prow. 1. 

admodum, adv. [modui, measure], 
up to Ih^measitrtiverj much, very; itfUh 
nam., fully; Willi ntg.. at all. ], 

irlaS, -rlgece, -cSxI, -ifietnin, Ir. 
[reg«, dlrecU. lift or raise; «r6otu», pf- 
part, ai adj., standing upright, hlgb. I. 

puppJ»,-U./..sterao/a.Aip. 2. 

B. llltotus, -a«, m. Illu6, Qow], flood. 

6. TSbiir. -oriB, B.,< 

13. partem: t 

h diffcuUOt. 
vftaU . . . portlbua: ablatives abso- 
lute wicb caiual meaning. 

1. ntunQue inuudnces the reason for 
the ability of the enemy's eblps to oper- 
ate wbtle the Roman sblps were taelp- 

3. carinse ■ . ■ nkTlnm, "tbe bot- 
toms (were) aatterlhan(EboBe)of.e(c." 
In Bucb casea l^iln never Inserts a 

a jud used la purpose 

•XOlpere, "meei," " sncou 
They were less likely to strike bi 
aud If stranded they would oo 

B. Wtfte, ■•enCIrely." 
e. ex rAbora: 

1SS: G.'L. 3»t: A. 



tra ex pedalibna in altitudinem trabibus coDfixa clfivis ferrelb 
digit! pollicis crassitudioe; ancorae pro funibita f erreia catgnis 
revinctae; pelles pro velia alutaeque tenuiter confectaej sive 

10 propter ioopiam lioi atque eiiis usub iDscientiam, sive eo, quod 
eat magis vgrl simile, quod tant&s tempestat^s Ocean! tantosqae 
impetus ventornm sustineri ac tanta onera n&Tinm reg! velTs 
noD satis commodg posse arbitrabantur. Cum his navibiiB 
QOstrae classl eiua mod! congressiis erat ut una oeleritate et 

11 palsu rgmdrnm praeataret, reliqna prO loci natnra, pro y! tem- 
pestatDDi illis esaent aptiora et accommodatiora. Neque eDim 

T. pedfclti, -a, adj. (p«B, foot), of & 
/oot in tMdmeii or dianuitr. 1. 

cftnfliS, -flKsra, -flzl. -fixum. (r. 
|fH», flxl, raalen. 1. 

ol&Tiia, -I, 01-, nail, spike. 1, 

fBtrauB, -a. -um. adj. Ifsrrniil, Iron). 

8, tUsltiu, -1, m-. flngsr; at mtatto't 
of length, a flDger's breadth, tin iBthpart 
of a Roman faat; dlgltui poUex, the 
thumb, I. 

mllex. -lei*. t>L, cbe tbnmb, mth or 
vilAoiK dl(ltUB. 1. 

aruBittdO,-lnla,/.[eraHui. thick], 
thlckneBB. 1. 

Mieora, -ma,/., anchor; luanoorli. 
at ancbor. *. 

flmlt, -la. "L, rope, cable. 3. 

catina, -aa, /■ . chain ; [eiier. 3. 

S. rannclO, -vinolia.-Tlnxl.-Tliie- 

tnm, tr. Ira-+Tliiol0. bind], btod back; 

lasMia, Mod. i. 
Tilum, -1, »., covering, veil;saU. 1 
Altta, -aa./., soft leather, i. 
tannltar, adv. [Mnola, thtn). 

thinly. 1. 

10. llnum. -I. »., flax; linen, can- 

11. almllla. -a. adj., like, similar, i. 

13. Tenlua. -I, m,, wind. * 

regS. raxera. rfixl. rtotum. tr.. keep 
Etralght; guide, direct, control. 1. 

14. oongrauua, -at. m., [cougra- 
diar. meet), meeting, engagement, con- 
flict. 1. 

ID. pulsus, -as, m, [pallO, suikel, 

rtmna, -I, m., oar. 4. 

15. aptua, -a, -um, adij.. acted, 
suited, adaplefl. 1. 

acroGB the Inside of the sblp, strength- 
aned the sides and be'ped them to wltb- 
siand the Roman rottra (]. 17). In 
Roman ahlps they nere rowers' bencbes, 
but the Venetl had no rowers, 

T, In altltQdinam, "In thickneas." 

8, craialtadine: this descriptive 
ablative Is modlfled by a genitive In- 
stead ol the usual adjective. 

pr8, "Instead of." 

B. pellAs . . . cOnfactM, "skins 
and thlnl; dressed leather leerved) as 

11. quod: explaining iB. 

13. tanta onara nlTlum. "sncb 

heavy ships." 

18. nOn aatia cammodA. "not very 

14. dasal: dative of possessor. 
ank oalarltlta, "only in speed," 

15. PUli& T<m6riun, "In rowing": 

reltqua. "all other things." 

prO. " In view of." 

IB. IU)a: tbe ships of the enemy. 



liB noBtrae rostro nocere potorant (tanta in ils erat firmitudd), 
neque propter altitildiaem facile telum adig€b&tur, et e&dem 
de cauaa minna commode cflpnlTs continebantnr. Accedebat 
at, cum aaevlre ventos coepisset et se Tento dedissest, et tern- n 
pest^tem ferrent faoiiius et in vadlB cdn8ist«reDt tutios, et «b 
aestii relictae nihil eaxa et cautes timerent; quarum rgmm 
omnium noatrig navibus ciisne erat estimcscendns. 

14. CompluribuB espugn&tis oppidis Caesar, ubi int«ll§xit 
frustra tantnm laborem BumT, neqne hoBtium fagam captis 
oppidis reprimi neque ilB nocerl posse, Btatuit exspectandam 
claasem. Quae nbi convenit ac primum ab hostibuB visa est, 
circiter ccxx n&v^B eornm paratisBimae atqne omn! genere s 
armorum ornatissimae profectae ex porta nostris adversae cou- 

13. eauUtt, -ll,/..ree(. I. 

3S. •zttmHcO, -tlmSioeTe. -tlinnl, 
— , tr. [timlasS. inept, of tlmaO, (carl, 

8. raprlmO, 'prlmsn. -praMl, 
-piBMum, tr. Ira— l-pTMiiO, preaa], 
press or keep back, cbeck, rescraln. 

B. KBniu, -eilt, n., descent, arlgla. 
race, class, Ititw. family; klDd, 
nature. * 

6. AmO, 1. 'r,, adorn; fumlsb, sup- 
ply: 4ni4tiu, jif. pari, aimtl.. equipped, 
rDmlabed. Uiled odI. 1. 

efathip. ^. 


D0CB6, nocjie, nocul, nooltnm, M.r., 
i, Snrtj nocfins, prn. part, ai 
m», gnllty person. 4. 
flnnitfidO. -lals, /. (flratUB, atroug]. 
iimgtta, flmiDeaa, solldlCf. 2. 
18. eipnla, -»•, /., KrappUng- 

30. BMTlS. -lr«, -U, -itum, 

[noTUi, raging], rage; be Qerce. 1. 
ai. tati. ode. [tum, saCel. aately. 

IT. Doatrae: so. naoif. 

IB. adlBJb&tur, "could be thrown. 

18. aSpolIs: seelut.e*. 

accsdfbat nt at farrent 
tarant et tlmArant, " thei 
additiccal odTantoge Ibat 1 
ered. eu.," or simply, "besides, they 
weathered, etc." 

30. BeTentftdadUBeat, "ranbetore 
the wind." 

31. ciinsUtarant, " came ro anchor." 
33. rellctas, ■■ when lell." 
au&ruin rerum oLbub. " the danger 

33. nOiTlbUB: dative ot the agent. 
ChB.i>. 14. The na-ral battlo. The 

Romans ruin the rigging of the hostila 

1. azpugnilla: by the method de- 
scribed In chap. 13. 
3. naqua ... poisa." and ibat they 

could not be Injured " What is the 
literal trao^Iatlon? App. 115, d: G.-C 
340. R. 1: A. 3T3; B. IS?, II. 6: H.-B. 364, 
*: H. 4M. 3. 

S. armdrum, "equipment." Includ- 
ing everythlcg oecessary tor the detense 
and minaiiemenl ol the ships during 

noBtrli: ac. nivibui. 
cftnatiMtunt, -took their poaltloQ"; 
from conaiitS. See the map on p. SB. 


Btiterant; Deque satis Brutd, qui clasai praeerat, Tet tnbnnia 
militum ceiituridDibnaqae, qnibns singulae n&v&B eraat attribu- 
tae, coDBtabat quid agerent ant qaam rationem pagnae Infiis- 

wterent. Rostro enim noceri non posse cognorerant; turribuB 
autem ezcitatia tameo has altitiid5 pnppiam ex barbaris naribus 
snperabat, ut neque ex Inferidre locd satis commode tela adigi 
possent et missa a Gallis graviuB acciderent. ' XJn& erat magnd 
Ssal res pra«par&ta a EostrTs, falcSs praeacutae inaertae affixae- 

K que longariis non absimili forma miiralium falcium. HiB oum 
liines qui antemnaa ad malos deBtinabant comprebensi addnc- 

14. praeparO, l. ir. [patfi, prepare], 
prepare beCorebaDd . provide. I. 

ralx, falelB./., sickle, prunii^-book; 
ttodbiforpuilUtgdoienteaUt). S. 

lUBsrO, -Mrere, -aerui, -acrtnin, tr., 

IsserC tbrost Id. 1. 

afllgO, -fisara, -nsl, -nznm, ti: [ad 
+!!((>, Ox], Iaal«D to. I. 

IB. longuTlut, -rl, m. iioDBui, 
long], a lot^ pole, 2. 

ab»laiUl», -e, m. [sUiiUli. like), ■an- 

fBmui, ~t», /., 1 

Hbape. appear- 

T. BrotO, trlbbnli, centurlBnlbuc 
Indirect objects of conttSbat. 

9. quid . . . InBlaterent, "wtaat to 
do or wbat plan ol figbtlas lo adopt." 
Tbese are indirect questloaa, but the would be used In corre- 
flponding direct qusstlons; App, 210: 
Q.-L. IMS: A. tM: B. SIT: H.-B. M3t H. 

tua t. 

10. rBatrd: ablative or means. 
noafiri: sc. nScSiui /toitium; ct. reler- 

ences oq ntqut , . . pout. 1. S, 

tnnlbtia excltfcUi. "evenvben tbe 
towera were erected." Tbese loners 
were erected ou tbe fore uid after decks. 
One appears In Fig. 12, Int. IS4; but tbe 
Bculpior represented It lo miniature, bo 
M) gel 11 Inlo the available space. 

11. < 

13. naque . 

= it (botb) B 

mlkrUlB, -a, adj- [mitrua, wall], pM^ 

talnlug M a wall, mural; tiLUUal'tf- 

lum, lUMTal iaveUn. a /uacjt jaFtlin to it 

tArown/rom the lop of a u>all. I. 

le. antainna, -ft*,/., saii-yard. & 

mUns, -1, m„ mast;. pole, beam (u}>. 

diatluO, 1, tr.. fasten, secure; calch 
flrmlr; appoint, choose. 1. 

comprebandC, -prehendere, -pra- 
heudl, -prehenaum, (r. (prehendt. 

(piflndO), BBlEel. grasp ar lay hold ot. 
seize, catch, arrest; take, catch fir*). 

13. mlsak, " those thrown." 

arat magnfi Ikanl. "was rerynaernl" 

In fact this device saved the day. 

IB, lOUBurila: dative with iruertae 
and affiaat. 

nSn . . . faidum, " of a form not 

bii . . . concldBbant: the sbips ot 
tbe Venetl had each a single square sail 
aupported by a sall-yard. The sail was 
hoisted and held up by means of a. rope 
(halyard) which ran from tbis sail-yard 
tbrougb a pulley at the top of the mast 
down to one side ( gnnwalel of the ship, 
where It was made last, Tbe Romans 
caught the balyard Just above tbe gaa- 
wale and broke It, whereupon the B^ 

bla; I.e. hooks. Ablative ol meB,iis. 

euiu . . . comprehinal arant: mode? 
App. 241. b: G.-I,. SM: A. Ma: B. 
288, 3: H.B, S»: H. 601. 1. For tM 



tiqne eraat, Davigid rSmis inoitfitd praerampSbantnr. Quibos 
abscisis antemnae necessiirid coDcid^bant, ut, oom omDiB 
Oalliois naviboB speB in velis armameiitiBque cooeisteret, bis 
ereptiB omnis ubub naTinm uno tempore Sriperetur. Reliquam M 
erat certamen positum in virtute, qua Dostri milites facile 
snperabant, stque ed magis, qaod in conspectu Caesaris atqne 
omnis exercitua fSb gergbatur, ut DullDm paulo fortius factum 
latere poBBet; omnSa enJm collSa ac loca enperiora unde erat 
propinquuB dgspectua in mare ab exercitn tenebantnr. S 

15. B^iectis, ut diximua, antemnis, cum Bingulas binae ac 
teniae navga circumstfiterant, milites summa Ti trauBceudere 
in hostium naves contendebant. Quod poBtquam barbari fieri 
uiimadvtrteruDt, expugn&tia compluribuB n&vibna, cum ei rei 
nflllnm reperiretur auxilium, fuga salutem petere contendernnt. » 

IT. n&vlKium, -ffl, n. [ulTlgS, B&iii, 
> uUlng vessel, ship, craft. S. 

IiiBaniiiii>6, •rumperB, -rikpl, -tup- 
tnsi, Ir. trumpa, break], break oO. tear 
twij: pra«ruptui. n^. pari, ai a4j.. 
vteep, preclpiujua- 1. 

U. abscldS, -cldsre,-cldl, -clBUin, 
tr. [caedfi. cat], cut or lop on, tsar off 
or away. 1. 

concldB, -cldare, -eldl, — , intr. 
lB«d6, fall], fall down Fall. 1. 

1). umlmenta, -urum, n. [aimO. 
>Tia], im piemen u. gear; tackle or rlg- 
glngiVofAip. 3. 

31. eertamen, -Inle, ». leertt, 

«trlye], strife, slruegle. contest, com- 

as, factum, -I, B-lp/po^'o/faeift, 
haif noun, hal/ parliciplt], act, exploit, 
deed. I. 

3B. d$(p»etiu, -b», m. IdCsplolS, 
upon], a looking rfotm. 

1. blnl, -*«, -a, ditiril 

I. num. aO}. 
1 apiece, by 

(blB, iwlcel, 1 
twos. S. 

3. Uml, -4a, -ft, diiCr. num. ait}. 
[t«l, tbrlce], tbree eacb.lbree apiece. L 

DlrctmulBta, -aislars, -stiU, , 

Ir. [tlfltO, stand), flock or rail; around, 
aarrouDi3 , hem In. « 

tr4itieBiide, -RO«nd«is, -sMadl, 
-leinsQin. Ir. and intr. [tcandA, climb], 
climb over; boarfl. I. 

tenses cf. aote on b1 auuid6 . , . dS- 

porUbant. 13. t. 

IT. anlbOB: le.fSnibu>. 

IS. cum; causal. 

IS. uiTltfuB, "of the ships": a da- 
tive of reference modifying the whole 
clause, where a gealtlve might have 
been used Instead ; cf, Caetari, I, SI, *. 

33. In o6aip«ett, etc; Caesar and 
hlH army were on the helghls o( St. 
Olldas ; see the map OD p. £31. 

SB. pAul6 fortius, "allcUe braver 
than QsuaL" 

Chap. IS. 
the ■r 

■Ins^iB . . . t«mu, " two or tbrea 
. . . each." Only the disabled Gallic 
ships were thus surrounded, for prob- 
ably there were more Gallic ships than 

S. quod, •! rsl: both refer to th« 
e first sentence, eum . . , 


Ac iam couTersts in earn partem n&Tibus quo Teotna ferebat, 
tanta sabitd malacia ac tranquillit&s ezstitit ut ag ez loco mo- 
▼ere Ddn possent. Qaae qnidem rgs ad a^dtinm coDficiendnm 
mazimg fnit opportuna; nam singnlS^ nostri conaectiiti espng- 

10 nsTgrunt, ut perpancae ex omni numero iioctiB InterTentu ad 
terram perrenlrent, cnm ab bdr& teiS qnfirta usque ad aolU 
OGcaBum pngnargtur. 

16. Quo proelio bellrnn VeiietSrnm totiusque orae tnariti- 
mae Gdnfectnm est. Nam cum omnia iuvCDtus, omnes etiam 
gravioria aetatis inqaibns aliqaid cdDsili aut dignitatis fiut, eo 
cODTenerant, turn narium quod ubiqne fnerat in unum locum 

scoggerant; quibns amissis, reliqui neqne quo ae reciperent 
neque quern ad modum oppida defenderent habebaut. Itaqus 
Be suaque omnia Caesar! dediderunt. In quos eo gravina Caa- 
Bar vindicandum statuit, quo diligentius in reliquum tempna a 

Iv. (1) of place, all tha w«T 
as far aa ; (2) 0/ time, up lo, 
tm;u>CIAAd,aiitl1. 3. 

1. luTentfis, -btlB, /. (iuTSnli, 
young], period of youlh./rom lepsnfMii 
to forty-ftvt ytar»; the youth, tha young 

3. dlgmitfta, -Utls, /. IdlKUiu, 
worthy], worthiness, dignity, merle, 

4. Ubiqus, orfB, [ubi, where], any- 

8. TlndlcS, 1. fr., assert aucbority, 
assert, claim; set free. dellTer; luflLct 

e. In ... farSbat," In that direction 
toward which the wind was blowing." 

». slognlft*, "one by one." 

11. cum pusniritur, "when the 
battle had been going ou." For tbis 
translation ol the imperfect see note on 
^umpugnSretvT, 5, I. 

It9r& qu&rtfc: between aboatSiSO and 


lasarslayH tt 

4. nlTlum . . . ruenit, 
[of] ships they had had aoywhere." 
B. qulbUI, refers to both men and 

nequa . . . habdbant, "did not know 
where to take refuge, eto," For con- 
struction aee noMi on qvtd . . . iiuitti- 
rent. 1«, 9. 

T. •aKTaTlUS,4n&,Ut."moresevBre. 
ly on tbla account, in order that "s-'tlu 
more sevBrely, etc." 



barbariB iQs legatonim cdnservargtuT. Itaqae onmi BeDat& 
nec&to reliquoB sub corona veodidit. <• 

17. Oum haec in Venetis geruntnr, Q. Titurius Sabmus 
cnm lis copiis quae a Caesare acceperat iu fines Veaelloriim 
perrgBit. His praeerat Viridovix ac Bummam imperi tenobat 
earam omnium civitatum quae defecerant, ex quibus oxercitnm 
magaasque copias coegerat ; atqne his paucis diebne Aulerci * 
EburoviceB Lexoviique senatu suo interfecto, quod auctoriia 
belli esBe nolebant, portas clauserunt siique cum Viridovice 
cooiunxemnt ; maguaque praeterea multitudo undiqne ei Gallic, 
perditorum hominum latronumqne convenerat, qaos spes prae- 
daadi stndinmqufl bellandi ab agricullura et cotidiano labore n 
revocabat. Sabinus idoneo omnibns rebns loco castris seae 

ID, BBcft, 1, tr. [sex, death], put lo 
death, kill, murder, Z. 

MrtMi, -ae, /■, wreath, chaplet; ring, 
circle; sub cOTOnfc T«iiaer«, sell at 

3. TlHdOTlZ. -iClB, m.. Vlrldorti 
Tl-rld'o-viks). a cMrf of tha VratUi. 

promotar. iDsUgator, advUer. i 

9. perdB. -dere. -dldl, -dltum. tr. 

[dO. glTe]. give over, ruin ; pardltul, rT. 
part, aiaiij.. desperaw, ruined, I, 
IfttrB, -CnU, m-, [reebooter. bandit, 

10. ftgTienltfira, ■»»,/■ [ag*r. laud 
+eoIO, cultlTHiel, cultlratloD of tbe 
land. agrleiiLlure, 3, 

•lib corfinl: the phrase cikme down 
from early times, when it was the cus- 
tom to put chapletB of leaves on the 
beads of captives who were to be sold. 

Tbe punlsbmenl oC the Venetl, like 

it of I! 

{II. a 


a us. It Is aerertbeless true 
whole Caesar was merciful 
to tbe Oanls. Judging blm br thescabd- 
ards of bis own times, and that these 
serere pnulshmeuta were necessary tor 
the accomplishment of bis purposes. 

Chap. IT-IB. Sablnas defeats the 
land forces of the allies, 

CbaD- 17. Sabinus encamps among 
the V enelli and refuses battle. 


7. nftUbftbt: the senators. 

B. lindlque ex OaUUi, "from all 
parts of Qaul"! not simply from the 
Aremorlcan states. This was the Bo. 
mans' third year in Gaul, and the long:- 
contlnued «-ar bad unsettled every. 

11. Id&neS . . . tenAbat, "sbut 
himself up in camp In a place suitable 
In all respects." Notice tbe three ab- 
latives: rebut is an ablative of speciOca- 
lion; iocS is an ablative of place. App. 



tenebat, cum Viridovix coatra eumdnorum milium spatiO c6n- 
Bediseet coLidieque produotis copiiB pugnaadi potestatem faceret, 
ut iam uon solum hostibiia in contemptionem Sabinns veniret, 

It Bed etiam nostromiii militnm vocibaa non nihil carperGtnr; 
tantamque opinionem timoris praebnit ut iam ad vallam 
castromm hoBtes accedere auderent. Id «fi de causa facii'bst, 
quod cum tanta multitudine hostium, praeeertim eo abeenU 
qui aummam imperl teneret, nisi aequo loco ant opportunitate 

10 aliqua data legato dimicandum non exlatimibat. 

18. Hftc cSnfirmata opinions timoris idoaenm quendam 
bominem et callidum d5l6git, Galium, ei iis quos auxili causa 
eScnm habfbat. Hnic magnis praemiis pollicit&tioDibusqae 
perBuSdet utT ad hoat^B trftiiBeat, et quid fieri velit edocet. Qui 

I ubi pr5 perf ng& ad e5s vSnit, timorem Rdm&Dorum proponit, qui- 
bos anguetiiB ipee Caesar & Venetia premg,tur docet neque longius 
abesae qnin proiimA nocte Sabinus clam es castria esercitum 

1S< prBdQofi.-dfiaare, -duel, -duo- 

tnm tr [dDcrii. lead], lead out ar forth, 
brlngtortb prolong, protract; produce; 
•DitA oOplfc*. arrange, draw up. * 

14 oonUmpUO, -finU, /. leontem- 
nO. despise], disdain, coalempt. 1 

IS, carp6, oarpaia, cupbI. 

1>. Acquua, -a. -am a^- 

a. eallldQi.-a.-um, ai^..9breiTd. i, 
S. prftemlum. -ml, ».. dtstinction. 
pMie. leward ^ 
poltlclUtlft. -aula /.. ipoUlcsor, 

4. idocefi, -doeSra, -docul, -doc- 
tam, tT. tdooaC, leacbl, teach thorough- 
ly. iBfonn In detail, explain. 1. 

7. clMD, adv. , secrellr- 3. 

1GI. b\ eattrU appears to bu aa atlatlve 
ot place, but Ie an ablative or meaoa. 
App. 161. c. 

13. ciun. "although." 
milium: Ac.pruiuuni. 

■patlA: ablative ot degree ct dlfler- 
ence; lit "opposite by a distance, 

14. aoatlbus: datlreo'reterenre, 
Xa ad ftbarate "In Ihe absence of 

the ma'?'*- i.e Caesar 
Sn. Hgfcte- dative of tbeagentwlth 

3. Oalltun ' a GauL" 
ex III, ■■<one)oiihoBe." 
E, pt6 parfUK^. "prvtendlng tt 

■ GoHJilc 



Edfioat et ad Caeaarem anxili ferend! catiBfi proficlBcStar. Qnod 
nbi anditum eat, coDClamant omnea occuBioQem negoti bene 
gerendi amitteodam non eese, ad castra Iri oportere. Mnltae i< 
reB ad hoc coDsilintn GaU58 hort&bantur: anperidnim dierntn 
Sabiui cunctatio, perfagae odD&rmatid, inopia cibaridrnm, cni 
rei param dlligenter ab ils erat proTianm, apSs Yenetici belU, 
et qnod fere libenter hominga id quod volunt cr£daht. His 
rSbus addqcti non prine Viridovicem reliquoBque dncea ex con- n 
cilio dimittnnt qnam ab ila sit concessum anna nti capiant et 
ad caatra conteDdant. Qnft r6 C0DceBB& laeti, ut explor&ti 
Tictoria, sarmentia yirgultlaqae coUSctia qnibus foBBasRdin&- 
Dornm compleant, ad caatra pergnnt. 

19. LoGua erat caatrdmm Sditas et paul&tim ab imo accli* 
lis circiter paaada mllle. H&c magnd corsu contenderant, nt 

I. eandftmS, 1. It. (cUmft, erj 
ont], sbout or cry oat. call aloud. 1. 

MBlaie, -OnU, J. [oaoldO, fail, hap- 
pen], occastoo, opportunity. I. 

bena, adv. [Muns, sood], well, rlgbv 
It. 9iicce«slully. CiDm;i., mgllu; nip., 
mtUat. t. 

13. eftnetitlO. -Bala, f. [ofinetoT, 
ddayl, delay lag, delay, hesitation, re- 
Inelauce. t. 

cBnUrmltie, -Onla, /. [eSuflimA, as- 
MTt], assorance, I. 

II. parnm, adv. [parvui, lutle]. 
little, too UtUe, not samctently. I. 

▼auallctu, -a, -lun, oiV., ol the Ven- 

14. llb«Iit«r, ada. [llMni, willing), 
willlDgly. gladly, with pleasure, a. 
IT. lastiu, -a, 'Um, adi.. joyful, i. 

aiptOlfttaa, •a.-um, adj. [pf.paH.i^ 
•xplCrB, search out], aseertaltied ; surei 

TlFfulIUBl, -t, n-, tblcket. bnub. 
brushwood. 1. 

19. pergt, paigara, peir<sl, 
panaotiuii, i»tr. rpar + regA, .keep 
mralght], go on. proceed, I. 

I. negSH . . . s«T<ndI, " Of wJnnlDB 
10. IflloporUr*. "(bat) that tbey 

II. ■nparlSmm dUnun, "during 
ibe preceding days." 

u. spia . . . ball], " the hope or (a 
toTtnnate outcome) ul, etc." The getil. 
tire Is objective. They bad not yet 
learned the resolt at the war. 

14. qnod . . . OEtdnnl; this iub- 

■tantlTO claoBe, tike the preceding 
DomlnMlves, is in appositloD wltb rU, 

16. pTluB qnam . 
" nnlU tbey had granted them permls. 
sion." The fate a! tbe senate, IT. B, 
no doubt helped tbe connoll lo yield. 
Moder ABp. 236. ^: O-I* S7T, S, n. S: A. 

», n-S: B 

r. B.«6, 

IT. nt . . . TloMrU, "ai ir viciory 

. Domplauit: a pur. 

Chap. 19. Tbe e 



qiiam miQimum spatl ad se coUigendos armanddsqne Romania 
daretnr, exanimatique pervenernnt. Sabinus suob bortatns 

E oupientibns sigonm dat. Impedltta hoatibus propter ea qniw 
ferSbant onera, snbito duabus portTs eraptidnem fieri inbet. 
FactTimeBt opportunitate loci, hostinm Tngcleiitia ac defatigi- 
tidne, virtute militum et Baperiorum pugnarum exercitatioue, 
nt ng unnia quidem noBtrorum impetam ferrent ac statim terga 

10 verterent. Quds integriB viribna milltes noBtri cdnsecuti mag- 
num nnmerum edrum occiderunt; reilqaos equites consectiti 
paucoa qui ex fnga evfiBSraiit reiiquercint. Sic uno tempore et 
de naval! pugna Sabinua et de Sabioi vict&ri& Caesar certior 
factus est, civitutesque omneB se atatim Titurio dedidernot. 

13 Nam ut ad bolla suBcipienda Galldrnm alacer ac prdmptns est 
animua, aic mollis ac mtDlmS resiBtens ad calamitatgs perier- 
etidaa m€ns eornm est. 

20. Eodem fere tempore P. Crasaus, cumin Aquitaniam p«r- 

T. dfiRitig&tie. -Snla, /. [detatlgS, 

weary], fatigue, weariness. 1. 

8. aXBielt&tlt, -Ball,/. («xerelUt, 
Jreq. of •x«rc«5, Bxerotse), exercise, 
training: practice, experience. « 

B. tOIKUm, -!. ft., the bock; targa 
▼•rMre, to flee; post tergnin or ab 
terfO, In the rear. % 

10. T«rie. verten, TsrU, TBHiim. 
<r,. turn, tura around ; tarKB TBrtere, 

t. quam . . . apall, "the least poa- 
alble time." 

B. anpUntlbUB, nt, "to themdej 
Ing," — -as they eagerly awaited It," 

6. onaraithebundlesof brusb; 18.IB. 

T. factum est opportflnltfcta, "It 
resnlceairom tbeadvantage, etc," The 
subject of /oefum «ns u( , . . vtrte. 

8. nillltum:tbe Romans. 

B. ac, "but." Latin usually 
" and." wben Bucb an alBrmstive cli 
toUows a oegallve ooe : Engllsb usually 

la. nfcTftU*. -e, adj. [nfcTlB, ship], 
pertaining to sblpa. naval. I. | 

IB. alaeei, -cils. -ere, <M/,. UTeiy, 
eager, active, ready, ioyoua. a. 
pr6mptUB, -a, -tun, a<t>- . ready, aci- 

18, moUli, 

, (K^., soft: smoocb; 

17. mfint. niBiitla, /.. tbe tbiiiiiiiig 

faculty, mlcid. Intellect; tbought; dis- 
position, reelings; mBUtSB aUlmSMua, 
mtnds and hearts; alt8llftt& mBnU. 
bereft or reason. A. 

11. BiIUlteBr nominative. 

13. Sablnua; se. etrtior factui ett. 

14. TltbrlB: Tlturlus Sablnua. 
IB, Ut . . . BlC, "wblie . . . yeu" 

18. animua. " impulse " 
IT. mfina, "wlll-power." 

Chap. 20-aT. Crassua forces th« 
Aqtiitani to submit. 

Chap, 30. CrasBUs is attacked od 
the march by theSotiates. 

1. OraaauB: read 11, b4, and Bsemaf 
facing p. 2IT. 

■, Goo»^lc 



Tenisset, quae, at ante dictnm est, est tertia pars Galliae, cum 
iutellegeret iu iia locis sibi bellum gereudum ubi panels ante 
anniE L. Valerius Praeconinns legabus exercitu pnlBo interfeotus 
esset, atque unde L. Manlius proconaul tmped I mentis amiesis s 
profngisBet, non mediocrem sibi diligentiam adhibendam intel- 
legebat. Itaqne re frumeDtarifi provlsa, auxiliis eqaitStQqne 
comparato, mnltis praeterea viris fortibus Tolosa et Carcasone 
et Narbone, quae sunt civitates Galliae provinciae f initimae his 
regionibns, nominitim evocfitis, in Sotiatinm fines esercitnm to 
introduzit. Guins adventu cognito Sotiates magnis copilB 
coactis equitatuqne, qud plurimum valebant, in itinere t^men 
nostrum adorti primnm equestre proeliam commiserunt, deinde 
equitfitu Buo pnlso atque inseqnentibna nostris subito pedeatrfia 
copias, quas in convaile in insidils coUocaverant, osteuderunt. le 
Hi nostros disiectoB adorti proelinm renovaront. 

4. FraecOnlnus, -I, m,, Lucius 
Valerius PraaconlDua (IQ'BhytIs va-li' 
il-ilE preii"0-ni'nQs). a Roman litutntant 
in Gaul, btfore Catiar't time. 1. 

d. HB.Dll'ua, -II, "L, Lucius Manllua 
llu'shyiis mJtat'U-iis>. procomul in TS 

prdctinsul, -I(, •".. » proconsoJ. oitt 
alio at the cloit of hU coniulikip in Some 
ecttme governor of a province- I , 

6. medlooTlB, -ere. a<V- [medliu, 

Be middle otl, middling, ordinary, 

dUlsonUa,-M,/.|ilUlsens, careful], 
iretuluess, beedrulness. palQslaklDg. 

8, TolOwt, -M, /. (Ed), Tolosa {16- 
lo'sa). noiu Toulouse. 1. 

OarMiiS, -Onli, /. (Ee). Carcaso 
(kar'k^-sQ). 1. 

9, MftrbB, -6I11I, m. (Ee). Norbo 
(Dftr'bG), nnu Norbonne. 1. 

10, fvocfi, 1. tr. [Toce, call], call 
lonh or out, aummon; STOCfttQ*. Pf. 
part, ai noun, re^uUsted veteran. 3. 

Botlfctfi, -nm, m. (DEcd). tbe Sotiates 


ei). t. 

3. auto: see 1, 1, E, 
3. pauclB annls: twenty- two 
renty-tliree years before. In TB or 
c Our knowledge of these eveiii 
■ry vague. Manlius, governor ol 

Gallic province, marched against ; 

lorlua, who was in Spain, and was 
led by a lleutenanlot SerlortuB. 

Aquftanl seem to have stripped hln 
he relrealed, Noih 

absolute with 

ffocSilt. These were retired v 
who were Induced to serve again by 
high pay and special privileges. 
TolBsti: place from which, with evo- 

9. Dlvltfctaa, "cities." flnltitaai 
agrees with It. 

biB regUinlbnt: Aqulianla. The da- 
tlv^'depends on f initimae. 

13. Qu6: ablaiive o( specifleatlon. 

13. primum: the adverb. 

IB. dlBlBctftB, -while scattered," In 
porsnll of the cavalry. 



2 1 . Pngn&tum est diu atqne Scriter, cum Soti&tes superi- 
oribus victdriis frgt! in saa virtute tfitins Aqnitaniae s&lutem 
positam putarent, nostri sntem quid Bine imperStore etBlne 
reliquia legidnibus adalSscentnld dace efficera posBent penpici 

t cuperent; tandem cdnfecti vnlneribuB hoBtSe terga rertemiit. 
Quorum magnd numerd interfectft Crasana ex itinere oppidam 
Sotiatium oppugnfire coepit. QuibuB fortiter reaiatentibm 
TineaB turrgsque ^git. IIlI alias uruptidne temptata, aliaa 
cuniculis &d aggerem vineAsque actie (cains rei aunt longe 

to periti.BBimi Aqultanl, proptere& quod multis locis apud eos 
aerariae aecturaeque Bunt), ubi diligentia noatrdrum nihil bis 
rebus prdfici poaae intellgzgniDt, ISg&tda ad Crasaum mittant 
a§que in d€ditidnem ut recipiat petunt. Qua r& impetrati 
arma trade re iussi facinnt. 

22. Atque in earn rem omnium noatrdrum intentiB animia, 

a. fritns, -A, -um, mlj., ralylng 

4. AdulAacsntnlu*, -I, m. idim. of 
adultteinl, roucb], a very rouDg 

). ouDloului, -1, »•■. burrow; tunnel, 

11. MIftrU, -M, /- (MB, oopper], 
copi>er mine. I. 
saaton, -as,/. imcS, cut], cutting: 

Shalt, mine. i. 
13. pHt&alO, -Accra, -fiol, -fectum, 

(r. and Intr, (ftelB, make], nuike i^og 
reae, >dvvice: effect, aocompllsti. 

1. IntandO, -tender*, -Mndt, -Ma- 

turn, (r. [tendO, atretcb). Btretcb oDior 
to: InMntQi, pf. jiarl., Inteat on. ai> 
soTbed In, atuntlve to. 3^ 

1. luperlirlbna TlDterlls: ittoae 

mentioned In 30. *■&■ Case' App. 143.0: 
O-L. 401. n. S: A. 131, a: B. Sli, 3: H,-B. 
43a: H, ITS, 1. 

3. quid . . . pOMent: sublect of 

Unparlit&re. " commander-ln-cbtet," 
■ln« . . . legUnlbat: Crassns bad 

onlj' twelve coboria of legloDary 


4. «dalABc«itul6 duae : ablative ab- 

B, cnp«r<iit: i 


8. ftliii; theadrerb. 

9, cunlQUlIa &ctl*, "baring tbitto 
tunnels." They probably tried w sei 
Qre to the aKger trom beneath, aa It wu 
made largely ot wood. 

cuius rel, "an artlD whtob." Case' 
App. IM, a: Q.-L, 374: A. 34B. a: B. Sot. 
l: H.-B.3M: H. 4.^1. 1. 

11. dlUgantll.' ablative of canse. 
The Romans may have dug counter 
mines, thus meeting the enemy beton 
they got under the agger. 

14. faalunt, "they did so." 



aliil 62 parte oppidi Adiatnnmis, qui aammsm imperi ten^bat, 
cam DC d§T6tta (quoa illi Boldurids appellant, qaOram haec eat 
condicio, nt omnibas in vita commodis uni cum ila fruaotur 
quornm se amicitiae dgdiderint, si quid his per rim accidat, aut s 
eondeni c&sum un& ferant aat sibi mortem cSnsciBOant; Deque 
adhuc hominam memori& repertos est qniBqu&m qui, eo Inter- 
fecto Goias ah amioitiae dfiTdrisset, mortem reciiB&ret), cum hie 
AdiatnnnoB gruptiOnem facere conatus, cl&mdre ab ea parte 
muaitionis Bublfito, cum ad arma mllitgs concurrisBent vehe- lO 
menterque ibi paga&tnm esset, repulsuB in oppidum, tamen ati 
sadem dgditionis condicifiDe ateretnr & CraaeS impetravit. 
23. Armis obsidibusque acceptis Craaaua in finga YoGfitium 

I. <Utdt«A, -TaTBre.-T&Tl.-Tfttuiii, 
fr. [TOTet, row), TOW away. consecraW. 
tlevoie; dtrOtm, itf. pari, ai noun, a 
s'TOi-iHollower. S. 

■oldnrlus, -rl. m., tuul. i. 

•. □anunodum. -I, n. [oommodni, 

conTBnloti], convenience. Interest, »A- 
Tuitage. a. 
frnoT, Iml. frbetni iiim, fnlr., en- 

8. raoUft, 1, (r. and {»(>■.. retuie, re- 
ject; object to, make objections, com- 
plain; iiiUk peTloulum. shrink from. 

I. [rebemtm, 

Tloleni], TlolBccly, ieverely. atrongly, 
very much, greatly. 4. 
1. Vooltfii, 'Um, m. (Dcdi. tbe 

Vocates ( i-6-k&'t«z). i. 

>. qn6rum . . . oondlelO, utttiuii- 
tnr, " wbose poslUon Is this, that tbey 

ft. ut . . . tmuttur . . . taruit . . . 
e6BB0t:cuiti Gubaiantlve clauses of 

commodU : what depooeut verba gov- 
ern ibe ablative! 

ftn&: the adverb. 

e. qairnm . . . dMlderlnt: a deter- 
mlDloy clause, App. E31. ModeF App. 
?I4: a.-L. ess. n A. N3; B. SM, 1: H.-B. 
&M: U. e 

■I . . - uioldat: 1 

( dididtrint. 
Otherwise such a condltlou would be 
expressed by tbe IndlcaUve: App. £1^: 
Q.-I,5»S: A,blB;MB.e: B.3DZ, 1. 3: H.-B. 
S7S: H. Ml. 1. 

7. momorlfc: ablatlveot tlmewltbln 

qultquam: why is this the i 
deamte! App. IT7: G-L. SIJ. 1 
B.SS2.4: H.-B.Sre.T: H.MS. 

8. OeTSTliHl: ct. note oi 

raoMftrat: subJuQctlve In a clause of 

eum nil: this simply repeats cum DC 
decolii, 1. a, aft«r the long parenthesis. 

11. tunen, "uevertbeless": I.e. In 
spite of bis attempt to escape alter suc- 
reuder. The offense. was the same aa 
that of the Atuatocl. II. 83, aod might 
have been pniiisbed aa severely. 

11. vikdemi I.e. tbe same as tbosa 
who bad not attempted to escape. 

Chap. 33. The Aquttani assemble 
a lar^e force. Crassus decides to eive 






et TaruBatium profectus est. Turn veru barbari comm5ti, 
quod oppidum et natura loci et maiiu munitum paucis dJEboa 
quibuB eo ventum erat ezpagn&tum cogQuverant, legdtOa qn6- 

E queversua dimittare, coniurare, obsides later su dare, cdpias 
parare coepemnt. Mittuntur etiam ad eas civitates legati quae 
Guiit citerioria HiBpaniae flnitimae Aqnitaoiae; inde auxilia 
dacSsque arceasuntur. Qiiurum adventu magna cum auc- 
toritate et magna cum hominiim multitudiiie bellum gerere 

u, couantnr. Duces vero ii diiliguntur qui una cum Q. Sertoriii 
omn^s ann^B tueraut summamque Bcientiam rei miUtaris 
habere exiBtimabantur. HI cunsuetudine popull Bomani loca 
capere, castra munire, commeatibus noBtroe intercludere inati- 
tuunt. Quod ubi Craaaua animadvertit acaa cupias propter 

u exiguitatem non facile diduci, hostem et vagari et vias obaidGre 
et castris satis praesidi relinquere, ob earn causam miniu 
commode frumentum commeutumque sibi supportari, in dies 
hostium numerum augeri, noa cunctandum existimavit qnin 

3, TaniaiUi, -ium, m. (DEc), Ibe 

B.C. 1. 

Tarusates (t4r"u-sa'lei). S. 

IB. dWIIcB, -dUCM*. -aoil. -iat- 

4. qutqUBTSTBUI, ado., in every di- 

tum, tr. [dbce. lead], laid or draw 

rection, all aronnU. I. 

apart; separate, divide. 1. 

JO. 8ert«rtU». -rt, m.. Qolniua Ser- 

obBldea, -Bia«rB, -BSdl, -Msiiun. tr. 

lorlns (kwln'cfls ser-to'rl-Os) apariiian 

[BBdftS, sit), Bftln the way of , obsiTBct, 

of ilariiit; after the tUath of (he latter, he 

besleee. blochade. 2. 

eontinued the war in Spain againtt the 

IB. COnctor, l, Mr., delay, hesitate. 

itaalorial parly. «ntn murdered in 12 

berelaotam. % 

8. Oppidum: subject of eijiugnStun 

paucis . . . ant, ill. ■witiiiii th< 

f«w (lays within wblch It bad been com<. 
toere." = ■■ wlihln a few days after his 

T. citeriOriB Hlsplalu: Spain be- 
tween tbe Pyrenees and the Ebro. 
[IIiltimAe agrees mib quae and gov- 

S. ftUCMritfcte, "asauranoe." 

10. ducia, "ascommanders." 

SerUrlt: as Seriorlus was a Roman 

xencral ol great ability and bad orgao- 

iied his Spanish army atler the Roman 

fasbloQ, those who bnd served under 

13. cinsuStadlne; ablative o( w- 

locB oapera. " to choose sniuble 

14. quod, "Iberefore"; eonJunctlOD. 

15. aSn faclM dldfiol, -lonld not 
easily be divided." This and the follow- 
ing InHnltives, through oujm, depeniJ 

IS. nfin . 

ibougbt he m 

. d«caitftr«t, "H* 
not delay to fight a ie 



pngnS decertaret. Hac re ad cODBilium delate, ubi omn&s idem 
Bentire intellexit, [wsterum diem pugnae constitait. M 

24. Prima luce productia omuibuB copiis, dnpUci aciS 
InBtituta, auziliiB in mediam aciem coniectis, qaid hostea odn- 
nli capereot esspectabat. Illi, etsi propter maltit&dinem et 
veterem belli gluriam paacitatemqne nostroram ae tuto dimi- 
c&turos existimabant, tamen tutins ease arbitrabantur obseaais ■ 
Tiis commeatu iuterclusa sine iiUd Tnlnere Tictorifi. potiri et, ai 
;iTopter inopiam rei frument&riae Rdmanl b^bS recipere coepia- 
sent, inipeditoB in agmine et sub sarcinis adorirl cogitabant. 
H5c cdnsilio probatO ab ducibuB, prOdnctia EOmanSrum cflpiia 
Bgsg caatria tenebant, Hac ru perapecta Crasaus, cum sua lo 
cunctatione atque opTnione timoris hostea noatrda milites 
alacridreaad pugnandnm efleciaaent, atque omninm vOceaaudi- 
reiitur exspectari diiitins non oporters quin ad caatra iretnr, co- 
bortatuB sn&s omnibus cnpieutibtis adhostium caatra contendit. 

25. Ibi cum alii fossita complerent, alii multis telis cod- 

i. ctsl, (oaj. (et + sl. if], even II. 
8. obtiti.i.'r.andinlr.leo + ^lti. 

consider]. coDHldfr thoroughly o\ 
tally, ponder, reflect; think, pn 

cisiTs tittle.- 

On the gnia clause, see App. KS. c 
G..I* S55: A. M§: B. !S9: H,B, 602, 3, b 
B. sra. 1. 

19. cfiniUlum, "a council ot.war.' 

90. piifnae: dative. 

Chap. 34. Since the enemy refttsei 

1. dnpllet «cl*: The.Koman forct 
was smaller than that of the enemy, and 

Ellllt. . .oonlaotls; the 

5. tQtlqi esie. '-iii;Li it ka^ still 

obaeiBli . , . InteiclaiA. "b; 

blocking . . , and cutiingoff." 
T. coeplasent: indirect digeourse ror 

Ihe tulure perfect indicative. 
8. ImpedltOi: botli by their heavy 

baggage (tmimamenta) and by the dlffl- 

culiy of fighting: in marching order. 

10. BUft refers to the subject, hottii. 

11. oplnlfine. lie '■impression" 

13. exipact&rt . . . oporUre, " that 

to delay longer.'' 

quin . . . lr<tnr:cf. as. IB, noie. 

14. omnlbut cnptonttbua. - to tbs 

elighl ot all." 



mp Is vigorously 




iectis def^nsArSa v&lld mfliutidnibugqne dgpellerent, anzlliarSB- 
qne, qnibus ad pagnam ndn multnm Crassus confidgbat, 
lapidibns t^lisque subminiBtratidis et ad aggerem caespitibnB 

6 comportandia apeciem atqne opinidnem pugnantinm praebereot, 
cum item ab hoatibus c6iistaiiter ac ndn timide pugiiaretnr 
telaque ex loco superidre misaa ndn frustra accidereat, eqoites 
circumitis boBtiam castris Crassu renuatUv^ruDt non eadem 
ease diligenti& ab decumanfi port& castra munlta facilemqne 

10 aditum bab€re. 

26. Crassus equitum praefectda cobortatus ut magnia 
praemiia pollicit&tiSnibaaqae anAa excit&rent, quid fieri vellet 
oatendit. Illi, at erat imperatum, ednctia iis cobortibns quae 
praesidii) caatria relictae intritae ab labore erant et tongiore 

G itinere circamdnctiB, ng ex hostium caatria cdnspicT poasent, 
omnium oculis mentibusque ad pugnam intentis, celeriter ad 
eas quas dizimua munitiSnSa perrSngrunt atque hia prorutia 

a. d«|MlU, -peUere, -puU, -pul- 

8. olreumaS, -Ire, -U. -Itvm. (r. 

•UID. tr. (palia, drlTel. drive from or 

[eS, go. App. W1, goormaroharound, 

»war, warU off. 1. 

traverae, visit. 1. 

anxilUrti. -e. aOj. [auiUlum. aW). 

4. Intntai, 'A, -um, in{j. [InH- 

uimilary; m. pi. ai noun. auxlLiaiy 

trltuB, worn], unirearied. 1. 

troopB, 1. 

B. ciroumdacs, -daeere. -diui. 

-dudtum, Ir. [dficO. lead), lead or drair 

wait upon], turnlah, supply, gl re. J. 

OMipai, -Itll. ffl.. a sod. turf. 1. 

7. prdiuB, -ruere, -mi, -rntum, tr. 

t. Ximiii, atv. [tfmldui. fearful). 

Irua. talll. orercbrow. 1. 

tearfullF. tonardly. timidly. 1, 

■tlve. since wltb CO 

uaed ot persons, the abla 

4. lubmlnlitraiidls: 

ary soldiers. 

•d aKKemn, "(or an agger." The 
Romans were ooinpellBd to build a slop- 
ing embankmeut In order i 
Ihe blgh wall of tbe OalUc camp. 

T. ezloaSsuperl6re: the cop of 

Chap. se. The RomanB captnre the 

camp and cut down the fleeinc 

1. cohortitUB ut ezcltlrent, " ura- 
liig ... to stimulate." 

^. Intrltaa ab labOre, "not w<»ii 
out by aghtlng," ab labort Is strlctlr 
an ablative of separation, as If Caesar 
bad said " tree from " ; benee the prep- 




prina in hostium castris cdnatit&runt qnam pl&DS ab his ridgri 
aut quid rei gerergtur cognSsci poaaet. Tain verA cUmOre ab 
tii parte aadlto noatri redintegratla Tiribaa, qaod plgrnmque Id ;o 
Bpe rictoriae accidere cdnan^Tit, &criua impugn^re coepgrunt. 
Hostes undiqne circtuaventi dgapgr&tis onmibna r^bua a§ per 
munitionga ddicere et f ugi aalutem petere contendfirant. QuOa 
equitatas apertlBsimis campiB c5iiBect&tuB ex miliam l namerd, 
quae ex Aquitftni& Cantabrisqae convfiniaBe cOnatabat, rix « 
quarta parte relicta multa nocte ae in castra recfipit, 

27. Hac audita pugna maxima pan Aquit&niae seaS Craaad 
dedidit obaidSaque ultro misit, qao in numerfi fu€runt Tarbelli, 
fitgerridoSs, Ptianit, Vocat&a, TamsatSa, Elusates, QatSs, 
AuBcT, Garnmni, Sibuaat^a, CoooaatSB; pancae altimae natid- 
nes annl tempore cdnfTsae, qnod biema anberat, id facera • 

B, pline, a4B. [pljtnni, even, plain], 
plainly, clearly. dUtlncCly, I. 

11. impoKiiBi >• 'r. [lu-t-pufnfi. 
Qght]. figbc agalnat. attack, assail. I. 

14. campui, -I, >».. plain, open apace 
Dr country. 1. 

15. fluit&brl, -drum, m. (Bab), the 
Cantabri (kBu't^bii). t. 

S. ultrA, adn., to or on the (artber 
tMe. beyond; of one's own accord, vol. 
nntarlly. spontaneously, without prov. 
ocatlon ; besides, moreover ; ultrO 
cltrOque, bach and forth. « 

Tarbslll, •arum. 


BlgerrlSD^, -um, > 

. (Ecd). th 

8. prlni . . . guun: see App. XM, i 
Tld4ll: supply potwtrfttompOMrf. 

9. quid r«l geT«T4tiir, "vbatwa 
BOlQS on " ; subject oT iioi*it. 

10. noBtrl: I.e. those who were al 
tacblng In front. 

QUOd, " athlng wblch." Theant«ceil 
eul Is redintfgrHtU mrlAw. 
13. P«r. -over." 

Blgtrrlones (bl-JSr'l a'nSi or bl"je.rt- 
Cnfe). I. 

PtlMiU. -fimm. •»■ (EC), (be PtUoU 
{ll-6'nl-i). 1. 

SlQl&Ut. 'Um, fn. (Edl. the Elusatw 
(8l"u.sR-i«i^ 1, 

QaUi, -nm, m. (DEdl. the Oalo* 
(Bi'ife). 1. 

«. AnicI, -Crum, m. (Ed), the Aasd 
aw'^. I. 

GAnutml, -6ruin. m. (sd). the Ott- 
rumikl (ga-r!iDi'Di). l. 

BlbUBfcU*, -um. m. (Eo), the Slbu- 


I. (Del, 1 

[ . . . DUmerC depends on qaSrtg 

15. qu«e (tnUia) eonTSnlMe Is tha 

subject oC the impersonal eSnstW>at, 
■■ who were known to have gatberea." 

16. mnlUnoetn, "lateatnlgbt." 
Chap. BT. Nearly the whole of 

Ajiuitaiiia anbinita. 
k. pAuc&e ultlmoA n&tientB. "only 

ably thoxe UtIdk among the Pyrenees. 
5. tempore: ct. note on guibut. 3B, a 



28. Eodem fer§ tampore Caesar, etsi prope exScta iam 
aestaa erat, tamen, qaod omni GFalli^ pacata AforiQi Menapi- 
iqne snpererant qui in armla essent neque ad eum amqaam 
leg&tos do pace misisBeiit, arbitratQS id bellum celeriter coo- 

E fici posse, eo exercituni duxit; qui loDge ali& ratiSne ac reliqui 
Oalli bellum gerere coepSrnat. Nam qnod intellegebant max- 
imfks nStioiiSs quae proetid contendiaaent pulaaa 8uperat3,sqae 
esse, contineiitesque silvaa ac paludee habebant, eo se auaqne 
omnia contulgrunt. Ad quarnm Initium silvarum cum Caeear 

H perver.isaet castraque miinire inBtitaisset, neque hostis iaterim 
■vj&ue eaafi*-. dispereis in opere nostris, aubito ex omDibuS parti- 
bus silrae ^vol&T^runt et in noatroa impetura fgcgrunt. NoBtri 
celeriter arma cgpSrnnt eosqne in ailvae reppulerunt et com- 
pluribus interfectia longius impeditisribaa locia eecuti paucos 

16 ex Buis dSperdidgrnnt. 

ultliDiia. -», -urn, adj.. sup. Lultri, 

lostlfur; contlDUOUB. unbroken; neigh- 

bejoDd. App. <3), lartbest, most dis- 

bcrtng; 01 noun, malnlatiJ. contlneni. 

tant or remote; a» noun, those In tUB 


11. (tUp«Tg6, -ipaTKBre, -tpenl. 

1. axlsS. -Isere, -ScI, -ftctam, tr. 

taf6, drivel. Bnlsh, pass. 1. 

scat ur. disperse. 3. 

3. umquun, ods., at any time, ever; 

18. *TOl6. !. Mr. H-olB. flyl, fly o' 

IG. dep«ide, -psTdan. -peidldl. 

B. contlntDB, -antls, ailj. \prei. part. 

•penUtum, Ir. (p«rdd, desi^Tiyl, de- 

stroy utterly; lorfelu lose. S. 

Cliap. 38'39. Caesar maksE an hd- 
Buccessful attempt to subdue the 
Uorini and the Menapi). 

Chap. 3B. The Morinl take refuge 


. and swan 

1. eziiCtai. "past": the participle 
used as an adjective. 

3. omul OalU&' Oaul In general. In- 
cluding Aqultania and Belgium, chough 
ibe same words Id II, 1, a, refer only to 
Celtic Gaul. 

3. qui eiient. mlalSMUt: a clause 

ac, "than" or "from"; d. aliam 
atgui. », 2). 

T. contandlistnt: the mode is due 
only Ml indirect discourse. 

t. laitliiir, "edge." 

11. dlaparala uoBtrls: just as they 
had been surprised at the Sabls. II. 19 
and 30. 

13. eotnplbritiui: otiheeuemy. 

14. longiUB, ■' too tar." 
ImpedUtSllbus, "verydiacalt." 



29. Beliqnls deincepa digbas Caesar silviia cnedere tnatitolt 
et, ne quis inermibus imprudentibusqae mllUibua ab latere 
impetus fieri posset, omnem earn materiam quae erat caeaa 
coQverBam ad hostem collocabat et pro Tullfl ad atrumque 
latus exBtruebat. Incredibill celeritate magno apatio paucis » 
diebna cfinfecto, cum iam peoua atque extrema impedimenta i 
nostriB tenerentur, ipsT densiores silvas peterent, etus modi 
Bant tempestiltea. conaecutae atl opas QeceaaSrio intermitterC'tnr 
«t continnatidne imbriam diutins BUb pellibuB milites contingri 
nua posaent. Itaque vftatatia omnibaa eoram agrla, vicla m 
aedificiiaqne iocSnsia Caeaar ezeroitum redfizit et in Aulerola 
LezoTJIeque, reliqnis item cirit&tibQa quae proxime bellam 
fecerant, in hibernia colloc3.Tit. 

1. delneepi, adv., one after tbi 
othar. In turn. snccesalrFly. l. 
CMd6, i»ad«Ta, oeoldl. eaetum, ir- 

cut! kill. slay. a. 

i. Imprfidins, -antls, adj, (ln-4 

prtlUaa, prQdent). impnulent, oD 
one'aguard, unwary. 1. 
8> mtWrla, -&•, /..macerlal; wood 

8. PMIU, •orll, R.. cattle, a berd; 
utualljf Bmall cattle, sbeep: meat; 
Besb. 2. 

V. oontlnu&ttB, -Onli. /. [contlAu- 

U(, coDtlDUaus], coatlQUance. succes- 

ralo. I. 

IneTSilbua . . . mlUtlbua: ablative 
4. oauvanun &d liostam, "with 

tbeir tops tnmed toward tbeeDemy," 
pr4 Tins, -tosBrTBi 

Caesar cut a va; througb tbe (oreat. 
wltb tbls rampart on eacb slile. 

6. «6llfact&, lit. "flnisbed."- 

7. IptI: tbe Uorlnl tbemselres, In 
contrast wltb tbelr anlrnaU and has- 

S. eub pelllbua: la winter tbe wA 



The campaign of 55 b,c. is memorable in history as the occasion 
vrhen the Roman arms were first carried beyond the Rhine and across 
the Channel. The map facing page 217 shows bow completely Gaul 
had come under Caesar's control, either by conquest or by peaceful 
Bubmisdon. But Caesar knew that his task was not yet finished. II 
the Rhine wa.s to be the Roman frontier (Int. 3), the Germans must be 
taught to respect that frontier. And the unknown Britain, lying so 
near Gaul, tempted him. It might be worth conquering. If not, at 
any rate both Gauls and Britons must be shown that Britain could af- 
ford neither to send aid to Gaul nor offer refuge to Gauls who wished to 
escape from Caesar. Only when Caesar had shown that neither the 
Rhine nor the Channel could stop a Roman army, might he expect Gaul 
to rest quietly under the Roman yoke. 

Two German tribes, the Usipetes and the Teneteri, had been driven 
out of their homes, far in the interior of Germany, by the Suebi. After 
wandering homeless for three years, they crossed the Rhine into tlte 
Gallic poasessiona of the Menapii and there spent the early months of 55. 
Nothing shows more clearly the lack of unity among the states of Gaul 
than the indifference with which the neighbors of the Menapii regarded 
this incursion of their hereditary foes. Some states even tried to repeat 
the mistake of the Sequani (I, SI), and invited the Germans to settle 
in their territory and make common cause with them against Caesar 
or the rest of Gaul. But Caesar interfered at once by marching against 
the Germans. Using as a pretext a treacherous attack by a small body 
of German cavalry, he made himself guilty of the most treacherous and 
indefensible act in bis whole career. He arrested all their leaders, who 
had come to apologize for the attack and then surprised and slew almost 
the whole German host, men, women, and children. If the deed has an 
excuse it lies in the absolute necessity of teaching the other Germans 
never to invade Gaul. 

Caesar decided to reSnforce this terrible lesson by making the Ger- 
mans tear for their own territory. The Sugambri, who had given refuge 
to the remnants of the Usipetes and the Teneteri, refused to gi\e them 
up at Caesar's command. Moreover the Ubii begged Caesar's aid against 


the Suebi. In the marvellously brief space of ten daya he constructed 
agreat bridge across the Rhine, over which he led his entire army. At 
Ibe first news of his approach the Sugambri md the Suebi had retired 
into the safe depths of their vast forests. Since it was no part of Caesar's 
purpose to subjugate these peoples, he contented himself with ravaging 
tbe nearer possessions of the Sugambri. Satisfied with this demonstra- 
tion of Roman power, he recroesed the Rhine and destroyed bis bridge, 
after a stay of only eighteen daya on German soil. 

Caesar had neither time nor ships enough to attempt a real invasion 
of Britain this summer, nor could be leant by inquiry anything about 
tbe country and the amount of force needed for accomplishing his pur- 
pose there. Therefore he determined to devote the remainder of the 
Bummer to a preliminary expedition which would at least show bim what 
preparations be must make for the next year. Taking only two legions 
he Bailed to Deal from the nearest point in Gaul. A landing was effected 
oidy after a sharp struggle with the Britons. A few nearby tribes sur- 
rendered, but Caesar waited for the arrival of bis cavalry before pene- 
trating the interior. Just as the cavalry transports were approaching 
tbe island, a storm not only drove tbem back to Gaul but shattered 
the main fleet, which lay in an exposed roadstead. Caesar beat off an 
attack of the natives, repaired his ships, and sailed back to Gaul. 

Before leaving for Britain, Caesar had received the submission of a 
part of the Morini. During his absence the remainder of his army bar' 
ried the Menapii and the rest of the Morini. On tbe return voyage two 
ships were driven out of their course, and the men carried by tbem were 
aCtacked by the Morini. A vigorous raid at last caused tbe final Bub- 
mission of tbe Morini; but the Menapii still remained unconquered in 
their forests and swamps. 



For the meaning of the colors, see the explanation of the campaign 
Diap for I, l-3d, facing page 42. 

The coloring in this map is the same as in the campaign map for 
Book m, facing page 217, except that tile Morini and a part of the 
Menapii are colored red. 

Every important geographical point in this year's campaigQing is 
open to discuBsioa. Holmes agrees with some other authorities in lo- 
cating the battle with the Usipetes and the Teacteri near the junction 
of the Mosella and the Rhine, but his discussion is less fair than usual. 
His own argumentB, carefully sifted, seem decisive for the location near 
the junction of the Moisa and the Rhine. If the battle is rightly lo- 
cated, there is no valid argument for locating the bridge elsewhere than 
at Bonn. Holmes seems to have proved that Wissant, not Boul<^ne, 
was the sailing point for Britain. The landing point in Britain must 
have been either near Deal or a considerable distance west of Deal, near 
Hythe ; it is almost certain that it was near Deal. The map on page 294 
gives in more detail the parts of Gaul and Britain which are involved 
in discussionB as to the sailing and landing points. 

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I. Ea qaae aecEita est hieme, qui fuitsnnaa On. PompiiO 
M. Graaso cfinsalibns, UsipetSs Germ&ni et item Tencterl 
magna onm multitiidiae hominnm fliimen RhSnam tr&DsiSrnnt, 
DOD ioDgS a mari quO Bhcons inflnit. Cansa tr&Dsenndi fnit 
qnod ab Sa^bis complurga annds exagit&ti belld prem€bantnr f 
et agricultura prohibfibsntnr. SuGbdmm gfina est longe mai- 
ima et belli coaissima Germindrnm omnium. Hi centum pagds 
habere dicuntur, ex quibns quotannla singula milia arm&tdrum 
bellandi causu ex ftnibus Sducunt. Reliqui, qui domi m&Dag- 

L Cn., abbr. for Onuul (oe'ils), a 
Stami pratBO mm. I . 
PompBlaa, -I, m. Onaeus Fomp«lus 

(ne'aa pam-pe';ils), betUr. Fompej, 
IriUBteir wUA Caaar and CrOMiut in DO 
B.C., ieftated bf Cottar at PAurtilia, 
oail murdered tn Egypt by /^olnnjr, 4B 

1. Uilpstia, -lun, r/L, the Ualpetes 

TincMrl, -Oniin, n., tlie TeDCterl 
(USngk'ie-rl). 4. 

B. Butbut, -a, -ni 

tolnlnff to ibe Siiebl. 
nomt. Bn<bI{Bhl),tbeSuebi<a«e'bi},<i 
potetr/ut people of central Oennaitjf cott- 
eUling of tevtral itUttpemititt tribee, th« 
modem SwabUos. « 

S. qnotannU, adv. vxaut, aa maar 
Bs-l-aiuiu*, year], eveiy yeax. jtaxlj. 

i- iiuuia6i mftnArSt minil, nifto* 

stay. 2. 

Cbap. 1-4. Two a-ermaiii tribes 
cioaB the Rhine. Description Of the 
Qennan tribes who are ooncemeii in 
the fQllawlne uacrBtiTe. 

Chap. 1. Two tJennan tribes, ei- 

peUoibi ■" " ■■ ■—-'< — . 

The -war 

of the Suebl. 

qui . . , eAunllbtts, "in the year 

Oil. FompiU.etc.: Pomper and Craa. 
ana were Caesar's associates in the First 
TrinrnTttBte; Int. 11. Their election as 
oi)Tuin'ii lor the Jeax 96 bad been planned 

at a meeting with Caesar Id the preced- 
ing spring. Caesar bad been given Us 
province lor only fire years, and he 
needed more time. Tbeee oonsnis se- 
cured another Qve years [or him, and 

4. nfin longC i. mkrl: probably new 
Emmerich, a lew miles above Ibe point 
at which the Rhine divides to Dow 
around the Island ot the Batavl See 

qn6: the adverb. 
8. ilngula: Le. i 




wrnat, se atque illfis alunt; hi rufBUS Id Ticem annO poet in 
armia aant, illi domi remanent. Sic neque agricnlfcara nee 
ratio atqae usus bell! l^termittitar. Sed privuti ac separati 
agri apud eos nihil est, neque longius annd remangre nno in 
locd colendi causa Ucet. Xeque multmu frumentd sed mazi- 

u mam partem lacte atque pecore TiviiDt multumqae aunt in 
Teo&tionibaB ; quae res et cibi genere et cotidifina exercitatione 
et libertate vitae, quod a pueris nuUo officio aut discipliiia assne^ 
facti nihil omnino contra volontatem faciunt, et vires alit et 
imm^nl corporum magnitudine hominies efficit. Atque in earn sS 

so consngtudinem adduserunt, nt locis frigidissimis neque restitos 

10. *lgl», getk (no nom.).! cbaiige: 
(nUy in the adii. phrati In tIcmh, alter- 
nately, In turn. 1. 

11. rem&Dfte, -inuiCTe, -mfctiBl, 
■raftmum, Mr. [Ta--|-maneD, remain], 
Btay Of remain beblnd. remain. # 

13. t69»xb, 1. tr. [■j.+p&r6, pre- 
pare], prepare apart; separate; aSpft' 
r&tua. nf. part, as euX}., separate. 1. 

14. eoie, eolere, colnl, oultam, tr., 
cnltlvate. dwell In; boner. Trorshlp. 1. 

IB. l&c, lactll, n,, mUh. 1. 
vlvd, vivera, vlxl, Tlotum, ititr., 
live; subBlaton. >. 

la. TiultlO. -Bnli,/, [TSoor, himtB. 

hunting. Che chase. . 1. 

IT. dliolpllna,. -ae,/. [diicfi, leunl, 
learning; discipline; Inelruetlon, sys- 
tem. 2. 

utiueracl6, -fftcere, -Kcl, -factum, 
tr.. accustom, train, 2. 
IS. ImminlB. -e, adj.. huge, Inr 

ao. trlsldUB. -a, -nm, adj., cold- i. 
vaititui, -fis, m. [natlft, ciotbet 
clolhlne- 1. 

10. 11141: l,e. those who are eebllng. 

(umS post, Uu "afterwards by a 
year," = " the foUowltig year." 

13. ratld atque biiia, "the [tbeo- 
relical] training and practice In." 

piiy&tl . . . est: Le. all the land be- 

Thls Is generally true 

li. trfimentO, "on Brain"; ablative 
of means with vliiaM. 

muLlmuti partem: caseFApp. va.b: 
Q.-L. 334, K. S: A. 397, a: B. 18a. I: H-B. 

IB. tnultnmqua . . . ven&tlfinlliQa, 

" are deToted to hunting." 

IS. quae res, "a practice which"; 
BOtdect of alit and tJlleU. 

IT, anod . , faolunt eiirialna !»«■■ 

IS. bomln^E: predicate accusative; 

In earn . . . addbxCiunt, Ut. "have 
brought, tbemselves into this custom," 
= "baTe trained themselves to snch 

30. locIB fUgldlaalnilfl, "though 
their climate is extremely cold " ; aUa- 
tlve absolute. 

yeitltQs depends, on futcQuim. On 
the choice of Indefinites, see App- ITT: 
G.-I, 317, 1: A. Bll: B. 180, 4: H.-B.n 
7: B. SI3. 

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praeter pellSa habSrent qnicqnam, qa^mm propter exignit&tem 
magna eat corporis para aperta, et laTarentnr in flumiaibuB. 

2. Mercfttdribua est aditns magis ed, ut quae bello ceperint 
qnibns vgndant habeant, quam qao ullam rem ad a6 impoitSxi 
deslderent. Qnin etiam iumentis, quibUB masimg Oalli dg- 
lectantuT, qnaeqne impgnsd parent pretio, German! importatis 
Don utnntnr; Bed quae aant apnd eos Data, paira atqae dS- » 
tdrmia, haec cotidiana exercit&tione summl nt aint labfiris effi- 
ciant. EqueatribuB proeliiB Baepe ex eqnia dSailiant ac pedibos 
proeliantnr, equ5Bqae eddem remaniJre vestigio asea^fScenint, 
ad qn^B s6 celeriter, cnm usus eat, recipitmt; neque e6mm 
moribna tnrpiua qiiicquam ant inertius habgtur quam epbippiia lo 

13. IatO, l&vfcia, UtI, Uutum, 

wash ; in pott. , batha. 1. 

3. diBldsrO, I. tr., [eel ibe lack 

dSlMM, 1. (r.. dellKbt;piMt.,deUglit 
In. take pleasure Id. 1. 

4. ImpCnBiu, -«, -mn, adj., expen- 
ilre; with prBtlum, gret,}, I. 

B. dilSimU, -«. a^. [nnna, tonu], 
misshapen, delormed, imslshtly. I. 
7. dialUB, -lUlTB, -aUuI, <iultiiin, 
31. hAbfTMit, iKTirBntur: 

late bj pregeDta, Tbe use ol tbe jmpec- 
Cect Ulostrales the tact tbat tbe Romana 
Dsoally regarded the ported ludicatlce 
(bere oddSxenMi) as a secondary teose. 
cTenvben ItaeematooBCoreterloprea- 

Chap. I. Their froedom fVom Ii 

■6, Dt Iu>b«aiit, " on tbla accoiin' 
that they may haTe.'^ 

oepsrliit: sublunctiTe in Implied li 
direct discourse. 

S. aulbua TCitdaiit: a purpose 
clauae. Supply some word like 
eoDB" as the anlecedent ol guiiu and 
the object ol liatiant. 

qnuii<lii6d$ilaerBnt, " than because 
they desire." Son qu6 with the sub- 
junctive Is used lo reject a reason. !□ 

(Mr. [aallB, leap], leap from or down, 
allKbl. dUmounC. * 

8. TCatlclnm, -gl, ». [TBctlgft, trace 
out}, tnce, track, fooiprlDI; spot, place; 
momenc. Instant, a 

10. tnrpU, -e, adj'- ns'y- uosemily; 
EbameCul, dlssracefal, dlsbonorable, t. 

Inert, -arUi, atf. Ilii-+an, bHIII], 
nitbone skill; unmanly, cowardly. 1. 

•pMppltim, -pi, n.. horse-cloth, rld- 
Ing-pad, saddle. 1. 

this sentence magU fuam takes tbe place 
ot nSn. Tbe ihmuiIds Is "not became 
tbey want anytblng. bnt because (bey 
wish to sell." 

S. IftmentlB imparUtlB nOn ntun- 

tnr: the Important word Is the parti- 
ciple intportSlit, as II be bad said " tbey 
I not Import the .liorses which they 

«. auaequB ^ <t ;wm. 

S. ttaeo: antecedeDio[{uiH(luin<n<a). 

Bumml . . . Bfllcluiit, Ut. "makethat 
they be (capable) ol the greatest labor." 
See App. IW. 

7. pedlbws, 'onloot." 

9. eerum mCrlbui, "aocordlng to 

10. tuibdtur, "IscoDsidered," 
ephlpplis: the ancient saddles were 

of little real use, since tbey bad do stlr- 




tltl. Itaqae ad qnemvis numeram ephippifltdntm equitnm 
(jaaiUTis pauc! adlre sudent. Vinum omnind ad 83 importari 
nfin patinntur, qtiod e& re ad laborem ferendum remolUscere 
honuDes atqne flffeminftri arbitrsntnr. 

3. Public^ mazimam pntant esse laadem quam latiasime i 
Snis nnibns rac&re agrds: hftc r£ siguificari magnnm nnmemm 
ciritatnm ausm vim BnstinSre noc posse. Itaqne ^jna ez parte 
& Suebls circiter milia paaaaam aescenta agrl vacare dicmitni. 
fi Ad alteram partem anccednnt Ubil, qnflrum fait oivitas ampla 
atque flfirSna, ut eat captns Germanornm; ii paulo, qnsinquaia 
aunt einsdem generis, snnt ceteris humariores, proptereS 
qnod RbSnnm attingunt multumqne ad efis mercStfirSs venti- 
tant et ipsi propter propinquitatem Gallicis sant mdribns ag- 
io suSfacti. H{^ cum SnSbl multls saepe bellis ezperti proptei 
amplitudinem gravit^temqite ciTit&tis finibas ezpellere non 

11. epblppl&Iui, -R, -um, a4l- 
[apblpplunii saddle], uBlng a saddle. 1. 

la. qaamvls, adv. [quam, as+tU, 
jou wteb], &s JOD wish, however. 

1. lani, iMidll, /. , praise, eommen. 
datlon: renown, popu]arlt7, gloif. 3. 

B. Tlbll, -Oram. n. (ABgb), cbe tJbU 
<ft'bH). * 

6. flSrini, -Mitli, adj. (flOree, 
flower), flourishing, prosperous, in- 

fluentiaL B. 

oaptoB, •&■, m. [eapU, t«ke), com- 
prehension, Ide&s. 1. 

T. bftmanua, -a. -tuo, MJ. PiatnS, 

man], natural to man, hnman; clvl. 
Uzed, cultured, reOned, cultivated. 1. 

8. ▼entlU, 1, intr. \jTeq. of TenlS, 
comel, keep ooming, resort; go back 
and forth, visit. 2. 

11. unpUtBdO, -lull, /. [unplni. 
large], wide eitent, sIm; Importance, 
OOnsequencB, dignity. 1. 

trkvltftB, -titlB, /. [gravia, beavT]. 
heaviness, weight; power. 1. 

13. guaiDTll PMic!, " however tew 
Ithey may be)." Caesar does not exag- 
gerate tbe strength o[ the Oerman 
cayalry. In his seventh year In Qaul, 
when he had to face a revolt of the 
whole country, he hired a body of Qer. 
man cavalry. In three decisive battles 
they saved the day for him. 

Tlnum: but we know Irom Tacitus 
that they drank great quantities of a 
Hod of beer. 

Chap. S. Their treatroant of the 

1. ptWiCfi." tor the state." 

4. Beaoenta; this muatbe a great 
exaggeration. Caesar had no personal 
knowledge ot the interior of Qoi-inany. 

5. ad alteram paxtam: i.e. the 
northwest. See map. 

fult, " was (once) " ; I.e. before, their 
teat by tbe Suebl. 

t. pauU: with KSmsviSr^. 

10. eum, " although." 

multla , . . expaitl. "in spite of 
many attempts in 



potuiBsent, tamen vectig^lga sibi fgcerunt 3c molUi hnmilidreB 
inGrmidreaqae redggerunt. 

4. In eadem causa faeroot UaipetSB et TSDcterl, qnfis 
saprfi dizimaa, qui oomplurgs annda Su^bdmm vim sustinnC* 
nmt, ad eztremnm tamen agris ezpulai et mnltia locis Germ&- 
niae trienmam vag&ti ad RhSnnm peiren^rnQt ; quAe regidii€s 
Uenapii incolebant. Hi ad ntramqne ripam fluminis agrfis, K 
aedificia, vicdaqiie habebant; aed tantae multitudiaiB adveDtu 
perterriti ex lis aedificiie quae tr&oB fiumen habuerant dgmigra- 
Teruat, et cia Rh^num disposltis praeaidiia Gkirmands tT^nsire 
prohibgbant. Illi omnia expert!, cum neqae tI contendere 
propter inopiam narium neqne clam trfinsire propter costfidifU m 
Menapifiram poBsent, reverti Be in Bufis aSdSa region&aqae simu- 
l&Terant, et tridui viam progresBl rQrBOS revertgmnt atque omnI 
hoc Itinera un& noete eqnit&tu cOofectfi inacioa inopinantSsque 
Meuapios oppreaagnmt, qui dS Germ&ndrnm diaceasii per ex* 
ploratorgs certiores fact! sine met& tr&na Rbenum in suub tl 

IS. bnmUli, -«. eOJ. [bmnuB, the 

grovnd], on t!U grotrnd; low, bDmble, 
■bjecl, veak. 1, 

IS. Inflimiu, -4, -om, aif. [I11-+ 
llnnni. strong], not BUvng, wealc 

a. Oarmkiila, -»«, /., .Oenn&nla 
OCr-mi'al-a). tutttr. Qermaiiy, tht com- 
trfeattoftheBldm. I. 

4. ttleimliuii, -nl, n. [trii, tbreH- 
■jmm, ;ear] , three years. I. 

7. dtailBifi, 1. (ntr. [mlgrO, moTe, 
mlsraMJ.move from or away, emlgrsw. 

romove. %. 

11. Mil. -Is. /. [Mdet, sit], seat, 
cbalr: residence, abode, settlement. 4. 

HxnDlS. I, tr. (ilmUU, like], make 
like: pretend. 3. 

18. Iniaioi, -«, -um, ai}. laoiA, 

know], not knowing, ignorant, nol 

IB. mstns, -tki, m. [mttuO, tear), 
fear, dread, anxiety, arprehenslon; 
met& terzlUra, terrify; bOe Ill«ttk = 
matlk buliu ral, from tear of tbla. 

Chap. 4. The si 
**~ I Qermans otobe 

1. In •ftdem Oftusft, "in tbe same 
condition " ; Le. of oppression by the 
SoebL It Is probable tbat tbe tTsIpeles 
and tbe Tencteri Uied In or near tbe 

7. trfcu: on theOemianslde. 
bftbuaTMit: before the arrival ot the 

9. Tl eontwidare. "force apassage." 

10. Inopiun n&Tlnm: the MenapU 
had, or course, taken aU the boats with 

IS. eqnltitb: altboogb cavalry aro 
persons, they are thought of here as the 
mtatti employed by tbe Qermans. 



vlc68 remigraTerant. HIb interfectis n&TibuBqne eoram oa* 
patiB, prii]BC|Dam ea pars Uenapiorum quae citr& BbSnum erat 
certior fieret, flfimen tranaieraDt atqne omnibaa eomra aedi- 
ficiiB occupiLtiB reliquam partem hiemis se eonim copiis 

■0 alnerant. 

6. His de rSbns Caesar certior factns et infirmitatem Oal- 
lorum Teritne, qaod snnt in couBilils capieDdis mobiles et noTis 
plgnimque rebas student, nihil hia cominittendum existimiiFit. 
Est enim hoc Gallicae coosaetudtmB, nti et viatores etiam in- 

s Titos cijDsiatere cogant, et quid quigqne eorum de qa&qae re 
audierit aut cogndverit qoaerant, et mercatdrea in oppidiB vnl- 
gna circumsiatat qaibnaque ex regidnibns Teniant qn&sqne ibi 
res cognoveriiit pronunti&re cdgat. His rSboa atque auditio- 
nibua permdtl de aammia saepe rSbns consilia inennt, qndrma 

10 608 in Testigid paenitgre necesae eat, cum incertls ramOribus 
aerviant et plerique ad volunt&tem edrum ficta respondeant. 

16. mnlgrft, 

1. Infirmltka, 

not BtroDg], 

1, intr. [r*H-mlgrlt, 

3. m&bUls, •«, aiii- ttnoraS, moTe), 
cbangeabls. 1. 

«. VUtOT, -SrU, m. [Tla, road], 
traveler. 1. 

e. pr6niUltlS, I. (r. [nantlS, an- 
nouDce], announce, give out publicly, 
tell, relato, report, say; give orders; 
vitit ■entanlift, pronounce. I. 

ftudltia, -ami,/- [audio, hear], bear- 
ing. hesTBay, report. 1. 

10. pftenlt«t,pk«iiiterB, puiillnlt> 

, tr,. imptrt.. It causes regret; makes 

one repenc; when irarulateii a* ptn. 
«er6. repent<App.HS). l, 

n«eeu*, tndicl. a4}., necessary, nna- 
Toldable, Indispensable. 2. 

InMrtiu, -a, •tun, adj. [Ui-+oertu, 
decided], undecided, uncertain, bh- 
trustwortby; Indeflnlte, vacue; dlsor- 

flnKS, flngere, nnzl. flcloin, k 

19. aOram eOplli, "on their snp- 
pUea " ; tbose which the Menapil bad 
suired up ror tbelr own use. 

Chap. B-B, Caesai, fearine that the 
Oaals and the Q-ermans will unite 
against biro, hastens bis inepacatioDs 

Chap. B. Caesar fears the fickleness 
of tlLflO-aulB. 

8. nihil . . . commltMndiun, "tbat 
DO couQdence shoald be placed in 

4- eeDsuetndlnls: see App. 103. 


h cogant, ^uaerant, drcamait* 

I. quftsQus = el guOi. 

8. ribiiB, "stories." 

9. qaSmm eOa paenlttre i 
•It, lit. "ot which it must repent 
them"; App. 1(W: G.-L. ITT; A. 8Bt, i: 
B. aOS, I : H.-B. BS3, 1 : H. «7. 

II. plirlqua . . . reapondAsai, 
" give answers shaped to their wiatMS "; 
Le. the wishes ot the qaesttoners. 



6. Qu& cfiastigtiidiQe cognita Caesar, a6 graviOrl belld 
occarreret, maturius quam cooBuerat ad ezercitum proScisoitur. 
Eo cum TenisBet, ea quae fore snspicatna erat facta cognCrit: 
miBsas leg&tioneB ab noa Dullis cMt&tibas ad Germaads, in- 
Yitatosque eos uti ab Rheno discederent : omnia quae poBtuUs* S 
seot ab ae fore psrata. Qn^ spe adduct! Germfinl l&tiua iam 
yagabantnr et in fines Eburonum et CondruaSmm, qui aunt 
Treverorum clientes, pervenerant, Principibus Galliae evoci- 
tiB Caesar ea quae cognSverat diBBimuIanda aibi eziatimavit, 
eorumque animla permulsls et confirm&tia equitstuque impe- w 
r&to bellnm cum Germfiols gerere cdnatituit. 

7. Rg frumentftria compar&t& equitibuaque delSctls iter 
in ea loca facere coepit qnibus in locTs esse Germ&Dfis audiebat. 

3. mit&ti, adv. rmkttma, ripe], 
early, apeedlly, soon. 3 

I. nuplcor, 1, cr. [suipioU, bus- 

pect], anspecC. distrust; surmise. 4: 

4. liirttS. 1. (r.,liirtte,suroinon; al- 
lure, persuade. 3, 

9. dlMlmaI6, I. tr. tBlmulB. make 
like], dlagulse, conceal. I. 

10. pammleeS, ~mulctr*, -mnlil, 
-mnliuin, if. (mnleeO. sootbe), sootha 
compleMlj. appease. 1. 

laama that some Gallic etumst ura 
^rfllcamine the Qena&aB, 

3. Kaesercltum: where]waaltr See 
HI. as, 11. and the map facing p. tn. 
Caesar blmselt, as nsnali bad spent the 
winter In Cisalpine QauL 

>. •» f»ata (MM), "thati those things 
bad happened": explained by the fol- 
lowing clauses. 

5. ab BliinO dlBoCdarent: i.e. lo ad- 
Tanoe further Into Gaul. The purpose 
o[ the Oanls was to get help against 

postul&ssMtt: for the future perfect 
IndloatlTe of the direct form. 

6. fore par&ta, ili. "would be in a 
prepared condition." This Is one of the 
ways of avoiding the rare future In Qnl- 
tlve given In the grammars, parSlum 
ili. The infinitive depends on a verb of 
layliig implied in invlUItSt. 

Utlna TaB&twntnl, etc.: this only 
means tbat small bodies were seal out 
In varioDS directions to see where tbey 
oonld best settle, and that some at them 

had got aa far as the Condrusl <Hee the 
map facing p. 254}. The main body re- 
mained among the MeuapU, between 
the Moaa and the Rhine. 
T. QUI refers only lo Condr^iorum. 

10. permulBli 9% cOnBrmbtlB: Cae- - 
sar pretended to believe that tbey were 
loyal to him and afraid of the Germans. 

saultfcttt; It appears tawr that h« 
secured 6,000. 

11. oSOBtUuit. "announced his de- 
cision." He had decided tlie matter 
long before. 

Chap. 7-lD. Being met by enTojrs, 
Caesar proposes that the Q-ermanB 
settle among the Ubii; be then 

era^ical features he describes. 

bhap. 1, Caesar Is met on his 
march by German envoys, who de- 
mand land. 
I. dSliotlB, ■' having levied." 
Iter coepit: tor bis route see the map 
facing p. 2S». The envoys must have 
met him near the point where the nniM 
crosses the Uosa. 



A qnibuB com pancdnim dieram iter abesset, Iggati ab m 
rSDerant, quorum haec fuit or&tio: Oerm&ndB neqne pridres 

B populd Rdm&nd bellum luferre neque tameo recuBSre, si kcee- 
sautnr, quin armiB contend&nt, quod Germ&ndrum cdnsaetudo 
sit a maioribuB tradita, quicumque bellum inferant, reBiBtere 
neque deprecari. Haec tamen dicere: Tenisse mvitoB, eiectos 
domo; si sitam gr&tiam Bdm&ni velint, posse IIb utiles esae 

10 amicds; vel sibi agrds attribuant vel patiantur eos tenere qnfts 
armis possgderint ; aSag udib Sugbia concedere, quibus nS dii 
quidem immortalgs pargs esse possint; reliquum quidem Id 
terris esse n^minem quern non superare possint. 

8. Ad haec quao visam est Caosar respondit; Bed exitue 
fuit orationis: Sibi nullam cum iis amicitiam esse posss, si in 
Gallia remanerent; neque T^rum esse, qui suds fin&s tngri uon 
potnerint, alienos oconpare, Deque ulloa in Gallia vacare agros 

B qui dari tantae praesertim multitiidini sine iniuria possint; sed 
licere, si velint, in Ubiorum finibus considere, quorum sint 
ISgati apnd ai et dg Sueb&rum iniurils querantur et a Be auii- 
linm petant; hoc sg TJbiis imperaturum. 

8. eiotO, -tear*, -Uol, -lectum, ir. 

[tftdfi, throw. App. T], cast or drive 
out, expel; cast ap; ai tlcare, rusb out, 
■ally. a. 
S. fttllU, -a, oitf- [fttor, use], uselul. 

11. poiiide, -ildara, -aMI, - 

Bum, tr., tAke poBsesston o[. seize. 

S. tuaor, tain, toiua sutn, 
watcb. guard, protect. 1. 

'; App. 

6. rec&a&n qnln, "refuse 1 
aS8, c: Q.-L. 5K: A. 558: B. 2B5, 8: H.-B. 
t03.3.b: H. U6, Z. 

T. quIOQmqua =omni&uj (dative 
with retUltrt) gui. 

S. hAaa lunen dloeta, "this, how- 
ever, the; would sa;." 

10. atttlbuant: the sabjuuctlve rep- 
resents an Imperaiilve ot the direct 

11. ftnla. "alone." 

19. rallqunm nfimluem, "n 
13. quam jioasliit: a clause of 


Caasai lefuses Gallic 
iffers to let theni settle 

1. anaa tIiudi est, "what seemed 

best." guai Is [be object ot rttpotuteri, 

CO be supplied Iroin retpondit. 
axltQB, " the conclusion." 
3. vSruin, '■rlglit,""Just." 
qui: supply «o« as the antecedent. 
T. BnebAmm InlUlU, " the wronv* 

doDe them by theSuebL" 
8. hoc: I.e. that they allow iheUslp 

etea and the Tenclerl to settle amoof 


9. Legati liaec s6 ad suds rel&turoB dizemnt et rS dsllbe- 
ifttft post diem tertinm ad CaeBarem Teversfirds; interea n6 
propins s& castra moT§ret petigmnt. Ng id qaidem Caesar ab 
gS impetr&ri posse dixit, Cogndverat enim magnam partem 
eqnitatus ab ila aliquot diSboa ante praedandi frumentandlqne s 
cansa ad AmbiTaritds trans Mosam misaam; hos exspectari 
eqaitga atqne eina rei cauaa moram interpdoi arbitrab&tar. 

10. Mosa profluit ex monte Voaego, qui est in flnibna 
Lingonnm, et parte qaadam ex Rheno receptfi, quae appellatnr 
Tacalna, inaolam efficit Batavdrum neqiie longiaa inde mllibus 
pasBuum Lxxz in Oceanum influit. Bhenns autem oritnr ex 

in, luterposei allege; cause: 1 
IntBrpfinare, pledge, 4. 

1. pr9flu6, -flnsia, -flUI, — 
[fluS, Qoir) , flow torcb, rise. l. 

VOBBKa*, -I. "•■ (BCg), the Vosegna 
ITJis'e-gaB), bttUr, ihe Vosges Monn- 

B. tnniaiitor, i, tntr. ifmii«iituiD, 

gralD), get groin, [orage. i. 

e. Aml>lT»rl«, -Oruin, m. (At), the 
AmbiTUltl (Sin"b1.var^-tl). 1. 

■cwa, -tit, tn. (ABI), Ibe riotr Mos& 
an&s^, noiB the Heose or Mitas. ^ 

T. InMrpOnfi, -pOner*. -posul, 
-posltum, Ir. ipOnO. place], place be- 

tbem. The urangement wonlil have 
been adTaniagBODs lo both parties; (or. 
UK the Ubll were nearl; a match for the 
Suebi, the eomblned Ubll, UslpeI«B, and 
Tencteii should have more than held 

CliaD, 9. The envoys BHk for time 
to consider, bnt Caesar marches on. 

5. poit dltm MrtluiD, ' 'on the third 
day": i-e- the next day but one, since 
tbe present day was counted In. 

8. proptuB b6: App. 122. b: G.-L. 359, 
n. 1: A.VB.a-. B. 141, 3: H.-B, ISO. b: H. 
tic, 6. 

6. dUbna: ablative of degne o[ dil- 

a. tr&na: loihewest. 

■XBpactiTi equlUB: The German 
cavalry was far Bnportor to Caesar's. 
and he could afford lo take do risk. 
HowevCT". 11 Is quite possible that tbe 
envoys woe honest ia asklDB time to 

-, ftKr, 

8. Tacalns, -I 

«. (Af), I 

BaULTl, -Grum, •». (Atl, t 

consider, tor they can have had' no 
power to bind tbelr people to accept 
Caesar's proposition. 

Chap. 10. Description of tho 
Rhine, the Mosa, and their couflu- 

1. ax monta THecO: more correctly 
from tbe plateau lying between the 
Vosges and the Oevennes. 

3. paita iinkaam, etc; the Bhlne 
divides at the eastern end ol tbe island 
ol the Batavl The southern stream, 
called Vacalus, flows west (ill it Join* 
the Hosa. The combined Mosa and 
Vacalus flow oa into the sea, making 
tbe HOulhem boundary ot the Island. 
The conQueace of the Mosa and the 
Vacalus was probably eighty miles 
from tbe sea, as Caesar says: but It la 
now neafec the sea. owibg to a change 
la the river beds. 

>. luda: from the oon&uende. 


B LepontiiB, qui AIp6a incolnnt, et loDgd spatid per fines Nan- 
tuatiam, Helrgtidrum, SSqnanArum, Medio matri cum, Tribo- 
cdmm, TrgverOrum, citatus fertar; et, nbi Oceand appropin* 
qn&vit, in pliirgB diffluit partes multia ingectibusque InsdlB 
effectis, qaarum para magna a feris barbarisque nationibus 

10 incolitar, ex qaibas sunt qal piscibus atque ovis aTium rivere 
exiatimantur, multiaque capitibas in Oceanuni influit. 

I I . Caesar cam ab hoste ndn ampliaa passunin xii milibua 
abesset, at erat cdnstitutnm, ad eum legati revertnntur; qui 
in itinere congreasi magnopere n^ longiua progreder^tar ora- 
bant. Gum id n6n impetraasent, petebant ati ad eos eqnites 

B qal agmen antecessissect praemi 
sibiqae ut poteatatem faceret 
rum s! principSa ac aeaatns i 

itteret eosque pugna prohibcret, 
n TTbioB legatos mittendi; quC- 
bi iure iurando fidem feciaset, 

ea condicidne quae & Caeaare ferretur ae usiirds oatendebant; 
ad h^ res cdnficiendas sibi tridui spatium daret. Haec omnia 

B. Lepontll, -Oram, m. (Cb), the 
Lepontll (le-pOn'shyi). l. 

e. HedlomAtrlcI. -Stmii, m. (Btg). 
theMedlDmatrlcl(me"dI-5-iiiftcT1-aU. 1. 

TrlbocI, -Criuii,m. (Beta), lb«Trlbocl 
(Drtl/^fli). 2. 

1. oltltM, -a, -uin. 14*- [Report, 0/ 

Olta, putln motion], awlft. 1, 

8. aifflus, -nuer», -flaxi, — , '■''■- 

[flu8, flow], flow In alfferont aireotlooa. 
divide. 1. 
iDSfini, -«ntii, (u^.. enormous, huge, 

ID. plsolE, -ll, m.. flsh. 1. 
Orum, -I, n., egg, l. 
ivlH, -l8./.,bird. 1. 

S. lODgO BP*tl6, " In a long coarse." 
Hantufctlum: either there la soma 

mistake, or we know nothing ol this 

tribe of N&ntuat«s. 
S. lusnllB «fl»oUi, "makliig Is- 

10. BHiit qnl, "tbere are some who." 
IB usiuLlly Followed by the aubjiinctiTe 

Chap. 11-lB. Caesar slanghters tli8 
Oerman host In revenge for a treach- 
erous attack. 

a. ut aiat oOnstttfitnm: translate 

Mter ad . . . revertuntor. See 9, a. 
S. UMMMtHant: impUed Indirect 


6. qntromai, "and it their." 

7. MdlHt: tor the (utorB perfect ot 
the direct form. 

8. •& ooudloUn* bB bsorfis, " that 

tbey would accept the terms"; i.e. the 
oOer to let them settle among the TJbU. 

9. tridul ■patlum: this seems a 
abort time for the purpose, since the 
Ubll were some seventy miles awa;: 
but there are well authenticated In* 
atances ol longer rides In less time. The 
envoys of the Ublt. who werewltb Cae- 
aar, could tell them where to find tbe 
authorities, so that no time would be 
lost In looking them np. 

dafBt; for the imperative of the 
direct form. 


Caeaar eddem ills pertinSre arbitrabfttur, nt tridui mori inter- u 
posita equities edrnm qui abesaent rererterentur ; tamen s€sg 
non loDgius nuUbna paBsnum qaattnor aqa&tidnis cansA pro- 
cessurnm ed die dixit; hue posters dig quam frequeotissiini 
convenirent, at d€ eoniin postulatiB cognSsceret. Interim ad 
praefectoa, qui cum orani eqnitata antecesaerant, mittit qui u 
nu&tiarent no hoates proelid laoeaaerent et,-si ipai lacesserentur, 
BOgtiuSrent quoad ipse cum ezercitu propiuB acoeBsisset. 

12. At hoates ubi primam noatrOa equitea cSmpesernnt, 
quomm erat qulnque milium uumerue, cum ipsi non ampliug 
octiagentos equitga habSrent, quod il qui frflmentandi causa 
ierant traua Mosam ndudiim redierant, nihil timentibua nostris, 
quod UgatI edmm pauIS ante a Caeaare disoeeseriuit atqae is ( 
dies indutiis erat ab his petitns, impetu facts celeriter uostrda 
pertDrbaTornnt; riiranB bis resiatentibua C0Dsu6tadine bu& ad 
pedes dfisiluerunt, anffOBsTa equia compluribusque noatris de- 

19. uiu&tlOi -OnUiZ-tkiina, waterl, 

getUiig wai«r. t. 

IS. frBauSiiB, -entU, atii.. In gn&t, 
numberB, In crowdB. 8. 

14. poitnlfttusi, -I, n. [poctnlS, de- 
mand], deraand. claim, requeab 4. 

IT. avOAd, adv. [qn6, wblcber+ad, 
to], to irbersi u long u, is lar as: Ull, 

8. ootliutanti, -a*, -a, card: num. 

^(^.[imU, elgbl], eight bundred. t. 
t. IndtktttiB, -ftrum,/., truce. 1, 
8. •ufibdia, -fodere, -(MI. -fbHum, 

tr. [lub+fOdlfi, dlsJ.'dls under: stab 

underueatb. 1. 

10. eSdem UIO sertlntn, " tended 
U> tbat same oblacl." See 9, 0. and 
note. It la qnlle likely tbat Caesar was 
mistaken. At any rate their reqnest 
ror time to oonsalt tbe Ubll was 
perfect!)' natural, lor tbey could Dot 
know -whetboT the XTbll would respect 
CMsar-B command (S, S). 

IS. bftc: Le. to the camping gronnd. 

14. cDQTsnlrent: seetJorc^il.fl. note. 

IB. 4Ul DnntUisDt, "men to give 

eonrve (or tbe tuture perfect. 
Chap. 13. The G-ennan cavalry 

attack and r 

ear's cavalry. 
I. nblpTlmiun. "aawmnaa." 
a. aquiUs: wbrnottbeablatlveafCer 

the comparative aiapUta! App. 130. A. 
For tbls attack of SCO cavalry on 9.000, 
compare 3, 11. 

qui Israut: cf. 9, K. 

6. Impfltn fftoUti tbls attack cannot 
bare been autborlMd by the Qenuan 
leaders. Tbey certainly wanted a truce, 
whatever their motives may have been, 
and tbe defeat of Caesar's cavalry was 
not Important enongb to tempt tbem to 
break it. Either tbe Qerman cavalry 
had tailed to receive orders, or It could 
not resist tbe delight of attacking a 
despised foe. 

T. afinauetftdln*: cf. 3, 7. 




iect^s reliqn&B in fngam coniecSmnt atque ita perterritos 

10 €gerunt nt n5ii priua fnga deBleterent qoam in cdnspectnm 
agminis nostri T6masent. In eo proelio ex equiUbm noatris 
interficinntar qnattuor et BeptD&giat&, in his vir fortissimos, 
Pisd Aqnit&DUS, ampliaeimd genere n&tns, caine arm in ciTitate 
Bua regnam obtinuerat amicus & Ben&tu nostrd appellatna. 

IE Hie com fr&tri intercl&sfi ab bostibos auxilinm ferret, illrnn 
ex perlcnld Sripuit, ipse eqnd Tolneratd dgiectns qaoad potnit 
fortiBsimg restitit; cum circumventus moltia vnlneribuB accep- 
tiB cecidisaet, atque id frater, qui iam proelio exccBserat, 
procnl auimadTertiaset, incitato equa Be hoatibos obtnllt atqne 

ID interfectuB eat. 

13. Hoc facto proelio Caeaar neqne iam sibi Ugatos au- 
dieodos neqae condiciones accipiendas arbitrabatnr ab lis qui 
per dolnm atque insidi&s petita pace oltro bellum intnlissent; 
exspectare verd dum boatium copiae augSrentnr equitatueque 

6 rererteretnr summae d§mentiae eBse iudicabat; et cognita Gal- 
l&ntm infirmitate quantum iam apud eda bostga uno proelid 
auctorit&tis eaaent conBecuti aentiebat; quibns ad consilia 
capienda nihil spati dandum ezistim&bat. Hia constitntiB 
r€bns et consilid cam legatis et qnaestore communicato, ne 

U. FI«0. -ftnla, " 

B. dtmenUa, -M 

madnasB, lolly, l. 

9. tta . . . tcAnint, "drove them 
back In Bacb a panic." 

ID. prlna qiuun TinliMnt: the sub- 
junctive Is probably dae to attraction, 
but mar *>« explatned by Ajip. BM, b. 

18. ganarv: case? App. 138: G.-L. 
■96: A. «S, a: B. 216: H.-B. «1S; H. 469. 8. 

IB. Intsroltrt: iranslaW by a rela- 
tive claose. 

>■ guaestoT, -Qrii, m. [ausrt, 

seek], a quaestor (tevfSs'tdr), one of a 
cta4i of officeri in cAarge of tin piMic 
ravenuea or the Jbumca of the army- 1 
oomxntialcd, !■ ^r. [ooininfkiili, com- 
mon], make common, commnnlcste. 
Impart, share. 1. 

who ha»« come to apolosize, 
1. nequa Ivn, " no longer." 
4. eupeotbe; sabiector^w. 
dim anxtrautur: App. ess. b. 

B. itumnaa . 
ol the utmost tolly." 
6. auantum auatSrlUUi, " 

S. guaeitfire: see Int. St. 
nfi . . . praatermlttaiat, "not 
any opportunity tor battle go by." 



qnem diem pngnae praetermitteret, opportunissima rSa accidit, u 
qnod poBtridig eiiiB die! m&ne eadem et perfidifi et aimuUtione 
nei Germani freqaeDt^B, omnibus prlncipiboB maioribasqne 
natu adhibitis, ad earn in caetra Ten^rnnt, Bimnl, ut diceba- 
tnr, Bu! purgandi causa, quod, contra atque esset dictam et 
ipsi petiBsent, proelium pridie commiaiasent, aimul ut, sT qnid » 
possent, de indutiis fallendo impetr&rent. QnoB aibi Caesar 
oblatoe gavisns illos retingri iussit, ipso omnes copiaa castris 
eduxit eqnitatnmqne, quod recent! proelio perterritam esse 
eiiBtimabat, agmen sabsequ! iussit. 

14. Aoi€ triplic! institut& et celeriter Tin milium itinere 
confectd prins ad hoBtium castra perrCnit quam quid ager^tnr 
Germani aentire possent. Qui omnibus r&bus snbitd perterritT, 

10. prASlennltM, -mlttvra. -mlsl, 
-mlitum, tr. [mlttfi, scmd], send bj: 
lac pass, overlook. I, 

11. mtn«, adv.. In tbe marnliig. 

perfldla, -a*./, [perfldni, [althltxa). 
treachery, perfidy! 

honesty. 1 

■iniDllU6, -Anti, /. [ilmnia, maira 
like], almnlatlon, preMnae. deceit, dts- 

17. tandeA, gkudirs, RftvUni Bnm 

(App. T4). intT.. rejoice. 1. 

IX. qnod, "liuiinely) that." 

13. kdeum . . . TtaSnint; this ac- 
tion seema to disprove Caesar's charge 

14, Bul pDTguidl oauBk, " to excuse 

themselTsa." Coaslrueclon! App. SSI, 

l; G.'L. 438. K. 1 

.. 604. < 

B. VN, 5 

I.-B. B14: H. (128, S, 
eoiitr4 atque, " 

15. ut . . . Impatrirant. "to ob- 
tain whatever [Ut. "'It anything"] they 
could in the way ol a truce by deceiving 

16. 4uSa obl&tOa (Mt<). "that they 
bad comeluio his power." 

17. rallnSrl: thla, with what fol- 
lows, was a shocking violation of the 
law of nations. Compare what Caesar 
says of the action of the Venetl, III, 9, 
8. Calo, Caesar's enemy, proposed In 
the Bomansenaliatbat Caesar be banded 
over to tbe Qermans for punishment. 
Caes&r'a motives may be summed up as 

follows; 1, a detamUnatlon to teach tbe 
Oermans. once for all. never to invade 

at once the bad effect which the cavalry 
defeat must have had on (he already 
dlsaSected Qauls: 1, Irritation at the 
treacherous attack, although every- 
(blng shows (bat it was not authorized 
by the leaders; 4. a real doubt as to 
wbetber the Qermabs were not trying 
to gain time lor tbe return ot their 
formidable cavalry; b, the eertalncy 
that a pltcbed battle with tbe entire 
force of Gecmans would cost him the 
lives of many soldiers. 

Ch&p. 14. Caesar Buiprlaes tho 
Oerman camp. 

1. aelS . . . iDBtitliti; usually an 
army bas to march la column along a 
road. Here the country was open and 
level, so that the army could march In 
battle formation. 

a. pxlni quam poiarat; App. ni, a. 

: .Coo>;Ic 



et celeritate sdventus nostr! et discesBu suorum, neqne comrilf 
B hsbendl neque arma capiendi epatio dato, perturbantur cdpi- 
fisne adveraus hoBtem ducere, an castra defeadere, an fuga 
aalutom petere praosturet. Qudrnm timor cum fremiti! et 
concursu aignificaretar, militgs Dostri priBtinl die! perfidia 
incitati in caetra irrup€ntnt. Quo loco qui celeriter arma 
10 capere potngrunt paultBper nostris restiternnt atqne inter 
carroa imped! meotaque proelium comm!serunt; at reliqua 
mnltitudo pnerornm mnlierumque (nam cum omnibus snis 
domo ezcesserant ■ Rhenumqne traasierant) passim fugere 
coepit; ad quOs cdoaectandos Caesar equitatum m!Bit. 

16. Germaoi post tergnm clamore audito cum buob inter- 

fic! Tidcrent, armis abiectis signiaque milit&ribus relictis Be ex 

castriB eiecerunt, et cum ad confluentem Mosae et Rhenl per- 

veniBsent, reliqua fuga deeperata magno numero iiiterfecto 

B reliqui se in flumen praeci pita ve runt atque ibi timore, laBaitu- 

t. -ne.inttrrog. mclUlc: indirict qutt- 
timt, limplvtign e/ a gaettloniApp. 213, 
0); in indirtet guettiotu, wlietlier; -I18 
. . . -na, -n* . . . ui. ntrum . . . -ns, 
vhettaer ... or. 2. 

■idTersua. prep- ur. ace. [MlTMCUI. 
turned agailnst], oppoBiM to, ^[alDSt. 

UI, conf.. ufnl to iiUrodac* Iht ircond 
rnembir of alternative gueaUons, or, or 

9. irrnmpe,-nunp«re,-TfipI,-nip- 
tum, 'r. [ln+ri)iiiii&, break], break In. 

a wa7 Into, storm. 
, in all directions. 

4. *t . . . «t. "both. . . and," 

■Ufimm: l.e- their leaders, vbo bad 
been detained b; Caesar. 
,B. pertuTbantnr -n* prfteit&ret, 
" were lo great contusion, <Dot know- 
ing) wbelher It was better." On tbe 
kind o[ question see App. 214; S<M. <. 

9. qui : ec. <i as antecedent. 

14. c6aieatandSB: tbe beginning ol 
tbe next cbapter shows tbat tbe objecc 
It tbe taking of prison- 

Chap. ID. Tbe Oermans are rotited 
and slau^tered. 

t. RMbI: i.e. the Vacalua; see paru 
piSdam, ID, 3. note. 

4. rellQUi, "further." 

B. reliqui perliruul: some mnst 
have escaped. At any raw to later 
years ibere were Uslpetes and Tencterl 
llTlng east of the Kblne. not tar from 
this battlefield. Bat they may b« ac- 
counted lor bj the escape of tti« emr- 




dine, tT flnTninia oppressi perierunt. Nostri ad nonm omnSs 
incolnmes perpaacis TaLaeratis ex tanti belli timore, com 
hostiam nameraB capitum ccocxxx milinm fuisset, b3 in castra 
tecepemnt. Caesar ils quds in caatris retinuerat disc^dendl 
potestatem fecit. Illi anpplicia crnciatusque Galldrnm vcriti, lo 
quoram agros Texayerant, reman^re b8 apnd enm Telle dixe- 
Tuat. HiB Caesar libertatem conceBsit. 

16. Germanico bell6 cdnfectd mnltis de cauBiB Caesar 
Btatnit sibi Rhenum esse transenndnm ; quamm ilia fuit IubUb' 
Bima, quod, cum videret Oermands tam facile impelli ut in 
Galliam venirent, auia quoqae rebus eds timbre voluit, onm 
intellegerent et posae et aadere popnli Bomani exercitum b 
Shenum transire. AcceBBit etiam qood ilia pars equitatus 
Usipetnm ©t Tgncteromm quam aupra oommemoravi prae- 
dandi frumentandiqae causa Moaam tr&nsisae Deque proelid 
interfuisse post fiigam suomm st^ trana Ehenum in flnea 
Sngambroram reoeperat seque cum his coniunxerat. Ad qaoB lo 

e. perti, -Ire, -II, -Itum, intr. [«0, 
SD. App. 84], be destroyed or, killed. 

1. Oermkuloui, -%. -tun, oitf- [0«r- 
minui, Oennan), ot or penalnlng lo 

3. l&BtUi, -a. -um, adj- Il6l, ligbl], 
In accordance wltb law or rlKtac. lawlul, 
valid. Just, lalr; proper, regular; teUH 
f&neia, apiHiiiirlate. 4. 

ID. Sngambrl, -Bium, m. (Ag). the 
SuKambrl (su-gftm'bri). 4. 

' ' orerwhelmed. ' ' 

S. oppresBl, 

ad finnin, "loaman." 
7. M, "arwr," ■' relieved at." 
t. dUeUendl . . . fiolt: K Caesar 
had believed the leaders guilt/ of 
treachery, tbey above all others should 
have beeD panlshed. 
IS. llbert&ten. "permission" tore- 

However unjust' and brutal Caesar's 
treatment of cbe Qermans may have 
been. It served his purpose. More than 
a year lat«r. when Coeear bad lost a 
legion and a hair and all Oaul seemed 
ripe tor revolt, the Treveri tried lo get 
Oerman tielp. But che Qermana replied 
(V, BBi t>iM tJie thing had been tried 
twice, by Arlovistus and W ^be Teua- 
toli tbey wotUdumptfortnnB DO more. 

:o the Q-ermaua. 

M cross t^e Rhine. 

: reasons fords- 

3. ttatli 

most valid," 

. TOlult: 

with Uta. 

4. mil . . . iSbUB. " for ih«lr own 
possessions too." The possessive nan- 
ally follows its noun; why does It here' 
precede F 

oum IntalUgATBnt, " (as they wouldf 
when thef should see"; ImpUed Indireoc 
discourse for the future indicative. 

6. aocAUlt atlain quod, lit. "there 
was added also the fact that," ■• "motv- 
over," " and besldeB." 

7. inpri: see 9,5. 

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cam Caesar nflntids misiaset qni poatnlftroDt eOs qnl sibi G«- 
liaeque bellum intulissent sibi dederent, reBpondSmnt: Popali 
RomAm imperintn Rhenam finire; ai a6 invitd Qerm&Dds in 
Galliam transire ii6d aeqnnm ezistim^ret, oar ant qnicqaam 

IS eaae imperi aut potestatia trans Rhenum poatularet? Ubi! 
autem, qui uni ex TraoarhSQaniB ad Caesarem l€g&tds mlse- 
rant, amicitiam f^cerant, obaidga dederant, mt^nopere orfibant 
ut sibi auzilinm ferret, quod graviter ab SuSbia preme- 
rentnr; Tel, si id facere occupationibua rei piiblicae probibe- 

90 retar, exercitum modo Rbennm transport&ret : id aibi ad 
auxilium spemqtie reliqu! temponB satis futurnm. Taatum 
esse nomen atqne oplDidaem eiua exercitiia, Arioviatd pnlso et 
hoc noTisaimo proelio facto, etiam ad ultimas Germfindrnm 
nfttiones, uti opTi)i5ne et amicitifi popul! Roman! tuti esse 

» possent. Kavium magnam cSpiam ad transportandam exerci- 
tum pollicgbantur. 

17. Caesar hia dg caosis qnfis commemcH-aTi Rhgnmn 
trftnaire deore^erat; aed n&vibna transire niMjue satis tutom 

IS. flUlO, *. tr. [flnll, limit), limit, 
bonnd; determloe. measure. 1. 

14. CtkTi interrog. and Ttt. aSt., yittj. 
tor what reason: lor vblcb reason, 
wherefore. 4. 

le. TTftiiBTli<ii4nui, •», -nm, adj., 

beyond or across the Rhine; pi. at notm, 
Tr&nsrlienlDt, the people across the 
Rhine. 1. 

19. oeonji&tlO. -Onli, /. [oaoape, 

seize], seizing; occupation, bustaeas, 
engaeement 3. 

SO. trinsports,!,"-. (ports, cbitt), 
carry across »r over, bring orer, 
convey, transport. -^ 

33. ArlDTlstua, -I, m. Ariovlatas 
Ci"rt-6-Tl3'tils). a Ung of U 

IS. (u() dederent: object of po.(uia- 

19. oeonpktUtLtbiu »l pflWlcfte, 


IS. Prefers to the subject ol «*.((- 

30. trkuport&ratilnthesameooD- 

Btruetlon as/erre(, L 18. 

14. our pOBtullrrt: model App. 

11. nllani t«mporii, "tor the 

2«B,miS10, a. 


•nl . . . BACnum, "thai anrtUng 

across the Rhine belong to Cl*> " be of) 

flnttlves depend on a verb of Baying Im- 

plied In ftvlfront 

IT. obaldta dadaiant: seen. SS, ^ 

Chap. 17. DBsert-ption of Caesar's 
bridge aorosB the Hhlua. 

fttWant. "kept begging." The en- 

3. tl)tum:aQenemycoaMmoreeasl- 

Toys bad been wltb blm tor some time. 

ly prevent a landing from boats, and In 

having oome before the battle with the 

case of defeat boats vi-ould oDer a Ow 

Germans: see a, 7., 

gerous means of retreat. 



eeae arbitribatar, neqae anse neqae popali BSm&nt dignitfitia 
eese alatugbat. Itaque, etei Bunima difficnltas faoiendl pontis 
pruponebatur propter l&titudinein, rapiditatem, altitudmemque t 
flumioiB, tamen id sibi contendendum aut aliter ii5ii traducen- 
dadi ezercUum existim&bat. Bationem pontis banc Institoit. 
Tigna bina sesquipedalia paulutn ab imd praeacuta dimSoBa 
ad altitudiiiem fluminia iDtenrallO pedum dudmiu inter eft 
idDgebat. Haec cum macbinationibus immiasa in fliimen k 
defixerat fiatucTsque adegerat, uod aablicae modo dgrectg ad 
perpendiculum, Bed prfiue ac fastigate at BecuDdnm D&turam 

a. rapldttU, -t&tlB. /■ [npldni, 

Bwllt] . swlf tnesa. I. 

8. tlcniun. -I, M.. log, limber, beam, 
pile. 3. 

itaqulpAUllB, -a. adj. [tasqill. one 

&nd a halt+pM, foot] , a toot and a ball 
Cblclc. 1. 

10. ImmttU, -inltMrB, -mill, -mli- 

■nm, (r. [In+mlttc, Bend], send or let 
Into, Insarc: send against, direct to- 
wards or agolnat; trablbiu Immliili, 
beams belDS let In. 3. 

11. dBflgfi, •tlBBTa.-flzl.-flzum. er. 

Itlgi, fix], Hz or tasteadown. drtvelu, 

Bitaoa, •»,/., i)ll»<lrlver. t, 
BUblloa, -M,/., pile, stake. S. 
dirflete, adv. (diiSotna, stralKht], 
stralgbt. I. 
1>. pBnieiidtouliiin, -I, *., plQni- 

'. [Pr6DUB, i 

Ined), slop- 

nutlsfttt, adv. [fattls&tna, eloping), 
sloplag. I. 

S. naqua Buae . . . statntbat, " be 
considered it Inconslswnl with bis own 
dlgnltf , etc. " dignitalit le apredlcuUTe 
possessive geoltiTe. The eonatmcdou 
of tbe bridge would Impress tbe barba- 
rians wltb a bigb sense of tbe power and 
skill of tbe Romans. 

4. Bumma prSp6nfib&tur. " presenv 
ed Itself aa very great. " 

B. litltadlnem: tbe bridge was prob- 
ably buUt near Bonn, where Ihe river Is 
a little more than a quarur of a mile 

e. Id eontendendum, "tbatheougbt 
to make the effort. " 

8. bin*, "two." The dlsCrlbutlTe Is 
used because there were man; sach tim- 
bers and they were bandied two at a 
time. See pla,n, a, a. 

dlmBiiBA ad, "measured according 
to"; i.e. they were made shorter or lon- 
ger according to the deptb of tbe river 

where tbey were drlTen Into lis bed. 
a. luterrUlO . . , imifStatt, -he 

Joined together [by spiking wooden 
cross-pieces on tbem] wltb a space ot 
two teet [between tbem." See plan and 
tbe plle-drlrer. p. £73. tnterrSllS Is an 
ablative of attendant clrcumstaooe. 

10. hue . . . dfiflxerat, " when he 
had let tbem down into the river by ma. 
chines and bad secured them there." 
They were probably Boaled out to the 
raft on which the pUe-drlvet (p, 273) 
stood, and were then handled by a der. 
rick or some each simple machine, df- 
fixerat: modeT App. 211, i: O.-L. 5B4: 
A. 548: B. 288, 3: H-B. STB: H. 001. *. 

11. nfin . . . parpandloulum, "not 
vertically, like a pile"; I.e. aa piles ara 
usually driven. 

18. ut . . . vricnmbaraitt: Le. slop- 
ing down-stream. 

N..,j-, Google 


a, a, tlgna bina, 1. S. t. dSricta materia, 1, SI. 

b, b. Us conlffirla duo (llgna), 1. IS. /, longmii crStesque, L 22. 
C, blpedfilla trabs. I. IC g, subllca oblique acta, 1. S3. 

i, d, d, d, (ibulae, 1. IT. h, allae (subllcoe) supra pontem, L X 




flfiminiB prOonmbereiit, ilg item oontr&ria duo a& anndem 
modum iuoflta iDterrftUfi pedum quadrftg^num &b loferiore 
parte contra vim atque impetam fluminis conversa statuebat. u 
Haec utraque, insnper biped&libns trsbibuB immisBiB, quantum 
eoram tigudmm iunctura 'di8tS.bat, blnis atrimque fibulis ab 

1*. quBdrkKfnl, -ae, -a, dUCr. nun. 
a<tJ.[qiiadT&gliitt, forty], fortjeacb. 1. 

16. iQlupar, adv. [lupCT, above], 
above, on the lop. framaboTe. 1. 

blpadUla. -■. aa}. [bli. mtce+pCi, 
foot]. Of two feet, iwo feet tblcli. 1. 

IT. Ifiuetua, -aa, /. [luncO. Join], 
Joining. I, 
dl««.l -itftTi, , , ta( 

stand], Btajid apart; be apart, r 
or separated. 1. 
utrlmqua, adv. [nteique, each id 

■■ [■». 

IS. Ub . . . atatufbati l.e.aslmllar 
pair o( pllea was drlTen into ibe river 
bed opposite to these, forty feet down- 
BtreBm (ab Inftriort parU), bat eloping 
agalnsl the cmrent. Sea plan. S, 6. 

dDO: we should expect btna, as Id 1. 8. 

1«. quadTkBJnimi: torm? App. IS, 
t: G.-L. S3, i: A, IB, d: B. %, 6: H.-B. 71, 

Tbe dUlance must have been meas- 
ured G~> tbe surface of tbe water: the 
roadway was therefore a little less than 

IS. liaMutrkque,"! 

la tbe subject of dUUnelt 
A. two-toot beam, ez 
■pace between the plli 
(TuDOtum . . . dUtai>al), 
from one pair of piles ti 
faced It Iplan. e). The 
toward each other, ani 
were OrlTen Into the hoi 

and woald tend to 
fall lOKetber when the 
oross-beam had cocar> 
ry a weight. There- 
fore they were held at ' 
Ibe proper distance 
apart ((UifincMntur) 
by apalT of fastenings 
(JibuUu) at each end 
of the two-Coot cross 

qoutnin . . . dla- 
ttbkt, lit. "as much 
ai the Joining of the 

timbers stood apart." ^uimeum la an 
Bccusailre of extent of space and has 
bipeddlBnu as lu antecedent, 

IT. nbnlli: It Is not certain what 
these " fulenlngs" were. Those showa 
in the plan (d, d) are . simple and eSeet- 
Ire, and are occasionally osed In modem 
engineering. The two-foot cross-beam 
rests on acroea-bar, which Is spiked Qrm- 
ly to the outer sides of the piles. An- 
other cross-bar Is laid loosely In the op- 
posite angle, and the outer ends of th» 


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extrema parte distiagbUQtur ; quibns disclQBis atqae in contr&- 
riam partem revmctlB tanta erat operiB firmitudd atqne ea 

» rerom natiira ut quo maior via aquae se Incit&viaset hoc artina 
iiligata teoerentur. Haec derecta materia iaiecta contexeban- 
tnr ac longuriis cratibusque cdnstemebantiir ; ac uihilo setius 
Bablicae et ad inferiorem partem fluminis oblique f^ebaDtor, 
quae prd ariete subiectae et cum omnt opere coniunctae vim 

39 fluminis esciperent, et aliae item auprft pontem mediocri spa- 
ti5, ut, ai arborum truuci eiye u&ves deiciendl operia cauaa 



18. dllOlbdft, -clbdaTB, -oiasl, 
'el&Bum, tr. (olBDdS, »hut], abut oO, 
keep apart, aeparale. 1. 
30. sguB, ~Ba,/.. water. 2. 
tXtB, adv. [artUl.clOBel, closely, flnn- 

31. UllgO. 1. (r. [IKB.blna], attach, 
bold or bind togetber. 1. 

dlrflotm, -A. -um, tuti- [dirlsS. pnt 
iQllDe], BtraighL 1. 

Inlal6, •loora, -IScl, -leotum, tr, 
[IkCU, hurL App. I], throw into or up- 
on; pul or place on ; Inspire, In fuss. 3. 

contazA, -tszaTB, -tsxnl, -textiun, 

Cr. [tOX8, weave], weave or bind to- 
gether, connect- 1. 

33. OT&tBB, -la, /.. wleltor-work; 
fascine (bundli 0/ iticki for JlUing 

oAnatBrnS, -BtarsBTs, -Btt4rl, 
-Btlitum, (r, [itamS, strewl. strew 

as. obllQuS, adt. (obllquiu, alant- 
ing]. obliquely, slantwise. I. 
36. tnmoiu, -i, m., trunk of treat. 

dlsOl&Bli. by the cross-be 

Id . . . TeTlnoUB, "bom 
In the opposite direction"; 1 

19. SK rerum nUora, "f 
nature of the structure." 

20. incltiTlBSBt Is sub, 

31. taa«e refers to the part of the 
structure already descrlbeil. for which 
Caeaar baa no name- In modem engl- 

Were probably between Bf ty aud slity 

such treslle-bents. They were connect' 
ed by timbers laid from one crosa-beiun 
to the next, lengthwise of the bridge (d^ 

33. nlhlie iBUub: l-e. aitboogb (be 
bridge was already very strong. 
3B. at Is correlative with (t In L 35. 
Obllaat: i.e. they were driven In with 
double piles 


3S. alias: ec lublicae aggbanttir. 
There Is nothing tn tbe text to show the 
number of these pitea. but the plan (A) 
suggests an eflecUve defense. 

■patl6; ablative of measoreat dlOer- 
ence with luprd. 

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easent a barbaris misBae, his d^fgnsOribiis eimim r€ram vis 
minnergtnr, nen pooti nocdrent. 

18. Diebns decern qaibna materia ooepta erst oomport&ri 
omni opere efEejcto exereitua trfldficitur, Caesar ad ntramqne 
partem pontis firmo praesidio re1ict5 in fines Sagambrornm 
contendit. Interim & compluribus ciritatibns ad earn legatl 
TeniDttt; quibus pficem atqne amicitiam petentibas iTberaliter ( 
respondet obsidesque ad se addiici iubet. At Sngambri ez ed 
tempore quo p5Ds institui coeptns est fnga GOmparit&, hortsu- 
tibns lis quos ez Tgncteris atqne Usipetibas apnd s€ habebant, 
finibns snis ezcesserant snaqne omnia export&Teratit sSque in 
solitudinem ac Bilvas abdideraiit. r 

10. Oaesar pancos dies in edrnm finibns morStns, omnibna 
Ticis aedificiisque incgnsis frumentisque snccisis, se in fineb 
TJbiomm recSpit, atque his anzilium snum pollicitns, al ft 
Snebis premerentur, haec ab iis cognovit: Snebos, poeteaqaam 
per ezploratorgs pontem fieri comperissent, more sno conciliQ f 
habitd nunti&s in omn^s partes dimisisse nti de oppidis demi- 
grarent, liberds, nzdrSs, suaque omnia in silris deponereut^ 
atqne omnes qui arma ferre poasent iinnm in locnm cooTeni' 
rent; hunc esse d^lSotnm medium fer6 regiAnum earnm quftu 

». •XPOrtO. 1, (r (ports, carry), 

a. Buoows, -oldaw, -oldl. -oUum, 

eanr oni or awar- 1. 

10. ■BmftdS.-lnlB./liMui.ftlone). 

wUdernesB. I. 

wards+quam. thanj. adier. 1. 

it. Maentmluae Is subJuDcclve br 
Implied Indirect discourse, ror & futore 
perfect Indicative. 

38. nau: whynotfWfniT 

fTKntY la f^iiesar crosses the river 
ito tlie ooantrj of the 

J, dinniBdacemgiiltinB,. Ut. "With- 
in Cen days within whlch/*="wltli1ii teQ 
days aRcr" ; ct. pavcU itiibuB quVnu, 111 

91, a- 

eoepta erttt'. why passlTcl App. w. a. 

B. quibui petenUbua: translate ty 
k elsnse, ■■ knd when they, etc, " 

7. bortutlbtiB 111, lit. "those OTB 
lng."="oii the advice ot those. " 

8. quBt . . . liaMbant: i.e. thecav 

airy, IB, B-andprobablyotbersorvlToci 

Chap, 19. Caesar ravageB their 

m, he n 



5. ■! prsmBTBiitur: Implied Indirect 
discourse for the future. 

6. nQntlOadlmlalUBUtl," bad Bent 
mesKDgers (urging) that." 

9. liUDe . . . ttif, "chat thlB plac* 
Lad been chosen almost In the mlddte." 



(0 Sueb! obtinereut; hie Bomanorum adventuni ezapeotare atqne 
ibi decertare constitaisBe. Quod nbi Caeaar comperit, onuii' 
bus iis rSbns flonfectla quarum reruoi caaaa tr^ucere exer- 
citum conatituerat, ut Germania metum iniceret, ut Sngam- 
broa ulciBoergtur, ut Ubifis obaididDe liber&ret, diebas omnind 

(s zviii trans Bbgnum cdnaumptis, aatia et ad laudem et ad 
utilit^tem profectum arbitratus se in Galliam recepit pontem- 
que reecidit. 

20. Esigua parte aestatis reliqua GasBar, etsi in his loois, 
quod omnig Gallia ad eeptentriouea yergit, maturae aunt hie- 
m^B, tamen in Britanniam proficisci contendit, quod omnibua 
ferg Qallicia bellia boatibus nostrja inde Babministrata auxilia 

6 intellegebat et, ai tempua ad belluni gereodum deficeret, tamen 
magnd sibi uaui fore arbitr^bfitur, ai modo insuLam adisset, 
genua bominum perapexiaaet, loca, portus, aditils oognoviaset ; 
quae omnia ferg Gallia erant incognita. Neque enim temere 

10. Mo, adu., here, ia thlH place ; (0/ 
a ptact Ja>t mmiiomd) there. Ic that 
place; {of an incidtnt Jmt menliimed) 
then, at thla tLme. l. 

14. obBidlO, -Snia, /. [obilOeO, 
blockade], siege, InTeslmem. blockade; 
peril, oppression. 1. 

llbarS, I, (r. tllbar, tree], make or set 
tree, release, deliver. S. 

16. ftUltUi, -ILUa, /. [fttUll, QW 

Sal], usefulness, adraiitBge, service. 1. 

1. ezl^ua, -ft, -um, a4j., acantr, 

8. inaognltui, -a, -um, a^. (la-+ 
eOKnltm, kaowii; cofnOaoB, learn], 
unknown, i. 

temeiS. ads., rachly, blindly, wltbont 

. hlo, Ibl: both words I 

«nd ot chap. IB. 

IS. prSfectum: notice the o; Irom 
what presenti 

Chap. 30-33. Caesar makes prep- 
»_,^„..= r edition to Britain. 

.r decides on the 
; n get ao Informa- 
tion from the Qaula, 

1. axlgub . . . Tallauft: the ablative 
absolui^la adversative: " aJthougb only 
ftsmiUpaFt . . . , (and) in spile of the 
(act that the winters are early." 

4. lioatlbus nostril: indirect ob] eat 

tubmlnlltr&tft aiutUla: for an in- 
stance see III, t, M. In II. 14, 8. wa 
learn (bat Britain bad afforded refuge to 
some ot Caesar's enemies. 

9. maguA . . . for*. ' ' it would be of 
great advantage to him." 

al Bdlsaet, etc. : for the tnture perfect 
of the direct form. These elaoses give 
tbe real object of the expedition, wblcb 
was only preparatory to that of the Icd- 
lowlng year. 

8. quae . . liieoKiilt«: itaeOttaU 
may have deceived Caesar; at any rale 
there are Indications that some Qanls 
knew a good deal about Britain: lull, 
4,19, we learn that a king of the Suessl- 



praeter merofttdres illd adit qnieqnam, neqne hii ipais qnicqusm 
praeter oram nuuitimam atque eas regiouga quae sunt contrA lo 
Qalliam n&tum eat. Itaqne Toc^tia ad ae nndique merofitdri- 
bns neqne quanta eaaet iasulae niagnitudo, neque quae aut 
qnantae nationes incolerent, neque quem uaum belli babfirent 
aat qnibna institutia uterentnr, neqne qui eeeent ad maidnim 
D&vium mQltitudinem iddnel portus reperire poterat. u 

21. Ad haec cogndscenda, prinaquam pericclnm faceret, 
iddneam ease arbitratoa C. Yolna^nam cnm navl longjl prae- 
mittit. Haio maDdat nt explOratIs omnibus rebus ad aS quam 
piimum revert&tar. Ipse cum omnibuB cdpiia in Morinoa 
proficiaoitar, qnod inde erat breriaaimna in Britanniam traiec- s 
tns. Hue n&T&B nndiqne ex fiQitimis regidoibaa et quam 
snperi&re aeat&te ad Venetionm bellum fecerat ctaaaem inbet 
conreoire. Interim, ofinsilid eiaa cognitd et per merc&torea 
perUtd ad Britannos, a compluribus insulae ciTit&tibns ad eum 
legatT Teniunt qui polliceantur obaidea dare atque impend lO 
populi Roman! obtemperare. Qaibns audltia liberaliter polli- 
citus hortatuaque ut in e& sententia permanerent eda domum 


{bri-tftnl); fetter, tSe Britons. 1. 

11. obUmporO. I. intr. [tcmparfi, 
rule], be subject to rule, comptf wllh. 

ones had been king ol a part ol Britain 
besides, and In VL 18, we learn thai Gal- 
Uc Dralda went to Brtlaln lo stodr- 

9. 1110: tbe adverb. 

IilB Ipiia; the traden; daUn wlA 

11. TOOitlB meroitaTlbnt, "al- 
though ha Bummoned. etc." 

ClLap. 91. Caesar sends men In ad- 
vance to gain Information and to 
advise submission. 

3. Voluainum: either tbe snbject of 
MMortbe object ol praanitlil; supply 
mm In one plaoB or the other. See what 
CMBBf sars ot Volnsenu* In m, 6, 1 ; 

he Is tbe onJr tribune wbom Caesar men- 

n&Tllonsa: see int. M. 

6. has: at a harbor among theMo- 
rlnL This was probably Wisaant. Che 
point o[ France irhloh 19 nearest to Brit- 
olu: see map facing p. 254. The harbor 
is now Qlled with ^nd, but was in use 
during the middle ages. 

10. Qui pDlllcaantnr : a pnrpoo 
clause, but best translated by a present 

daie, obtemperbe ; verbs ot promis- 
ing are more of len followed by tbe tu- 
tuTB Infinitive wllh Bub]eet Mwnsatln^ 
ttdaiSrSi me. 

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remittit et cum iis una Commium, quern ipse Atreb&tibue 
BuperatiB regem ibi coDstituerat, cuius et virtutem et cdneilium 

» probabat et quern eibi fidglem esse arbitrfib&tar, cuiusque auc- 
t6rit38 Id bis regiouibus m'agni hab^b&tur, mittit. Hnio 
imperat qaas posait adeat ciTitat&s, hortgturque ut populi 
ItSm^ni fidem sequantur, ggque celoriter eH renturam nuutiet. 
Volusenae perspectis regiouibus, quantum m facult&tis darl 

K potnit qoT uavi egredi ac se barbaris couimittere non audSret, 
quintd di€ ad Caesarem revertitur quaeqoe ibi perspexisset 

22. Dnm in his locia Caesar n&Tium paraodftrum causa 
mor&tur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati venernnt 
qui 86 d€ BUperiorJB temporig consilio excuBarent, quod ho- 
mings barbari et nostrae cdnsnetudinis imperiti bellum populo 

G R5m&n& fficisaent, seque ea quae tmper&aset faoturoa poUice- 
rentur. Hoc sibi Caesar satis opportune accidisse arbitr&tue, 
quod neque post tergum bostem relinquere volebat ueque 
belli gerendi propter anni £empuB facnltStem habebat ne- 

il, m., Commlua 
(kbml-Ha). a chi^ of thtAlraatti. S. 

IG. fldillB, -«, <Kt}- (ffldtB, taitbi, 
faltblul, tnistwonliy. rellBble. I. 

.' [eauMi, Teason], 

. 1-. 

4. ImparltDB, -a, -um, aiii. [1il-+ 
peiltiu, experlaaced). Inexperletioed, 
imsklUed. lenoT&iil- i, 

t. opporttma, adv. [oppartuiiu, 

lit), opportunel;, seasonablj-, 1 

13. AtrabkUbni inpeTttla: m the 

battle vlth the Nervli, II, 33, 

14. tbi: 1-e. among the Atrehat*a. 

15. ilbl Adfllun: but (Commlua bo- 
came a leader In tbe general revolt 
against blm three years later. This Is 
why Caesar says arMlrObSlur. 

18. in. Mu legientbns: i-e. in Bei- 


maKnl: genitive of value. 

IS. fldem sequBJitur, lit. "follow 
the protection (ofJ,"= "aorrender (to)." 

It: i.e. Caeaar. 

19. quuitmn . . . potnit, lit, "(as 
much) as of opportunity could be given 
10 a man,"=" as much as a man could." 

30. aQl . . . audiret: a clause of 
characteristic. Caesar cannot mean 10 

blame Volaaenua. Both the dlfBculty 
which Caesar himself experienced tn 
landing with his army and the Impris- 
onment of CommiuB will sbow tbat Vol- 
usenus could not possibly have landed 
and returned. 

i, and completes 

5. aI>nBmfi,"behavli>r": 
bomlnia: !□ apposition wltb the 

omitted Bublect; " being barbarisiiB." 

4. oOnBufltfidlnli: of sparing those 
who voluntarily surrendered. 

6. fSelBaent, ImperftaBet: Implied 
indirect discourse for the perfect Indica- 
tive and the f atare perfect, respeotlve- 



que has tantnl&rnm r^ram occupfitidngs Britatmiae auto- 
poDCndiifl iudicftbat, magnum iis numernm obddnm im> to 
perat. Qnibas addnctis eos in fidem recipit. Navibus circiter 
LXSX onerariia ooactis contractisque, qaot satis esse ad iu&a 
tr^8portand&B legidngs existim&bat, qnod praetereA nfLviiua 
loQgarum habSbat quaeetdri, ISg&tis, praetfectieqae diatribuit. 
Hue aocgdgbant XTiii oner&riae n&Tgg, quae ex e5 lood & mili- i» 
bus passuum octo ventd tenebantnr quSminns in eundem 
portum venire possent; bis eqniUbus digtribnit. Seliqunm 
exercitum Titurid Sabind et AnrnDcnlSiO Cottae Ug&tis in 
Menapijjs atqoe in eds p&gds Morindrnm ft quibus ad eum 
legati nQn vgnerant ducendnm dedit; Sulpioinm Rufnm lega- m 
tnm cum ed praesidi^ quod satis ease arbitrab&tnr portum 
tenere iussit. 

23. His cOnstitutia rebus nactns idoneam ad n&vigandam 
tempestatem tertift ferg vigilia solvit equitesque in u1t«ridrem 

a. aatapfinft, -pftnere, -poml, 
-poaltom, Ir. (pSnft, piMe], pUe« be- 
fore; pirefer. 1. 

IS. onaTirliia, -a, -lun, ittj- 'onm, 
burden]. Qited forbnrdens; teith n&Tls, 
transport, R-elglit sMp. « 

eontrabft, -traltan, -trfcxi, -trac- 

tum, tr. Itttihi, drawl, draw or bring 
together, lusemble. collect; draw Into 
Hoaller compass, contract. S. 
K. qnemlnu*, cottj. [quo, bo that+ 

miniu, not], so that not. that not; 

30. lulplolni, -ol, tn., PubUua Snl- 
plclus RuCus (pOVU-Os Bfll-pIsb'TllB 
ru'Ws), one of Catiar'i lleulenanti. 1. 

1. lULiioIsocir, nuielRCI, naetua 
■nm. tr., get. obtain possession of; 
meet wltb, End. i|i 

3. Bolvfi. MlTsra, BolTl, lolttntn, 

tr,. loosen, untie; witA or teUAoul n&Tti, 
welgb ancbor, set sail, pat to sea. B. 

a. liti . . . oeespfttlOnei, "engag- 
ing In sucb trlTlal matters." 

19. eoiatia aontractlsqua, "having 
leTlHl and brought together," 

18. quDd . . . Iiab«b4t, Uc "What- 
ever ot Bhlpa It war he bad besides," — 
"the ships which he had." 

IS. hOa kocedjb&nt, Ut."therewere 


& . . . octo, "elghtmlles[awa;]," It 
tbe chief harbor was Wlssant, the small- 
er was Sangatte, east of 'Wlssant. 

IG. tenib&nlnr anSmlnni pnsient, 
" were kept from being able" : App. 

•xaToltum dbcendnm dedlt: 

App.2»,U.»: Q.-L.. 130: 
R9ST,T,a.S: H.-B.C1S,IU: H. 

Chap. 33-37. After, a Bharp c 
test Caesar effects a landing and 
cepts the sorrender of the Brltoni 

I. IdOnsun tempeBtitsm: agenti» 
soutberly wind and clear weather, witli 

a. tertift TisllU: Just after mid- 
night, the morning of August 2Tth. Th» 
first part of tbe night was spent Is 
launching the ships, which bad beea 


portum progredi et navee conaceiidere et se eequi iaasit. A. 
quibuB cam paulo tardiaa esset adminiBtratum, ipse hora diSi 

6 circiter qaart& cum primis navibua Bhtaiiniam attigit atqne 
ibi in omnibus coIlibuB ezpositas hoBtium copiaB armatas odn- 
spexit. CuiuB loci baec erat natura atque ita moatibus angustS 
mare continebatur uti ex locis superioribaa in lltUB telnm 
adigi poBset. Hnnc ad ggrediendnm ngquaqnam idoneum 

10 locum arbitratiiB, dum reliqaae nav&a eo conveDirent, ad horam 
nonam in ancoria ezspectarit. Interim legatis tribunisque 
tntlitom convocatis, et quae ex VoIuaenO cogndvisset et quae 
fieri vellet ostendit, monuitqne, ut rei militaria ratio, maiime 
nt maritimae res postularent, ut qnae celerem atque instabilem 

15 motum haberent, ad nutum et ad tempuB omnes res ab lis ad- 
ministrfirentur. HiB dimisBis et ventum et aeBtum iino 

8. aSnaoendO, -(osndersi 'icauill, 

-■oiuium, tr. [acuidO, cllm))]. climb, 
mount; go on board, emborli. 1. 

4. tarda, adv. (tardus, slow], glo* 
ly ; comp. tardlns, too slowly. 1. 

6. AzpanA, -p6nare, -poinl, -poal- 
tum, tr. [pfinD, place], put or set. out; 
s«[ on shore, disembark: drair ap; set 
(ortli, Biplaln. 3. 

T. Micuite, adv. [angnstni, narrow], 
narrowly; In close quarters, l. 

a. lltuB, -on*, n., seashore, beach, 
shore. 3. 
drawn up on the sandy beach, and In 

Iifira qv&Tt&: about 9 a.h. 

the famous libalk cUlla. 

10. dum oonvanlrent: mode? 
ad IiSram uBnam: somewhere ni 

-•ra, aia., switt, 

DOC at all. 1. 
14. oelar, -eiU, 

qnickj precipitate. 
luIabUii, -e, adj. tlu-HrtabllU 

flrm] , not firm, onsleady. 1. 

IB. mfitiu, •U, m. [moT«0, more], 
moiemeni, motion; political move- 
ment, uprlsliis. dlsturbaoce. S. 

alktm. -ba, m. [Iiu6, nod], nod; sign, 
command; ftd nQtum, at one's nod or 
commaDd. 9. 

13. Ut . . . poitulftient, "as mill- 
tai7 science, and .espeolaUy as seaman- 
ship reqnirea"; the subjunctlTe Is due 
to Implied Indirect discourse. 

14. ut quae Jiabtrent, lie "as 
fthln^) which have,"^"siuce it has to 
do with"; a causal relative clause, App. 
246; G.-L. 63S: A. &35,«. n. 1: B. 2St. 3; 
H-B. K3,»: H. SBa.1. 

IE. (u() admlnUtr&Tentnr: the ob- 

ad tampuE, "oa the Instant." 

IB. ventum et aeatum aaeundum: 

on ether grounds It Is supposed that 
Caesar saUed coFtbeaat, to Deal; butit 

11. In ancoria, " 


tempore nactos BeonDdntn, datd sigiio et Bubl&tiB ancoriB, 
circiter milia passaum eeptom &b ed locd prfigresaoe apertO ao 
piano litore d&t6b cfiaBtitnit. 

24. At baxbari odnBilid Rom^nfinmi cognito, praemiBB6 
eqnit&tu et essedariiB, qad plemmque genere in proelile Qti 
Gonsuerant, reUqma ofipiia subseciltl noBtrds nilvibua Sgredi 
prohibgbant. Erat ob has cauBfiB Bomma diffionltfts, qnod 
naves propter magnitudinem nbi in alt5 c&iutitai nou pote- s 
rant, militibiiB antem ignfitiB IocTb, ImpeditiB manibuB, magno 
et graTi onere anadmm oppreasis Bimal et dS navibus deailien- 
dnm et in fluctibua conaiBtendum et cum bostibuB eratpugnan- 
dum, cum ill! aut ex arido aut panlnm in aquam progresBi 
omnibus membris expeditls n&tiaaimia locia audacter tela con- tg 
icerent et eqnds inBU&factos inoit&rent. Quibua rebus nostri 
perterriti atqoe huiua ontnino generis pngnae imperiti non 
eadem alacritate ao atudld qQ6 in pedestribua uti proeliis con- 
Bugrant utebantur. 

25. Quod ubi Caesar animadvertit, n&vea loDg&a, <xafi.rum 
et speciea erat barbaris inusitatior et motus ad usnm expedltior, 

a. aiHil&Tlui, -Tl. "I, [euvduin, a 

nar chariot], s soldier Qgbtliig Irom a 
iru' chartoc, charioteer. 1. 

6. iKnStna.-a, -um, Bi$. [1ii--Kb»iO' 
tUB. known; nCiefi. know), nnknown, 

1. , member of (tae 
bod7, limb. I. 

11. Insntfiietiu,> (luM- 
cB, become accustomed 4-niolA, make] 


be could sail agalcat 

Chap. at. The Britons try ' 
Tent Uke Isndine. 

9. qnfi gtaiMt, "a kind ot troopa 

ft. nlil. . . pMaruit, "contdbeBla- 
tlonedonJy indeepwaur." 

e. mIUtlbiu;daUTeoriheasentwlth 
daUiendtim, ate. erat. 

Igndtll , . . ULUllbuil BblativeeabaO' 

T. oppreailB, ' weighed down as 
they were" ; In i^reomeoc with mltUibia. 

8. eenKUtanduiu, " keep their loot- 

9. aumUll, "wbllethaeDemy." 
13. afta fiUbantui, "did not dis- 

13. qnO agrees Mtb the nsareranu- 

Chap. SB. Caesar brings his wa^ 
ships Into action. A Roman standard 
bearer sets an example of l>ravery. 


panlam remoTSri ab oner&riiB naTibuB et rgmla incit&ri et sd 
latns apertnm hostinm constitnl atque inde fandis, sa^ttis, 

6 tormeatis boates propelli ac submOTeri insait; quae rga magno 
QBui Dostrie init. Nam et naTiam figiira et remorum motu et 
inusitatd genere tormentdram permdti barbai^ cdnstiterunt ao 
paalnm etiam pedem rettnlemnt. Atqne nostris mHitibns 
cQnctAntibiiB, maxima propter altitudinem maris, qni decimae 

u legionis aquilam ferebat, obtest&tiiB deda ut ea rSs l^&ni fell- 
citer evemret, ' Desilite,' inqiiit, ' commilitoti^B, oisi vultis 
aquilam hostibas prddere; eg5 certg meani ret publicae atqne 
imperatori officium praestiterd. ' Hoc cum Toce magna dixisBet, 
se ex n&vi pr5iecit atqne in boBtga aquilam feire coepit. Turn 

u nostri, cobortat! inter b€ n6 tantnm dgdecns admitteretur, usi- 
veTBl ex n&Tl dgailnernnt. Hda item ex proximia navibas com 
conspexiaaent, snbaecuti boatibns appropinquaT^rant. 

26. Pugn&tnm est ab ntrisque acriter. Kostri tameu, quod 
neqno drdines aerrare neqne firmiter inaistere neqae Bigna sub- 

4. fimda. ~ft«,/..aiiiig. 1. 
MlKltlm, -as,/-, arrow. 1. 
6, flKDra, -as,/. [Aiig6,toTm],tonn. 
shape, Qgure. 1. 

10. aaiilla, -H, /'■ an eagle; a 
standard (ai (Ac aqnilft wi> tlu ciii^ 
ttandardofHuUgion). 3. 

ObtMlor, I, tr. [t«»OT, vrltDBSB], call 
to irltness; beseech, en treac, 1. 

Hllclter, odi. [fillz, happy], bappilr. 
lononately. 1. 

11. franlB, -vwilre, -tSdI. -tsu- 
tum, bttT. [venld, come], turn out. re- 

Inqokm. -la. -It, drf. verb, tr., uted 
onlu lojtft direct gaotattoiu and folloatag 
one OT mart icordi of tke quotation. sa.j. I. 

conmllltc, -finli, m. [mllei, soldier), 
(allow Bowler, comrade. 1. 

13. eerte, adc. [eartaa, certatQ), cer- 
tainly; at least, at all events. 1. 

meni. -k, -um, tmn, adj. pron. [at. 
obliqui eaeit of ego], my, mine, my 

IB. d«decni, -OTiB. ». 

honor], dishonor, disgrace. 1. 
3. flrmlter. adt. Illnnus, 

more like the trading veesels, with w 
the Biitona were acquainted, 

mfituB . . . ezpettltloT, lit. "w: 
inotlOD was freer tor n5e," = "'w 

10. BQiillam: see Int. *'. 
I, A. tadng p. 21. 

11. pTMrtltert: note t 

the t«aee. "(whawver the result shall 
be) I at least shall have done my duty." 
IB. lnteriS."oneanother." 
IS. ex prozlmlB n&TibiiB, "those 

jntsHt tlio 

Chap-Se, After a fierce c 
Britons are put to flight. 

3. OrmlteT IniUteie. "get a arm 

■Igna aubBMiuI: i.e. beep ibelr toc- 
matton bj cohorts. 



aeqni poterant, atque alius alifi ex n&Ti qoibnsciimqae eigi^s 
occamrat se aggregfibat, magnopere pertnrbfibsntnr ; hostS.i 
vero, notls omaibas Tadls, nbi ex litore aliqnos singuIarSs ex ft 
nari egredieutes GonBpexerant, incitatis equis impeditds adori" 
ebautar, plurSs paucos oircumsistebaDt, alii ab latere apertd in. 
anlversoa tela coniclebant. Quod omn animadTertiaset Caesar, 
scaphas long&rum naTinm, item Hpeoalatoria nJlvigia mlUtibns 
compleri iosait et, quds laborantes conspexerat, bis aubsidla lo 
submittebat. INostri, Bimul in arldo constiteraat, sale omnibus 
consecutiB in hoetes impetum feoerout atqae eds in fngam de- 
derunt, oeque longiue prdseqnl potaSruut, quod eqnitSs cargam 
^nere atque insDlam capere non potaerant. Hoc UDnm ad 
p^Iatinam fortiinam Caesaii d€fiiit. u 

27. Hostes proelio snperati, simnl atque sg ex f nga reogpi- 
rnnt, statim ad Caeaarem legatoa dg pace misernnt; obBidfia 
datiaros, quaeque imperaBset facturds s6s€ polliciti sunt. tTnS 
cnm biB legatis CommiuB Atrebaa venit, qaem BDpr& demon- 
straveram a Caeaare in Britanniam praemissnm. Hanc illi & 1 
navi egreBsnm, cum ad eoB oratoria mod6 Caesaris mandata 

10. UbBrt, l.inir. [labor, toll], toll, 
vorli haid : be anxious, troubled, or psT' 
plexed; labor, auller. be hard preemd. 

9. BOAplia, -ae./., BliUI.boat. I 
■pecnlfcMrinB, -a, -lun, atU- [ipieu- 
litor, spy], of a spy. apylng. scouting. 1. 

B. ftlltl* . . . nfcTi, "men Irom dir- 

qulbuaoumiinA . . . aggregftbat, 

"gaihered about whatever staodards 
tbey chanced upon" ; as in the battle 
wttb the Nervll, II. ai, IS. 

B. nbl eOnipexeruit; the pluper- 
fect Instead of the usual perfect with 
ubi. erpresslDg lepeawd action. Just as 
the following Impertects do. 

T. pl&rfia, " Heveral" or the enemy. 

In finlveraliB, "uponthemalabodr." 

V. icapb&B, BpecnlftUrla nfcTlgla: 
these boata could be rowed Into shallow 

11. ilmnl =»imia oCffiH. 

IB. neque, "but . . . not" 

longiuB, "yorylar." 

14. eapaia, "reach." See note on 
lardlm, SB, 4. 

boo tUiuin: the pm-aultbythecavalrT 
waa an Important part of ever; regular 

Chap.ST, The Britons BQo for peace. 

a. datarOt, factaiSs ■•■£: the reg- 
ular coEatmoiloQ after verba of promis- 
ing; see note on dare, II, 10. 

4. aupr&: sec 21. 13. 

B. cum, "although." 

mods, " In the D&pacity si," "aa." 




defenet, comprehenderuit atqne in nncols coDiSeerant; torn 
proelid facto remiBenmt, et in petendji p&ce eios rei cnlpam in 
moltitndinem contolernnt et propter impradeutiam at ignds- 

10 cerStnr petiTemnt, Caesar qnestiis qnod, cum nltro in conti- 
nentem IggatJs nuBSie p&cem ab a6 petlssent, bellum aine causa 
intnlisBent, ignoscere imprfideutiae dixit obsidesqne imperavit; 
qadmm ill! partem statim dedemnt, partem ex longinqnioriboB 
loGiB arcessitam pancis di^bus seae daturos dlxeront. IntereA 

n snda remigrare in agrds insegmnt, principesqne nndiqae con- 
Tenlre et e^ civitat^aqne suas Caesari conunendaie coeperant. 
28. His rSboa p&ce cdnfirmfita, post diem qaartnm qoam 
est in Britanniam Tenttun nfivSs ztiii, d€ qnibns snprfi dSmon- 
Btr&tnm est, qnae eqnites enatnlerant, ex enperidre portu UdI 
ventO aolT^mnt. Quae cam appropinqugrent Britanniae et ex 

5 castria viderentnr, tanta tempest&s Biibit6 coorta est nt nulla 
earam cnraum tengre posaet, sed aliae eodem unde erant pro* 
fectoe refeirentar, aliae ad inferiorem partem iaaalae, quae eat 

S. culpa, -•«,/., bi 

t, guUt. 

B. ImiirtkAeatlft, •■«, /. [Imprfi- 
dfint, ImprodeDl], Imprudence, want of 
foreslgbt or forecbougbu Ignorance, In- 
dlsuretlon. 2. . 

IfnfiMfi, -neioere, -sdvl, -n6tum, 
Mr. (lii-+(s)nOBoini,knowlng: n6B- 

eOl, roTglve, pnrdnD. 3. 

IS. lonslnQUtu, -a, -nm, (uV- 
[longna, long] . tai off, distant, remote ; 
long, long continued, i. 

IS. oommandA, 1, tr. tmuida, en- 
inist], entrust; surrender, I. 

S. linls, -a, aiil., genile, mild, 
smooth. 1. 

8. •iDl rti: cbe treatment ol Com- 

9. at ignSBcerStUT, "that .ttaej be 
pardoned." In what case would '■they" 
be, If eipressedr App, lltl, (f. 

10. aum ISgLtla miaals petlsiant. 
" after they bad. sent boBtages and 
beKged"; see 31, 10. 

14. aiosBBltuu, "for wbom they 
had sent." 

15. Ill kfrtB, "to ihelrlarms." 
Chap. aa-Sl. A Blorm turns back 

Cae«ar'B oavaJry and wrecte his Beet. 
Althonoh hs partially repairs the 
floeti the Britons are encouraged to 
attack him. 

CQtap. 3B. The eaTalry transports 
are diivsn back by a storm. 

I. poBt . . . qmam = iWst"'rWpiM<- 
guam. When pmtguam Is dlrtded, poti 
Is uBnoIly an adverb, "att«rwards . . 
than." Here it 1b a preposition, Tbe 
day was August 80th, the third day after 
his arrival, according to our reckon- 

3. snpri, see 33. is and 33, t. 

t. allM,alla«; the wind must hace 
cometrom ibenorcbornortbeast. The 
ships that were farthest out at sea wen 
driven back at once: the others got some 
shelter west ot Dover, but as the storm 
proved loo severe they prelorred to re- 

hosrlle shore ol Britain, i 

■, Google 



propins sdlis occaaum, magnd sud cam periculd dSicerentnr ; 
quae tamen ancoris iactia, cum fluctibua complgrentur, neces- 
Bilrid adversa nocte in altum provectae contioeDtem peti&rnnt. lo 

29. Eadem nocte sccidit nt esset luna plgaa, qui digs mari- 
timoB aestuB maximos in Ocesno efficere cdnsuavit; nostrisqne 
id erat incognitum. Ita find tempore et longfis nargs, qaas in 
aridum subd^erat, aeetns oomplebat, et oner&rias, qnae ad 
ancoras erant delig&tae, tempeetaa aEQictabat, neque nlla noa- b 
tris facnlt&B ant administrandi aut auziliandi dabatur. Com- 
plurlbuB n&Tibns frfictiB, reliquae oam eaBent f unibtiB, ancoriB, 
reliqnisqne arm&mentis amissiB ad navigandum inutileB, magna, 
id quod neoesse erat accidere, totins ezercitiiB pertnrbatifi facta 
est. Neqne enim nfiv^B erant aliae quibiiB reportari poBBent, lo 
et omnia deerant qnae ad reficiendas navee erant UBui, et, quod 

10. prSTebO, -Tthnt, -TezI, -t«o- 

tum, tr. [T«b6, oarryl, earry forwsril: 
pata,* be carried forward. f^aiL 1. 

1. l&nft.-M,/..themoon. 3. 

e. aeilsfi, l, ir. IllsG, bind), Und or 

8. anziUoi.i.EMr. [auxUlnm.aidi, 
give aid. help, assist, reader 

8. oaofciam: Cor conaumcUon i 
nole on proptui ti. 9,S-' 

9. anin complCrantnT, "since U 
began to an," 

10. attTenti nocto, "in the lace of 
tbe night." 

Chap. 99. The storm and the tlda 
wreck Caesar's fleet. 

I. llmttplfina: there was alullmoou 
on the night of Ai^ust Both. This la 
what enables ns U> calcnlale the da; ot 
Coesar'a arrival In Britain. 

S. aaitta mazlmfis: the "spring" 
tide. Tbe average rise and rail of the 
two at Deal Is said to be IB feet. This 
tide, helped b; the wind, rose much 

aoitrla . . . incognitum: the Ro- 
mans were beat acquainted wUh tbe 

Mediterranean, where the Ildea riseonly 
a tew Inches. Yet the; bad had oome 
experience with the tides In the war vltb 
the Venetl. 

4. quaB...aeUKttM,"whlchweTe 
riding at oncbor." The transpona were 
heavier than the wor-shlps and Caesar 
bad not thougbt It worth the effort to 

e, admlnlatruidl, "of managing 

B. Id quod or guat rlt Is commonly 
used inateail of yuod when the anlece- 

10. qulbui po«i«nt: a clanse of 

11. omnia quMenntDiuI, "alltbe 
things which were needed": a determin- 
ing clanse. App.331, 




omnibus cdust&bat hiemari in OalliS oportere, frumentum in 

his locis in hiemem provieum non erat. 

30. Quibua rebus cognitis prlnclpeB Britanniae, qui post 
proelium ad Caeaarem convenerant, inter 85 collocflti, cum et 
equites et naves et f rumentum Hdm&nls deease intellegerent 
et pautiitatem militum ex castrorum exiguitate cogndscerent, 

s quae hoc erant etiam angustiora, quod sine imped! mentis Cae- 
sar legiSnea transportaverat, optimum factii esaa duxerunt re- 
bellione facta frumento commeatiiqne nostroa prohibero et rem 
in hiemem producere, quod hia auperitia aut reditu intercliiais 
ncminem postea belli inferendi causa in Britanniam transitu- 

10 rum confidebant. Itaque rursus coniilratidne facta paulatim 
e£ caatris discedere et suds clam ex ^ris deducere coepe- 

31. At Caesar, etsi nondum eorum consilia cognoverat, 
tamen et ex eventu navium auarum et ex eo, quod obsides dare 
inter mise rant, fore id quod accidit suspicabatur. Itaque ad 
omnes casils subsidia comparabat. Nam et f rumentum ex agria 

3 cotidic in castra confercbat et quae gravissime afBictae erant 
n&vgs, eiirum materia atque aere ad reliqnas reficiendas uteba- 
tur et quae ad eaa rea erant uaui ex continent! compararl iubS- 

B. redltUB, -fla. m. [reaeO. return]. 

injure. 1 

returning, relurn. 1. 

6. »i, 

HTli, n, copper; anything 

6. aflUsA, -fllser«, -fllzl, -fllotum, 

mad* 0/ c 

pper, Boln, money; «aa ftlifl- 

fr..atrlke against: overtbrow; damage, 

num. aao 

Aa-a mones. debl. 1. 

13, hismArl oporUre, "tbat tbey 
must paiss the winter." 

Bilam. "scm." 

fi, optlmani: predicate adjective 
-with laae. the subject being pro/iiben 
aad prBdUctre. 

factQ: App. 2W. It Is not needed In 

T. factil: tranalate as an InQnltlve. 
coardlnate wltb prohibere. 

8. bis BupeifctiB, "It thBse<tn>opa) 

Chap. 31. Caesar repairs his fleet. 

3. Bx . . . «4, " [rem the disaster u> 
his ships and Irom the laot." 

8. Quod acoldlt. " which really did 

4. OaBQs, " emergencies," 

8. quae iiaTfis, eamm, "oC tbose 
ships which." 

the construction at ships, because it 

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bat. Itaque cnm aammd Btadifi a militibns adminUtr&Tetar, 
duodeoim nAvibuB amiBsIs, reliqnis at Qavig£ri commode poBset 
«ffecit. 10 

32. Dnm ea gemntur, legioce ex odnsngtudine un& fru- 
mentatam miaaa, qnae appell&batar septima, neqne uUS, od id 
tempus belli BUBpieione iiiterpoBit&, onin pars hominnm iu agris 
remaneret, parB etiam in castia ventit&ret, ii qui pro portis 
castrornm ia Btatione erant Gaesarl nQatifiTgrnnt pnlverem b 
maiorem quam cfinBQetad5 ferret in e& parte Tid€rl quam iu 
partem legio iter fgoiaaet. Caesar id quod erat suspic&tos, ali- 
quid novi fi barbaria initum cOnaili, cohortes quae in statiOni- 
bns ersnt secum in earn partem proficiaci, ez reliqoiB du&s iu 
etatidnem Bucoedere, reliqn&a armari et cQnfeatim bSs€ subsequl k, 
iusait. Cum pauld lougiua ft caatna proceBaiaset, BuSaabhosti- 
bna premi atque aegre anatinSre et cdnferta legidue ez omnibus 
partibaa tela conici animadvertit. Nam quod, omul ez reliquis 
partibna dgmeesd frumento, pars una erat reliqua, Buapicati 
hostee hue noatrfls ease venturoB noctii in silvie delituerant; u 
turn diaperaOa depOBitiB armis in metendo ocoup&tSa anbitd 
adortl paucia interfectls reliqufia incertla ordinibus perturbftve- 
rant, simul equitatu atque easedis circumdederaut. 

B. pnlTll, -Aril, m.. dnst 1. 

10. oOnfaatlm. ixfs.. hasiUr, I 

lmmadlal«ly. 1 . 

U. dCmatS, -mater*, -i 

r. [metft, reap] , mow, 

dtllteBoS, -llteicere, 


, jnlr. [laUioB, iHcipt. of laUft. 11< 

hidden], hide one's selt, lark. 1, 

16. smU, mttore, mwiBiii, m»i' 
■tun, (iv, mow, reap. I. 

IB. MMdun. -I, ». , a beo-vihtAtd uu: 
ohirlot oj (As BtUom. %. 

8. ■ummO itudlO: the soldiere w era 
as anxious to geL awa; ai Caesar was. 

9. rellqulB . . . affiolt. 111. "made 
"that it could be sailed by Cbe reat.^' = 
" made the othara flt to sail In." 

Chap. S3-3S. Aft«r rspetllns the 
Britons, who attack flnt one leKloa, 
then the oamp. Caesar returns t4j 

Chap. 83. The Sritons attack one 
legion while it is engaged In foragkog. 

1. trtUnenttitiim: App. ztB. 

I. lUMipOBlt&,"liBTliig arisen." 

In agrli renaBfret: oaieoBlblr en- 

n labor Di 

e larma near tl 

. Qiuun . . . ftmt, "tba 
. Id quod erkt, "wbat ' 
case" ; eiplalaed by the i 

had been entered upon." 

B. aoliortti: probably [oar, one at 
eacb gate. 

10. ■ue«Uar«,"iiOUketbelr^aoes." 
' armarl, " to arm themselvea." 

14, ftna, "only one." 

IT. InMrtla SnUnlbiu: owliig to 




33. OenuB hoc eet ex easedis pngnae. Primo per omnSs 
pftrtes perequitant et tela cooiciaDt atque ipso teirdre eqaoram. 
et Btrepitu rotarom ordines pleramqae pertnrbant, et cam s6 
inter eqnitnm tiirmas inHiniiavernat, ex essediB deaJliant et 

E pedibna proeliantar. Anrigae interim paolatim ex proeiiu ex- 
cSdunt atque ita enrrua coUocant at, si illi a multitudine hoB- 
tium premantur, expeditum ad anoa receptum habeant. Ita 
mobilitatem eqnitnm, atabilitatem peditnm in proeliia prae- 
stant, ac tantnm uau cotidiano et exercitatione efficiant nti in 

10 dedivi ac praecipiti loco incitatoa eqnoa anatinere et brevr 
moder&ri ac flectere et per temonem percurrere et in ingO inaia- 
tare et ae iode in cnrruB citieeime recipere conauerint. 

34. Quibna rebua pertnrbatlB noatris novitate pngnae tern- 

clrcumdO, -dare, -aedl, -datum. Ir. 

8. iMblllt&i, -tfttla, /. [BtabUU, 

IdB, put], pni around, eneonipaBB, aor- 

ronnd, 3. 

11. moaeror. i, tr. [modui. limit). 

a. perMuItft, 1, in(r. [equlM.rWe], 

manage. Bovera. control, guide, l. 

ride about, ride through or atoand. 1. 

llKU), fleeters. Ural, &esum. tr., 

1. rota, -M,/., wheeL 1. 

bend, turn, direct. 1. 

4, turma, -»•,/., troop or squadron 

t4me. -anti, m., pole {of a too^on). 1. 

o/ about thirty anialTvmai. 1. 

jMreuxre, -carrera, -cum, -our- 

iBiinnS, 1, tT. [alsne, wtnd], wind 1q. 

■um, intr. [eiurft, run], run alimg or 

to; make one's way Into, peaetrale. l. 

B. auriBa,-aB,in., charioteer. 1. 

.19. eite, ode., quickly. spoedUy. 

a. ouiTUi, -tU, ni-,cliar1ot;waeon. S. 

Cotnp.. citlui: (Up-. clUuimt. 1. 

1. uovltii, -titU. /.(uoTtu, new]. 

oelTfl, retreat; retage, sbelier 1. 

tbe surprise ibe usual line ol batUecould 
not be lormed. 

Chaii.SS. How l^eBritona use their 
war-cnariotB in battle, 

3. eqaOTum, "caused by tbe 

t. Miultiun turmft* : the cavBlry ot 
Ibe enemy, whom they thus attacked. 

™iry t 

this Is a general descrlpUc 

next eipedltkOD bla calory were thus 


8. nil: the warriors, who had 

T. axpedltum r»ogptum, " a ready 

8. praeatant. "display.- 

10. ae, "audeven." 
incltfttfti, " when at full speed." 

brsTl, "quickly." 
II. per, "along." 
tugS: the crossbar attached t 
end o[ the pole and resting o 

1. rebus: ablative ot 
noitrls: Indlreci objei 
Ivrbdlit agrees with it. 
noTltftta, "because < 

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pore opportaniBsimS Caesar anxiliam tnlit; namque eiue ad- 
ventu hostes constitSmnt, noetri Be ex timdre recgpgniDt. Qq5 
facto ad laceasendum bostem et ad committendum proelium 
alienum esse tempns arbltr&tiiB sad se locS contiouit et bre^ » 
tempore intermisaO in castra legiongs redlixit. Dnm baec ge- 
runtnr, nostris omnibus occupatis, qui erant in agrls reiiqui 
discesserunt. Secutae ennt continnoa compliir6B dies tempes- 
tatgs quae et noetroa in castris contingrent et bostem a pngD& 
probibgrent. Interim barbari nuntios in omngs partes dimise- i(> 
runt paucitatemqne nostroram mllitam snis praedic&verimt et 
quanta praedae faciendae atque in perpetuum sui liberandi 
facnltas dar^tur, si RAmanOs castris expnlissent, dgmonstra- 
Terunt. His rebna celeriter magna multitSdine peditatus equi- 
tatiieqne coacta, ad castra Tenemnt. . i^ 

35. Caesar etsi idem quod saperioribos diebua acciderat 
fore videbat, nt, si essent hoates pnlei, celeritate periculum' 
oSugerent, tamen nactus eqaites circiter xxx, quos Commiua 
Atrebas, de quo ante dictum est, secnm transportaverat, !egi- 
ones in acie pro castris coastitnit. Commisso proelio diutina & 
noBtrOmm militnm impetum bostes ferre non potuerunt ac 
terga verterunt. Quda tantd spati6 seciiti quantum cureu et 

B. conUnnuH, -a, -nm, iMJ. (coH' 

tlaeO, bold logecber], boldlns togeCber, 
nnbrolien. nnlntemipted. contlnuoiis. 

13. prBad&, -m». f. , iiootr. plunder. 
U. pedlt&tni, -61, >n. [pedM, toot 

soldier], foot, soldlerB, lufauur 1. 

■. •ffnglS. -fasere, -ttgl, — , tr 
and ifUr. l«x-\-tuglt, floe], flee Irom or 
away, escape. 1. 

D. kltenum, lit. ' 


6, dum iiaec KBTimtur, 


T. qui . . . reliquI: 
sa, 3. 

9. qiUM Dontlnemit: App. sso, a, 

13- praedfteflMlendae: tbey would 

bave been disappointed, lor theRomaiU 

bad left tbeli tjaggage in Gaul: SO, !>. 

tul 'lIMrandl: see iiot« on tut pSr- 
garua. 18. H. 

Chap. SB. The Britons are pot to 

1. td«n fttra, ut, "that the same 
thing would occur , . , namelr. thai." 

4, Mta: la 31. Hand 37, 4. 

B, dllktiua, " verj long." 

see note on III. 10, e. 
T, t&atO ipaUO qnuitnm , . . b^ 




Tinbns efficere potnSrant, complurgs ex its occidemiit, deinde 
Dmnibna longS l&tSqne aedificiia incensis b6 in caetra recepenmt. 

36. Eddem die legfiti ab hostibaa miasT ad Caesarem de 
pace venenmt. His Caesar nnmernm obeidnm qoem ante im- 
perftverat duplicarvit edsqne in continentem addficl iaBsit, qnod 
propinqii& die aeqainootl infirmis navibae hiemi naTlgatidnem 

s Babiciendam n5n exTetimabat. Ipse iddnaam tempestatem 
nactuB panlQ post mediam noctem hiItSb solvit ; quae omn6s in' 
colamSs ad continentem perrenSrnnt ; sed ex iTa onerariae 
duae eosdem portiia qnoa reliquae capere n6n potaenmt et 
panlo infra delatae sant. 

37. QnibaB ex navibua cum esaent expoait! militSa circiter 
trecenti atqne in castra contenderent, Morini, quoa Caesar in 
Britanmam proficTBe€nB pacatos rellquerat, Bpe praedae addncti 
prlmo ndn ita magnS suorum nnmerd circumate tyrant ac, si 

e aeae interfici n<>llent, arma ponere iusaerunt. Cam iUi orbe 

S. dvplleO, [duplaz, doublel, 
double, tncreose. l. 

4. aequlnooUnm, -tl, n. [aeqnna, 
equal + nox, nlBl>c]i (be equinox. 1. 

». Intrk, adv. [Inftrui, below], be- 
low; prtp, iritA aee,, below, smaller 

3. treoantl.-ae, -a (000), card. num. 
aO}. [trti, ihree+Mntum, bnndred], 
thrae huDdred. I. 

6. orbl*, -li, m., orb. ring, circle; 
orbli tantrum, the world, i. 

tutmnt, " over aa Kfeat a dlstaoce aa 
their speed and streogth permlcied," 
41>ati6 la an ablative ol the way (App. 
IH), where an acciuatlve at eileut or 
space would seem more natural; see 
H.-a 4S6, e. 

Chap. SS. Caasar returns to GauL 

3. bli: dative ot reference. 

». eCa . . . luiilti It Is not snrprls. 
Ing to learn lat«r tbski most ot the trlues 
tailed to do this. 

4. pTOplnqul dl8: ablative abso. 
Inte. As Caesar reached Britain August 
STth, and the equinox then tell on Sepc 
Mth. he must have remained In Britain 
about tbree weeks. 

himnl . . . inblcleiuUm, -'that Ma 
To^age should be exposed to wintry 

ft. ftuSi rellqtiM, "asthereat." 
upare, "reach," "moke." 

9. Infrfc: to the south. The; □ 
hare landed at Ambleteaae. 

Chap. IT. The Uorinl attack tha 
troops ttom the two transporta, but 
are repnlssd. 

I. qnlbn* ex uftTlbua: i.e. the two 


3. In eatira; at Wlssant 
8. pLofctAi: see 33, MI. 

4. prlmd: the adverb, 
Itft, "so very," "very." 

B. p6nere, "to lay down." 
orb«: a farmatlon like Che modern 
hollow square, used when troops were 

□ alls! 



facto sSsS dgfenderent, celeriter ad cl&morem hominam circit«r 
milia sex conTenernnt. Q11& rg ii'iinti&t& Caesar omDem ez 
castriB equitSitum aais auzilio mlslt. Interim nostri militSs 
impetnm hostium enstinaernnt atqne amplins horis qnattnor 
fortissime pognitTSniut et paucia Tulneribas acceptis compl&res u 
ex his OGCidernDt. Posted veru qnam eqaitatus aoster in cod- 
spectam Tenit, hostes abiectis armis terga Tertemnt msgnuB- 
qufl eorum nameruB est occisna. 

38. Caeaar postero dig T. LabiSnam ISg&tnm cnm iia legi- 
dnibuB qaSa ex Britaiiiii& rediizerat in MoriuoB, qal rebellionem 
fecerant, misit. Qui cam propter siccit&tSa paliidam qno ad 
reciperest non baberent, qno perfngio enperidie anno erant 
uai, omneB fere in potest&tem LabiSai venSmnt. At Q. Titu- s 
rina et L. Cotta legfiti, qnl in Menapiorum fines legionfis diii- 
erant, omnibns eorum agria vastfitis, friimentie aucciais, aedi- 
6ciiB incSnals, quod Menapii ae omn^B in dengiaaimaB ailT&a 
abdiderant, a6 ad Caeaarem rec6pSrant. Caeaar in Belgia om- 
nium legidnnm hiberna cdnstituit. £5 doae omnino civitfitea 10 
ex Britannia obaidgs miagrnnt, reliqnae neglSxSrnnt. His rgbns 
geatia ex litteria Caeaaria diSrnm Tiginti suppHcatio & senate 
dgcreta eat. 

Tie anay is iiiiailered f< 

uitt vinter among Uie Belgaa. 
thankggiTiiiB In Caesai's honor. 
8. tlacltftUi: translate b; the al 

qnfi . . , hUtrsnt, lit- ".haa di 
irhere they could retreat." = "had n 
where to retreat " ; App. £80.<;. 

4. auS perfastO arant bal, U 
"which refuge the; had uaed," = <'ll 

refuge (Le. the awampa] which they 
haduaed." For the fact see lU. 98. S. 

e. qui . . . dfiz«rant: aee ai, is, 
8. In Belfls: In readlceaa for the 
neit year's eipeditlon to Britain. 

13. dlCTum vlglntl tupplio&tlft; 

see not« on II. SS. 10, and notice the In- 
creased nnmber of days. Caesar's two 
eipedlUons Inlo lands where no Boman 
general bad ever before set fool bad 
made a wonderful Impreaslon at 



If Caesar accomplished nothing else by his first expedition to Britain, 
Tie at least learned that a large force would be needed for its aubjugfttion. 
■Therefore he quartered his army for the winter at suitable places for shipi- 
building and gave orders for the construction ot a lat^e fleet. On return- 
ing from Cisalpine Gaul, early in June, 54 b.c, he found so many new 
.ships constructed that his total fleet amounted to SOO vessels. Giving 
urders for the concentration of his forces at Port Itius, he hastened off co 
quiet the Treveri, who threatened to make trouble during his absence. 
This done, all was in readiness for the voyage; but a northwest wind de- 
layed him twenty-five days. 

At last, about July 20, with Ave legions and 2,000 cavalry, he set sail 
at sunset. About noon the next day he reached Deal, and landed with- 
out opposition. That same night, leaving a guard for the ships, he led 
his army twelve miles inland to a little stream, on whose farther bank 
the Britons were drawn up. Quickly driven from this position, the 
natives took refuge in a well-fortified stronghold near by, only to be 
routed once more. Here Caesar fortified a camp and spent the night. 
In the morning the troops had begun the pursuit of the enemy, when 
'Caesar was recalled by the news of the partial destruction of the fleet 
by a storm during the night. Though time was precious, he decided to 
have the fleet drawn up on the shore and surrounded by a fortification, 
which was done in ten days. He then returned to the camp from which 
lie had been recalled. 

The Britons had made good use of the time. The several tribes had 
postponed their differences with one another, had united their forces 
and bad given the command to the able and energetic Oassivellaunus. 
One attempt convinced this leader that no British army could stand 
against the Romans in regular battle. Henceforth he determined to 
fight no pitched battle, but to harass Caesar's march, to prevent his 
foraging, and thus to wear him out. Caesar, on the other hand, deter- 
mined to put an end to the contast, and marched farther inland. At 
the Thames the enemy once more tried to make a stand, having ob- 
structed the only ford with stakes; but the Romans would not be stopped. 
The principal tribes now submitted, and Caesar captured the stronghold 
of Cassivellaunus. The British leader made one more effort: he insti- 
^ted an attack on the fleet, which resulted disastrously to the Britons. 
Then he made a nominal submission and Caesar returned to Gaul. 


In the fall of this year a blow was struck by the Eburones which in- 
flicted upon CaeBar'a army the moat serious loss of ita entire Gallic ex- 
perience. and which so encoursged the other Gauls that it led to the great 
general revolt a year and a half later. Because of scanty harvests in 
Qaul, Caesar distributed his army for the winter more widely than usual, 
being caieful, however, to keep the several detachments within what he 
thought easy reach of one another. One legion and a half were quar- 
tered among the Eburonea, under Sabinus and Cotta. Fifty miles west 
of them, among the Nervii, Quintua Cicero commanded one legion. At 
a little greater distance, near the Treveri, lay another legion, com- 
manded by Labienus. Other legions were in or near Samarobriva, two 
hundred miles to the west. In Samarobriva was Caesar, postponing his 
visit to Italy until he should hear that all the winter quarters were well 

At the instigation of Indutiomarua, a chief of the Treveri whom 
Caesar had humbled before saiUng to Britain, the Eburonea made A 
sudden attack on Sabinus and Cotta. When they were repulsed, one 
of their leaders, Ambiorix, asked for an interview, and under pretense 
of friendship persuaded the Romans to abandon their camp and join 
either Cicero or Labienus. He promised under oath not to binder their 
march. Scarcely had they gone two miles when they were attacked in 
a narrow defile. After a deaperate conflict, prolonged from sunrise until 
the middle of the afternoon, the legion and a half were destroyed almost 

Before this great disaster became known to the Romana, Ambiorix 
joined the Nervii and persuaded them to attack Cicero. Aa before, the 
Gauls were repulsed and Ambiorix advised the Romans to abandon 
their camp; but Cicero refused, and defended his post with the greatest 
heroism. Day after day messengers were sent to Caesar, only to be 
caught and tortured to death. At last one got through. Moving at 
once to the rescue Caesar raised the siege and defeated the Gauls. This 
success checked for a time the general revolt which had seemed immi- 
nent; but Gaul waa so restless and ready for revolt that Caesar for once 
gave up his usual visit to Italy and remained with bis army. 

The chief inspirer of rebellion during the winter waa Indutiomarua. 
At last he raised an army, with the intention of joining other states with 
whose chiefs he had been in correspondence. First, however, he wished 
to storm the camp of Labienus. By pretending fear the Romans lured 
him right under the walls of their camp, then charged out on him. In 
the panic-stricken flight that followed, Indutiomarus was killed. Then 
Caesar, as he remarks, "had a quieter Gaul." 





• # 







•— — 

7 ^ 


^ il 








o . , . 





Tlie BaOtng and landing points are assumed to be the same as In the previous 
expedition (p. 254), altliough Caesar says only that he used the points which he had 
found most suitable in the previous summer. The sailing point of the previous ei- 
pedltion had been entirely satisfactory; and he had found no opportunity of explor- 
ing the coast of Britain lor a better landing point, so that he must have landed at any 
rate very near his nrst landing point, 

Caesar set sail with a wind blowing from the southwest (chap, 8), which was not 
the most suitable wind for a voyage to Deal with flat-bottomed ships: but the tide 
was running toward the southwest and served to keep his ships from drifting down 
the wind to the northeast. A gentle breeze which died out at midnight could not 
have carried him more than hidt way across. Then the tide changed and carried 
him to the northeast for Ave hours, probably from twelve to fifteen miles; and In th» 
iDoming he saw tliat lie had got farther away from Britain, which now lay at his left. 
The Goodwin Sands prevented hia malting directly for Deal, bo that he had nearly 
twenty-five mites to row. The tide, which again changed to the southwest, helped 
him at first, but not in the latter part of his voyage, so that it was nearly midday be- 
fore he reached Deal, 

The reute In Britain is that of Napoleon and Rtlstow, but too lew data are glveo 
by Caesar to make any part of it certain. ' • 

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I . L. Domitio Ap. Glaadio oonsalibns discedenB ab hibernis 
Caesar in Italiam, at qnotaonis facere cdnsa§rat, l€g&tia imperat 
qaoB legionibus praefecerat at! qnam pluriniaB poseent hieme 
nftTSB aedifioand&s vetergsqae reSoiend^ oararent. Earum 
modnm f&rmamqae dSmonatrat. Ad celeritatem onenmdi Bub- k 
duotidniaqae panl5 f acit hnmiliorfia qnam qnibna in nostro mail 
uti cOnanevimna, atqne id efl magia, quod propter crebraa com- 
mutatidnea aeatnum minna magnoa ibi Buctua fieri cognoverat, 
ad onera ac multitudinem iumentdmm tr&nBportandam panl5 
l&tl6rgs qnam qnibna in reliqniB utimnr maribae. H&B omnSa lO 
fictn&ri&a imperat fieri, qnam ad rem mnltnm humilit&a adiu- 
Tat. Ea quae annt ^aai ad armand&a nhviB ex Hiapfinia ap- 
port&rl iubet. Ipse conventibus Galliae citerioriB per^otia in 

arBtiOns for a second iDvasloa of 

Chap. 1. CKesar gives orders for 
the coostmotlon of a. fleet. Be coea 
to IllyilcDin. 

1. LDamlttO. . .cSnaullburinthe 
year M B.C. Ttae comnila look ofllce on 
Jan. 1, and Caesar aeems %o bava re- 
mained with tbe arroy till after that 
day. no flonbt Tlsltlng the vartons 
winter quarters and seeing Che work ot 
Khlp-bulldiiig ireU started. 

4. aMUflcftndis efirlTMit: see App. 
to, II, b. The ships were probably con- 
structed at several points on the rivers 
of Belgium. 

B. ■tll>dDCtl6llts: the Romans regu- 
larly beached their ships lor the winter. 
See also IV. 30. *. 

t. ImmlUOrfi*; probably both less 
deep In tbe water and less high out ot 
the water. They must have been nearly 

Quam Qttlbiu. " 
noitTOmArl: tb 

T. atqiwld. '->nd[hedidlthaV" 
proptVT . . . Asitunm; an Incorrect 

10. Utlfir«t;likeA< 
icate adjective with facil. 

rellqnli mATlbnt: the varlou 
ol the Mediterranean. 

11. lotuirlfti: I.e. they had both 
oars and sails. The traasporls osed in • 
tbe preceding expedition bad no oars, 
though tbe galleys did bave them. 

Imperftt fieri: note the annanal ta- 
Snltlve with impirs, which nenall; 
takes ut or ne with (be subjunctive. 
Tbe passive infinitive only is thus used. 

bninUlUti: it the sides bad been high 
It would have been necessary to cut 
portholes for tbe oars. 

IS. ex Bliptnlt: tbe Romans got 
their best ropes and much of thelc 
metal from Spain. 


396 ■ 


Illyricum proficiaeitar, quod ji PiriiBtiB fiaitimam ptirtem pro- 

15 vinciae iDcursionibus Tastari andiebat. Ed cum venisset, civi- 
t^tibas milites imperat certnmque in locum couvenire iobet. 
Qu& re nuntiata Pirustae Ugatda ad eum mittunt qui doceant 
nihil eanim rerum publico factum cdnsilio, Bgseque paratoa 
esae demonstrent omnibus ratidnibua de iuiuriis Batiafacere. 

w Percepta oratione eorum Caesar obaidea imperat eosque ad 
certam diem adduci inbet; nisi ita f^cerint, sesg bello civitatem 
peraecutiirum demonstrat. lis ad diem adductis at imperave- 
rat, arbitroa inter ciyitates dat qui litem aestiment poenamque 

2. Hia confectis rebua conventibusque peractia in citeriorem 
Galliam revertitur atque inde ad exercitum proficiscitur. Ed 
cum vgniaaet, circumitls omnibua bibemis singulari militum 
studio in summa omnium rgrnm inopia circiter aeacentas eius 

B generis cuius supra demoustravimus navgs et lungas szviii 
invenit lustructas, neque multum abesse abed, quin paucis die- 
bus deduci possint. Collaudatis militibus atque iis qui uegotid 
praefueraut, quid fieri relit ostendit atque omngs ad portum 
Itium conrenire iubet, quo ex portu commodissimum in Bri- 

io tanniamtraiectum esse cogDdverat,circiter milium passuumxxs 
a continent!; huic rei quod satis esse visum est militum relin- 

14, iUrricum: this was bis second 
Tlslc; seelll, 7, 3- 

15. e&rum rEiUin: I.e. the ralda, 
33. dat, -he appointed," 
poenam. "compensatton." 

Chap. 3. Caesar inspects the fleet 
and leads a force agalast the Treveii. 

1. conTentlbUB: la Illyrlcum: he 
h&d alreadv held court in Ctsalpme 
Gaul; 1, 13. Notice Caesar's uorastlng 
energy In the onl; vacation he had : be- 
tween Jan. I and early summer he 
traveled from Belgium to northern 
Iialf, held court there, went to Illyrl- 
com, cowed the Pirustae, held court In 
llljrloam, and traveled back lo Bel- 

4, In, ■■Insplteot." 

5. cuius: attracted from the accusa- 
tive Inlo the case of lis antecedent. 

B. neque . . . posilnt, lit. " and 
that it was not tar from this, that they 

B. poTtiun Itlum: see map, p. 204. 
This was Wlssanc, the harbor which he 
had used In the preceding year, and 
which he hod found mo;t suitable for 
his purpose fquo . ,. . cognStierat). 

10, mllinm pa,BBDum XXX: a de- 
scriptive genitive, depending onCr^Mo 
turn. This Isabouc the length of a di- 
rect voyage to his landing point, Deal. 

11. liulc r«I: tor completing and 
lannchlng the ehlpe, and for taking 
tbem to Wlasant. 

.■V Google 


quit. Ipse cnm legi&nibns expeditla iiii et equitibns dccc ia 
fin6a TrSTerfiriim proficiscitur, quod hi neqae ad concilia veni- 
ebaDt Deqne impend parSbant GermaiidBque Transrheo&n&B 
sollicitare dicebantur. '* 

3. Haec civit&a 1ong€ plurimam tdtius Galliae equitutu 
valet magnfisqne babet cdpi&s peditnm, Bbennmqne, nt supri. 
dgmdnstrftvimiiB, tangit. In e& cTvit&te dno dg principatu 
inter s& contendgbaot, Indntiomama et Cingetorix ; ex qaibus 
alter, simul atqae dS Gaesaris legidnnmqae adventu cognitnm s 
eBt, ad eum renit, si SQdsqne omnSa in officio futuroB neque 
ab amicitia popali Rom&ni defecturOs confirmavit, quaeque in 
Treveria gererentnr ostendit. At Indatiomarus equitatum 
peditatumque cogere, iisqne qui per aetS,tetn in armlB esse non 
poteraat in silvam Ardaennam abditiB, quae ingeiiti magnitu- lo 
dine per medioB tinia Treverornm & flumine BbgnO ad initiutn 
Bgmornm pertinet, bellnm par&re InBtitnit. Sed poBteaqiiam 
non nulll principSs ex ea cTvitate et auctdritate Cingetorigia 
adducti et adventu noBtri exercitus perterriti ad CaeBarem ve- 
nSrnnt et dg auis pnvatis rebnB ab &6 petere coep^mnt, qnoDiam a 
civitati consalere nOn poaaent, veritus ng ab omnibus dceerere- 
tur, Ugatoa ad Gaesarem ipittit: SgaS idcircd ab suis diecSdere 
atque ad earn Tenire ndluiase, quo facilitiB civitatem in officid 

13. expeditla: i.e. wlctiout the heavy 

18. concilia: Caesar had now begun 
CO call regular meetings of represenui- 

ance on them was a test ot lo;all; to 

Chap. B. Tn-o rival chiefs of the 
TreTsii seek Caesar's snpport. 

1- liaee ciTltfts: ihe Treverl. 

plQilmnni eqnitfttlk valet: cl. II. 

3. snprft: Inlll, 11, 1. Thelrproxlm- 
Itr to the Oermans made tbem more 
restless and dangerous. 

I. prlnelp&tft, "leadership," 

4. IndntlomfiruB was cbe tather-lU' 

B. sater.- the latter." 
B. sufla. "his party," 

9. C4g*re; with inttUuiC. 

10. Ingentl autgnllfidlue; descrtp- 
tive ahlatlTe with quae. 

11. Inillnm: i.e. their nortbeasiem 

13. sAn nblll piliiclp€>: who be- 
longed to the [action of Indutlomarus. 

IB. privuis T«bui, ' 

quonlun . . . pMient; implied in- 
direct discourse. They said, In effect, 
that they were not strong enoagb u> 
settle Ihe dispute between Ind nttomanis 
and Cingetorix, and coold only look oat 
(or Ibemsalves. 

IB. que: see App. ess, a. 1^ 


contiDSret, nS omnie nobilit&tis disoessu plgbe propter imprfi- 
m dentiam l&beretar; itaqae civitatem in sua poteetate esse, 
seqne, si Caesar permitteret, ad earn in castra renturam, et 
Baas civitatisqae fortunas eins fidei pennissaram. 

4. Caesar, ets! intellegSbat qa& de cansA ea dicerentnr 
quaeqne enm r^s ab institntd cdnsilio deterreret, tamen, ne 
aestatem in Trgveris cdnsnmere c6gerettir, omnibas lebnB ad 
Britanniciun bellam compar&tis, Indatiomaram ad se cum 

B dacentis obsidibua venire iaseit. His addnctis, in iis filio pro- 
pinqnisqne eins omnibus, qnos ndminStim evocaverat, consoli- 
tns Indntiomamm hortatnsqne est nti in officio maneret; mhil6 
tamen sgtina principibus Trgverornm ad se coavocatis bos ain- 
gillatim Cingetorigi conciliavit, qaod cum merito eins ab sS 

10 fieri intelleggbat, tum magni interesse arbitrabatar eias auctdri- 
tatem inter snds qnam plurimnm ralere, coins tarn egregiam 
in sS Tolnntatem perspexisset. Id factntn graviter tnlit Indu- 
tiomarns, snam gratiam inter gnos minul, et qni iam ante ini- 
micd in noa animd fnisflet, mnlto gravins hoc dolore exarsit. 

6. Hia rebns cflnatitfltia Caesar ad portnm Itinm cum legi- 
Snibns pervenit. Ibi cognoacit lx n&ves, qnae in Meldls factae 

1). nC, " for fear that." 

oniBll . . . dlBOMBb: l-e. if aU tbe 
Ctiiefs shODM go to Caesar. 

30. itMiiM . . . ewe. "ihenlore (be- 
eaose he bad not come to Caesar] tbe 
irbole state was In bis power ": Iiiipl;> 
big ttaatbe.andnot Cin^tortz, had the 
■ rtKbl to ti<eat with Caesar. 

Chap. t. Caesar decides ii 

or of 

3. qnae ria: naiiielr. tbe tear that 
11 bis roUowers would deBert him. 
elinalllO: ol makiikg war on Caesar, 
is already Jooe. 
. comparlUs, " atierall 
preparHilioDS had been made, etc." 

8. pTlnolpibiu: especla]l7 those be- 

tooeing to tbe taction of Indatiomams. 

Ik6a . , . conclll&Tlt: thus nsini; bis 

iDflueuce lo make Cingetorlx supreme 

a. Quod: Bobjectot jUri lilt. "whicb 
he knew was done In accordance with, 
etc." Supplying "becanse" will help 
the translation ; " becanse he knew that 

tntn, "not onlf. 

nwgnl: genitiyeof TOlne; "thM 
it was of great importance. " 

II. onlnt . . . perapexiH«ti a 
causal clause ; "since, etc." 

IS. Id factnin: explained by Its ap- 
posiUve. taOBi . . . minui. 

IS. qni . . . raliHt, " altbougb be 
had, etc."; see App. MT: O.-L. «»: A. 
53S. t: B. 283, 3: B.-R BZ3: B. ES!; 

14. hSe aol6re, "ihls Krlevance," 
"indignation at this tr 

■, Gl.)(.5t^lc 


erant, tempeet&te rSiecf Is ctiraiim tenere ndn potnisee atqae 
eodem nude erant prouctae revertiase; reliqu&s par&t&s ad 
nfiTigandnm atqae omnibnB rebus inatruct&e invenit. £6dem t 
eqnit&tUB totins Galliae convenit namero milia qaattnor prin- 
cipeaqneex omnibuB cirit&tibns ; exqnibQB perpancos, quBrum 
IQ Be fidem perspexerat, relinquere in Oalli&, reliqaos obsidnm 
loco secum ducere decrSverat, qnod cam ipse abeeset m&tam 
Qalliae Terebatar. m 

6. £rat uuSl cum cSterls Dumnorix Haodans, dS qa5 ante 
& nobiB dictum est. Hunc sScam habere in primTs odUBtitn- 
erat, quod enm capidnm reram nor^ram, capidam imperi, 
magni animi, magnae inter OalldB anctoritatis oogndTerat. 
Accgdebat hue quod in concilio Haeduorum Dumnorix dixerat i 
sibi a Caesare rSgnum clTit&tiB dgferri ; quod dictam Haeda! 
graTiter ferebant, neqae recnsand! aat deprecandi cauail ISg&tds 
ad GaeBarem mittere andebant. Id factum ex buIb hoBpitibas 
Caesar cognorerat. Die omnibns prim5 precibas petere con- 
tendit nt in Gallic relinqneretnr, partim quod insaetuB nftvi- to 
gandi mare timSret, partim qnod religionibuB impedli^ Bis6 

Chap. B. Ths float, thsleMona, and 
the cavalry assemble at port Itins. 

9. temptrt&te rtlMt&a ; probablr 
wbUe saUlDE Irom (lie montli ol tbe 
Seqwuia to WUsant. 

4. e&dam nnda, etc.: Le. to the 
mouth ot Che Sequana. 

6. mllla: In ftpposltloo nith tqiU- 


t. loot, "as." 

enm abetMt, "wbtle he should he 
atnent " ; implied todlrect dlsconrae. 

Chap. 9-1, The treachery and 

4. animl: deecrlpclTe genltlTe. 
B. aeoBdtbKt hiko Quod, "and be- 

othernaMs ; ne. lorezample, IV. 31, It. 

neqiM attdCbuil, " and ;et did not 
dare"; probably because they learsd 

t. patan eonteudlt. 

10. qnod tlmiret; a qaoted reoaoa; 

11. qnod dloeret: we ihonld expect 
either the iDdleatlve. ^elbal, elnce (he 
verb ol saying Isnotquoted.orsUapIy 
imptdlrXur, nich no verb of saying. 
Bat a sabjunctlve verb ol saying is 
otten used In qnoUng a reason. 

reUgiOnlbns, •■religious scniiiles.-' 
Perhaps he claimed to bare religloas 
duties which requited bis presence In 
Gaul, or tbat be had vowed never "t 



diceret. PosteOqtiam id obstin&te si* i neg&ri Ttdit, omni spS 
impetraudi adempta principee Galliai, Bollicitare, flevocare sin- 
gulos hortfirlque coepit nti in continenti remanerent, metu 

n territ&re: Hon sine cane^ fieri at Qallia omoi nobilitate spolill- 
retur; id esse coiiBilium Oaeearia, nt qnos in conspecta Galliae 
interficere vereretur, hoB onrnes in Britanuiam tr&diictds neca- 
ret: fidem reliqaia iaterponere, Iub iuraadum poscere nt quod 
esee ex dbu Oalliae iatellexisBent conimuiii cdnailid administra- 

10 rent. Haec a compliiTibns ad Caesarem dsfer^bantur. 

7. Qna rfi cognita Caesar, qaod tantam ciTitati Haeduae 
dignitatis tribaebat, coercendnm atque d^terrendnm qnibna- 
cumqae rebns poBset Dnmnorigem Btatngbat; quod longios 
eius Amentiam progredi videbat, proepiciendnm ng quid sibi ac 

B rei publicae nocSre posset. Itaqne dies circlter xxt in ed loc& 
commor&tne, quod GOrus ventDB navigationem impedigbat, qui 
magnam partem omnis temporis in bia locls fiare cdnsuSTit, 
dabat operant ut in officid Dnmnorigem contineret, nihild tamen 
Bgtiua omnia eiaBcSnailia cognosceret; tandem id5neam nactus 

to tempest&tem militgs equit€sqne conscendere n&vSs inbet. At 
omnium impeditiB animis Dnmnorix cum eqnitibuB Haedndrnm 
fi castris inBciente Caeeare domnm discSdere coepit. Qn& i& 
nuntiatfi Caesar iiitermiBB& profectiSne atque omnibus rebus 
postpositls magnam partem eqnit&tuB ad enm ioBeqnendnn] 

u mittit retrahique imperat ; bi vim faciat neque pareat, interficj 
iubet, nihil hunc se absente pro s&nO facturum arbitratus, qnl 

IB. llerl, Mie: indirect dlBcourae. powerful league and liod Inore&Bed their 

depeDdlDg on a verb ol sojrlng Implied luQnence. It was a serious m&tlec to 

la ttrriiare. bare so strong a BtaM dlscontenl- 

IB. fld*niiiiMrpOnar«, "bepledKed ed. 

hU word." Inltrpdnere and poicere &re 4. ptisvtolendiim («»), " tbat he 

In tbe aame conslnictlon as ttrriUlrt, mnst seet« lb"; depending on ■(alui&aC 

depending on eoipu. ■Ibl: Le. Caessr. 

19. IstalUxlBiant: implied indirect 11. omnibus rabas, "everTthlng 

discourse lor ttae future perfect. else." 

Chap. T. Domnonz flees, but is *'• "teaU Unperat: ct note on 

piirsu«d ftnd killed. imperat Jltri, 1, 11. 

1. QUOd . . . trlbuibal: Caesar bad 18. prBsknfi, "llfaeksknemaa." 

foDDd tbe Baedul at tbe bead o( a qui. "slDce be." 



(sTaeBentiB imperiam neglSxisset. Die aatem revocatns re«H- 
tere ac s6 maiiu dgfeDderesadrnmque fidem implorare coepit 
aaepe clamitftna libernm ai llberaeque 6886 oivitatis. nil, at 
erat imperatnin, circumaistant hominem atqae interficiaiit; at w 
equiteB Haedai ad Caesarem oniDga reTertmitur. 

8. HiB rebas geetis, Labi6ii<> in continent! cam tribas legi- 
dnibus et equitum milibaa du6bua relictd nt portus tugrgtnr 
et rem frumentariam provideret qaaeque in Qallia gererentar 
cognosceret cdnBiUamque prd tempore et prd r€ caperet, ipse, 
cam quinque legiflnibus et pari numero equitum quern in con- ( 
tinenti relinquebat, ad aolia occaaum d&t6s Bolvit, et leni Africo 
provectiiB media circiter nocte ventfl intermiaafl curanm nfln 
tenuit, et longina dSlataa aeatii ort& luce sub siniatrJl Britan- 
niam relictam cfinapexit. Turn rursne aestus comm&t&tidnem 
eecutus remis contendit ut earn partem losalae caperet qua lo 
optimum esse ggresaum superifire aeatilte cognoverat. Qua io 
re admodam fait militum virtne laudanda, qui vectoriis gravi- 
buaqae navigiis non intermiseO remigandi labore longarum 
naviam carsam adaequarant. Acceeaum eat ad Britanniam 
omnibus nilvibiis meridi&nd ferS tempore, neque in ed locd hos- ii 

i. wilb tl 

I weapon! in 

IB. Dumfi: 

bla bands. 

30. InWiflolant: this deed moat 
Dave made a deep ImpresalaD upon tbe 
GalUa Dobles. wbo aaw one ol tbelr 
order atniok down for assertlDg bis 
liberty ol action. Wilboot donbt It 
belped to bring od the great revolt 
daacrlbed In Book VII. 

Chaii. 8-11. Thongti BocceeafHil in 

1 delayed b; 
atlieenom] . .- 

Chap. 8. Caesar sails to Britain 
and lauds nithoDt opposition. 

1. Labtfni): Caesar was leaving only 
bOilf BM many legions In Qaul as he had 
left there the year before; ctaeretore he 
left his best lieutenant. 

. gerermtur: he 

may have feared the effect of the death 
of Dnmnorlx. 

4. pro . . . It, " according to the oc- 
■ULBion and clrcmnstanceB. " 

5. pari qnem, "equal (to tbat) 
wblch", "theaameaB," 

8. ad ■91U oce&inm: about a 

It la snppoaed that the day was July 
ao. For the course of the voyage and 
an explanation of the details wbleb fol. 

13. Tlrtba, "Spirit." 

veotSritE . , . n&TlgUi, lit. " with 
ships built for carrying and heavy," = 
"tboogb In beavlly laden transpnu," 



tis est tTbub; eed, ut postea Caesar ex captivia cogndrit, cam 
magnae maous eo convgniBBent, mnltitudine naviam perterri- 
tae, quae cnm anndtmis prlvfttiaqTie, quas Bui qaisque commodi 
cauBa fgcerat, amplius octingenUe uno erant visse tempore, a 

90 lltore discesseraut ac se in snperiora loca abdiderant. 

9. CaeBar ezposito exercitu et loco caatria idoueo capto, nbi 
ex captiTiB cogndrit quo in loco hoatium cdpiae cdnB^diaaect, 
cohortibus s ad mare relictis et equitibna ccc qui praeaidio 
naribas easent, d§ terti& rigilia ad hoatSa contendit, ed minus 
E veritus navibua, quod in litore molli atque apertd deligataa ad 
ancoras relinquebat. £i praeaidio navibuaque Q. Atrium prae- 
fecit. Ipae noctu progressuB milia passaum circiter sii hoa- 
ttum copiaa conapicatua eat. 111! equitatu atqne esBedia ad 
flumen progrcBBi ex loco 8uperi6re nostroB prohibere et proe- 

10 lium committere coeperunt. Eepulsi ab equitatii s5 in silvaa 
abdiderunt, locam nacti ggregig et natura et opere munltum, 
quem domeatici belli, ut vidgbatur, causa iam ante praepar^ 
verant; nam crebris arboribus aucclals omnea introit&a orant 
praecluBi. Ipsi ex Bilvia rari prdpngnabant noatrosque intra 

16 munitionea ingredi prohibfibant. At mlUtes legidnia septimae 
testudine facta et aggere ad munitiOnea adiectfi locum ceperunt 

18. qulaque fficer&t, " iDdlvldiiala 
had made." Some □! IiIb of&cers were 
wealtbr, Bad no doubt some ot tlie men 
who were " foUowlng Caesw (or Irleud- 
sblp'asake" (I, 89. 10. noM) were well- 
to-do. And probably the bIitb dealers 
had ships of Ihelr own. 

90. BiipArtaTA loca; tbe blgber 
grouDd some twelve miles inland, josl 
across tbe Little Stonr; see map. 

e marches 

: I.e. the bot- 

rocky cllffi along- tbe shore. Caesar 
seems to hare thoaght thai the ships 
might be blown on shore wltbout much 
harm. It is strange that be did not 
take warning Irom bis prerlons experl- 

B Utile Sloor. 

B. ad fltniMi: t 

U. opere, ■■by art." 

IS. •fbOTlbus ■ucclsla: they had 
probably felled the trees so that their 
tops lay outward. It piled tblckly 
enongh. with their branches shortened 
and sharpened, they would make an ef- 
fective de tense. 

14. rirl. "In small bodies." 

19. Ugltnls MpUmae: this legton 
bad met with a reverse on tbe preceding 
expedition (IV, 33). and vrag^eager lor 

15. ftBB*ra . . . adiMM: they piled 



eosqae ex eilTis expnlSront panolB vnlneribna acceptis. Sed 
eoa fugientes longitu Caestu' prdseqai vetuit, et qaod loci n&tu- 
ram ignorabat dt qnod magD& parte digl cdnaumpti muniUOni 
caatrorum tempns relinqui voleb&t. ** 

10. Fostridie eiuB die! mane tripertito mflitea eqnitSaqne 
in ezpeditidnem misit, Qt ede qai fugerant persequerentur. 
His aliquantum itinerU prOgressia, cum iam extrgmf eeBent in 
prdapectu, equitSa 3, Q. AtriO ad Caeaarem vgnSrunt qui nnn- 
tiarent anperiore nocte maxima, coorta tempeatate prope omnes a 
naTea affllct&s atque in litua €iect&a eaae, quod neque ancorae 
funesque aubaiaterent neque nautae gubernatdreaque rim tem- 
peatatis pati poaaent; itaque ox e5 concurau n&fium magnum 
eaae incommodnm acceptnm. 

I I . Hia rebuB cognitia Caeear legiouSa eqait&tumqae roTO- 
carl atque iD itinere reaiatere iubet, ipse ad u&tob revertitur; 
eadem ferS quae ex nuntila cogndTorat coram perapicit, sic ut 
llmiaeiB circiter xl naribna reliqaae tameu reScI poaae magnd 
negotio viderentur. Itaque es legiouibaa fabroa deligit et ex a 
continent! alios arcesal iubet ; Labieno acrlbit ut quam pluri- 
maa poaeit ila legionibus quae aint apud eum navCa inatituat. 
Ipae, etai res erat multae operae ac laboria, tamen Gommodiasi- 
mnm eaae atatuit omnea D&ves Bubdiici et cum castria una mu- 

earth >Dd logs ag&lnst and over tbc tops 
ot tbe tellWl trees. 

30. a&itrOrum: ilils camp was i 
of Che Little Su>ut. 

Chap. 10. Caoaar is leaalled by the 
news that his fleet la nrecked. 

1. trlpertltA: the enemy were b 
tered. so that It only ramaineil to pursue 

S. •xtrtml: only the rear guard ot 
the Romans was now In sight ol the 

4. AtrU: he had been leli. in charge 
ot the camp by the sea. 

7. nequa mibsiatarant, "du not 

8. concunlk, "dashlF^-together." 

Ohap. 11. The fleet Is repaired and 
beached. In the meantime the Brit- 
ons nntte nnder CaaalTeUaunoa. 

». oBrun, ■■ with Ws own eyes." 



S. ex . . . djliglt: we must under- 
stand that Caesar sent lor the legions 
from the camp at the Little Stonr. The 
sklued workmen among the soldiers 
were detailed to repair the ships, while 
the rest beached them and baUt a wall 
aconnd them. 

S. multaa . . . Iab6rla: the ao« 
Bhlps, even U drawn up in tour lines, 
would occupy about a mile of the sea 
front. Merely building a wall aionod 
so great a. space was no light task. 


to nitiSne coniangl. In his rSbus circiter di€a x conBumit nfi 
nocturnis qnideoi temporibua ad laborem militum intermiBBlg. 
SnbductlB navibus caBtriaque egregie muQitia eOedem copiJis 
qoas ante praesidio navibus relinquit, ipse eddem unde redierat 
proficiscitur. Eo cam venisset, maiores iam undiqne in eum 

IS locum copiae Britannorum convenerant, snmma imperi belliqne 
ad mini strand! commuuT cousilio permiasa CasslTellaund ; cuing 
fingB a maritimis civitatibus flamen dividit, quod appellatur 
Tamesis, a mari circiter mllia paBBnum lxxs. Huic Buperi&re 
tempore cum reliquls civitatibus continentia bella interceBse- 

■0 rant; Bed noetro adventu permoti Britann! hunc tdti bello im- 
perioqne praefecerant. 

12. Britanaiae pars interior ab iiB incolitur qnds n&tds in 
iDBula ipsa memoriS. proditum dicunt, maritima pars ab iis qui 
praedae ac belli Inferendi causa ex BelgiO transigrunt (qui om- 
nes fere isdem nominibus ciTttfitum appellantur quibus orti ex 

t civitatibus e5 pervenemnt) et bello illato ibi permanserunt 
atqufi a|;r6B colere coepSrunt. Hominum est infinita multi- 
tiid6 crgberrimaqae aedificia fere GalliciB cdnsimilia, pecoris 
magnus numeruB. tTtuntur ant nummo aureo aut taleis ferreis 
ad cerium pondus examlnatla prd nummo. N&scituT ibi plum- 

is. mlUa . . . LZZZ: CaeBar natu- 
rally gives the dlstaace bf the roQl« 
which he loUowed from bis landing 
place to the ford by whlcb he crosBed 

Iiulc . . . InterceHarant. "be bad 

Chap. 13-14. A descrlctlOQ of Brit- 
ain and its inbabitantE. 

Chap. 13. The origin ortheBii tons. 
The natnial reaoniceB of the ialand. 

1. qu6i niitda (etit): subject ol prS- 
iMum Ititt); "whose origin upon the 
Itland Itsell Is baDded down, they say. 

by tradition." Tbe meaolng la that 
tbey were descended trom ancestors 
who sprang from the soil of Britain. A 
similar belief about tbemaelves vaa 
held by other ancient races. 

a. ttal , . . trinslSciuit: this was 
troe. Tbe Celtic invadera had passed 
oyer to Britain and partly dlapoasesBed 
the earlier inbabitants, Just as they bad 
In Qanl; see Int. 15. 

4. qnlira* . . . peirfiifiniit, "from 
wbicb tbey have descended and mlgra- 
ledbilher." Tbeantecedentisrepealed, 
as often, and must be omitted in trana- 

T. oitberrlnu: snppiy >unt. 

». ptumbum Ubnni: tbe mines ai 
In Comwall. tbe extreme sontbwesuii 
part of tbe island, so tbat Caesar 




bum album in mediterraneis regidnibns, in maritimEa fermm, w 
sed eiuB ezigua est cdpia; aere utmitor import&td. Materia 
cniusque generis ut in Qallift est praeter f&gam atqne abietem. 
Leporem et gallinam et ftnserem gust&re t&a n6a pntant; haec 
tamea alunt animi Tolnpt&tisque oau8&. Loca sunt temper&- 
tidra quam in GalU& remisai&ribas fdgoribua. u 

13. Insula nStflrft triqaetra, coins unnm latus est contr& 
Galliam. Hnius Uteris alter sngulns, qui est ad Cantinm, qad 
fere omnes ex Gallic nfives appelluntnr, ad orientem solem, !n> 
ferior ad meridiem spectat. Hoc latua pertinet circiter milia 
pasauum quingenta. Alteram vergit ad Hisp&niam atque occi- » 
deutem solem; qua ex parte estUibemia Inaola, dimidid minor, 
at existim&tur, quam Britannia, aed pari apatio tr&nsmisBua 
atque ex Gallia eat in Britanniam. In h6c medio cursil eft 

before thU time Ihe PboenlcUns 
bad obtained tin wblch came 
trom tbese mines. 

11. ezlKtia oOplk: ihi« ae- 
counts for IMnae as money. It 
Is now (oaud In abundance. 

13. pTMMT . . . AblaMm; > 
mistake. Both ti«es an native 
to Britain. 

14. anlml , . , c&iuk, " tor 

CIiiip.ia. The form and size 
of Britain. 

Ab no RomoD bod eyer sailed 
•TOond the Island or traveled In 
It, It Is not surprising that Cae- 
sar's deHdiptloa of It Is inaccu- 
rate. He comes mnch nearer the 
tmtb than might have been ex- 

5. iiu6: the adverb. 

9. Inferior: suppiyonjTuIiH. 

6. ftlterum: supply laoii. 

Terglt MI Hlapbtlam; thla la a sur- 
prlstog mistake, but one that prevailed 
long BfMr Caesar's time. The error 
was much vorse than appears on the 
map, lor Caesar thought that Spain ex- 
tended farther nonb and nearer Brit- 
ain. More than a hundred years later 


a. dtmldlS mlnoT, "smaller by 

7. pari . . . atqae, lit. " but with 
an equal length ot passage across as." 
tpati6 IB a descriptive ablative. 

B. In , . , cnralk, "haUwayacross." 



iDBola, quae appellAtar Mona; complures praetereft mindrfis 
n obiectae inaolae ezlBtimaDtur ; de qnibaa insalu Ddn niilli scrip- 

Bgnmt dies contiuudB zxz sab bramam esBe nootem. Kob 

nihil de eo percontatioDibus reperigbamua, nisi certis ex aqua 

mSnBuris brevioreB sbbc quam in continent! nocteB TidgbonLos. 

HniuB est longitUdo lateria, at tert illdram opinio, doc miliam. 
u Tertiam est contra aeptentridnSs ; cni parti nGlla est obiecta 

terra, sed eias angalas alter maximS sd Germaniam spectat. 

Hoc miliam passanm Dccc in longitudinem esse existimatur. 

Ita omniB insula est in circnitu Tici^B centam milium paaeaum. 

14. Ex bis onmibas longg sunt humanisBim! qai Cantiam 
incoluot, quae regio est maritima omnia, neque multam & Gal- 
lica diSenmt cdnenetudine. InteridrSs plerique frfimenta nfia 
semnt, sed lacte et carne vivnnt pelliboeqne sunt Testiti. 

« Omnes Terd bS Britanni vitrd laficiunt, quod caeraleum efficit 
coldrem, atqne h&e horribilior€B aunt in pagna aspectu; capil- 
loque sunt prdmissd atque omni parte corporis rasa praeter 
caput et labrum superiuB. 

15. EquitSe boBtium eBsedariique acriter proeli3 cum 
equitatu noBtrd in itinere coufiixgrunt, ita tamen ut nostri 
omnibus partibus auperiores fuerint atque e&s in silrfis col- 

10. IniQlae: prob&bl; the 
*nd Orkne; Islands. 

11. nUl, '■ eicepi aiat" 

MrtiB . . . mtiHllrU, "b7 exact 
meoBuremeDts by Uie water^lock." 
Tbe Romans osed Instrmnenta oa tbe 
jirlnclplB of the hour-glaaa, using water 
Inalead ol sand ; I.e. time was measured 
by the amoQiit ot water that dropped 
through a small hole Id the bottom ol a 

IS. breTlSrSi: the longest dar at 
Borne Is IS hours; at t>andoD, llHi: la 
the DOTth or Scotland, ISM hours. 

IE. enl . . . terrft: Caesar knows 
nothing of ScandlUBrla. 

IS. angnlui altar: this 1b at Kent, 
the one flFst mentioned 

IB. Tloijt . . . paaiuum: this Is 
too great, as Caesar baa 

1. Ilia: tbe tribes ot Britain. 
S. IntsrlftT^a, "Ibe Inhahltants of 

S. atpectfi: ablatlveof speclQcatloii. 

capllie, parte: desciiptlTe ablatlvea. 

Cbap. le-lT, After Bereral akir- 
misbes I^e Britons are declsivelr 
defeated, and they avoid fhrthsr 
pitched battles. 

Chap. 16. BMnnishes between tha 
Britons and the Roinan& 

3. In itinera: i.e. on the march from 
tbe sea to the camp across the Little 
Stour. This chapter resumes (be nar- 
rative which was broken off at tbe end 
of chap. 11. 

S. fuerint; notice tbe exception to 
: App. 101, 0. 




ISeqne oompnlerint; sed comploriboB interfectiB onpidins inse- 
cuti non nullds ex snie Jtmisernnt. At illi iutermiB8& spatlo, ^ 
imprudentibuB noetria atque occupatis in munltidne castrCmm, 
sabito eg ex Bilvis giScenuit impetuqne in eSs faotd qui erant 
in Btatione prd caatris colloc&t! acriterpugniiTgrant; da&buBqne 
missiB Bobsidid cohortibna & Caeeare, atqne his prlmls legidnam 
dnarum, cnm eae perexignd intermisBO loci Bpatid inter ai c5n- lo 
stitiBsent, norO genere pngnae perteiritis nostrle, per medios 
audacisBime peirupSrant B^qne inde inoolnmSs recSpfimnt. 
Ed die Q. Laberias DuraB, tribunuB militam, interficitar. III! 
pluribnB BnbmieBlB cohortibna repellnntar. 

1 6. Toto hoc in genere pngnae, cum anb ocnlfa omnium ac 
pr5 CBBtris dimicaretur, intellectnm eat noatrds propter gravi- 
tatem armomm, quod neque inaequi cedentSs possent neque 
ab signiB discSdere auderent, minuB aptds esse ad hnius generis 
hostem ; eqnit6a autem magno cnm periculfl proelifi dlmicfire, b 
propterea qnod illi etiam cdnanltfi pl€ramqne c€derent et, cam 
panlum ab legidnibna nostroB remoTiaeent, ex eBsediB deailirent 
et pedibuB dispari proelio conteaderent. Accedebat hQc at 
namquam confertl, sed rSri magnisqne iDterrallia proeli&ren- 

e. Imprtdentlbni . . . occnpfctla, 

"wblle OUT men were off their ymad 

7. qui ■ . . ooUoe&tl: probaibtr » 

single cohort, stationed lust oiitBide the 
piaelorlan g&t«; eee the plan ol a 
camp. Int. El. 

S. fttiineliliprlmla, "audihe*e the 
first (cohorts) " ; which ctmtalned the 
best ofllcers and men. 

10. petexlffOO . . . at, "wltli a very 
Utile space between them." Apparentlj 
the two coborta lelt the camp b7 the 
two dde gates and got around In the 
rear ot the tataoy who were attacking 
In Front ol the camp. Intending to cut 
DO their retreat. But as the two coborta 
aid not qnlte meet, the enemy escaped 
between them. 

11. novfi genere: evldentlr these 

:ouort8 had not taken pait In the first 
Inrasion of Britain. 

IS. 1111 . . . iep«UniitiiT: when the 
enemr escaped from the position in 
cb the; were attacked both front 
and rear, they turned again and attacked 
the three cohorts. It then required 
several more cohorts to put them U> 

Chap. le. The tactics of the Britons 
pnt the Romans at a disadvantage. 

2. noitrCa: the Intantrr. 

4. ab slgnls dtBcGdere. "to break 
ranks"; becaase they had been trained 
to flglit only In regular lormaclon. 

5. till: the Britons. 

T. noBtrSi: the cavalry. 

•X eindli. etc. : on the tactics ol the 
cborloteers, see IV, 93, and eepedkUr 
tbe note on 1, 4. 



II tur Btatidn^Bque diapositlU liab€rdnt, atque alids alii deinceps 
exciperent integiique et recentes detatlg&tie succedereat. 

1 7. Posters di6 prootil & caetris lioetSe io coUibns 
cdnBtiterant T&rique bS ostendere et leniug qaam pridiS 
nostroa eqaitga proelifi lacessere coepSnmt. Sed meridiS 
cnm Caesar p&bolandi csnB& trSs legidngs atqae omnem 

B eqnltatam cnm C. Trebdnid l€gfitd misiseet, repente ex 
omniboB partibus ad p&bulat5r6B adTol&TSruDt, sic nti ab sig- 
nia legiduibusque ndn absisterent. Nostri a^riter in eds im- 
petu facto reppnlgrant neqne floem sequendi fgcSrunt quoad 
EubsJdid cdnfisi dqaites, cnm post aS legidn^a videreot, prae- 

to cipitgB hostSs egernnt, magnoque eorum nnmerd interfecto 
neqne sni colligendi neque conalBteadi ant ex eaeedis desiliendl 
facnltatem dedSrunt. Ez hac fnga protinus qnae ondique 
COQT^Derant auxilia disceaserunt, neqne post id tempus um- 
quam summls nOblscnm copiis hostea contendernnt. 

18. Caesar cognitfi cocsilio eonim ad flumen Tameaim in 
finSa CaasiTellanni exercitam duxit; quod flnmen find omnind 
loco pedibna, atqne hOc aegre, tr&naln potest, Ed cum 
TSniaaet, animadrertit ad alteram fluminia ripam magnaa eaae 

6 copies hoatium inatractaa. Ripa antem erat acutia andibus 

Chap. IT. The Britons attackthree 
legionB whlls fOragliiK. After a de- 

1. fc caatrla: Caesar ia still In camp 
Just west o( the Lltile Sttrnr. 

4. tria . . . eaultitum: an anusu- 
ally large loraglng party. The novel 
Ulotlca of the eneiOT' Inspired respect. 

5. rapente . . . adToliTtrunt: Just 
aa they had done In the preceding year; 
IV. »3. 

t. Ble ntl, "SO fiercely that"; I.e. 
they eren attacked the troops which 
had been kept under arms to prol«ct 
the foragerB. 

8. ■eqnandl: the enemy irere not 

yet roaled, but were retreating slowly 

13, M, ■■after," 

quke . . . auzllla: ci. tl, IG. 

14. Bimuiils cfipltB, ■' In tull force.'' 
Chap. la-SI. Caesar marches In- 
land, recelTSB the sabmiBEion of aev- 
eral tribes, and takes the stronghold 
of CasBiTsllannus. 

ChBi). 18. Caesar marches to the 
Thames and forces a passage In the 
face of the enemy. 

1. cfinslllB: I.e. not to fight pitched 
battles but to prolong tbe war and wear 

3. dftxll: see map. p. 2M. 
tUl6 loeO; at present there are several 
Which COBsar 


praefixis munita, einadeiaqne generis Bub Bqn& d€fizae sadfiB 
flutniae tegebantnr. His rebus coguitiB & captlvis perfugisqne 
Caesar praemiBaS eqnit&tu GeinleBtim legidaes Bobeeqa! insait. 
Sed e& celerit&te atqne eo impetii militfia iSrant, cam capite sdld 
ex aqua exstfireot, nt hoBtSs impetnm legiduam atqne equitum lo 
anBtlnere nOn poBBent rip&sqne dlmitterent ao b5 fngae man- 

(9. CaaBiTellaannB, nt snpr& demdnBtr&vimoB, omnI d§- 
positjl ep€ coatentidnis, dimiBslB amplij^ribas c5pii8, milibos 
circiter qnattuor eased&rifirnm reliotls, itinera nostra seir&bat 
panlamqne ex Ti& exo^dSbat locisque impeditis ac silvestribna 
seBg occaltabat, atqne ila regifinibus qnibna n6s iter facturos 5 
cognoverat pecora atqne homin^B ex agris in silvaa rompellebat 
et, cam equitatns noster liberins praedandi T&atandiqne cansA 
a6 in agroB SiScerat, omnibna viia aemitiaqne eesed^rids ex silvis 
£mittebat et magn6 cam periculo nostr5rum equitnm cam his 
cdnfligebat, atqne boo metu latins vagari probibgbat. RelinqaS- to 
batar at neqae longins ab agmine legionum discSdi Caesar 
paterStnr, et tantnm agria vftatandis incendiisqne faciendis 
hoatibna nocSretor quantum in labore atque itinere legion&rii 
milit^s efficere poterant. 

6. praafltis: I.e. pro]ecUiiKCor<rard 
from the northern bank. 

8. praamlaiB egulutfi: (bey prob- 
ablf swam tha stream above or below 
the tord and attacked the enemy's 

9. lemnt; bow tbey passed the 
Blakes Is not said; bat BUch obstacles 
could only delay, not stop, a charge. 
Tbe Romans conld Dot use batchels 
under water, as has been supposed ; but 
they could climb over tbe stakes or per- 
haps pQll them up. 

11. dlmltterent, "abandoned." 


1. luprk: inlT, 13. 

S. CDnt«nU6ula,"o[ winning pitched 

■. itinera larrlibat, "kept watch- 

chariots must have been narrow, to 
pass among the trees; and their wheels 
must have been hlsh, to pass over rough 

T. cum tlSoerat: tor mode, seeApp. 

10. IiScmatft, "by rearoftbts"; St. 
/Oe dolSn. 4, 14. 

r«llnquSI>l,tUT, "tbe result was." 

11. disced (oA tqtiUUrmy. Imper- 
sonal; "Ibe cavalry to diverge from." 

13, tantum liMtlbua uocfeMnr. 

" that only so mucb damage was in- 
Qlcted on tbe enemy." 

13. In . . . Itiaere, lit. "in hard 
work and marching," a" in their toU' 
Tbe whole senteuoa 



20. InteriiD TriDovantSs, prope finniBdma eanun regidnimi 
ciTitaa, ex qua MandabraciaB adnlescens Caesaris Gdem seca- 
tm ad enm in contiDeDtem Teoerat, coins pater in ea civitate 
rugnam obtiniierat interfectnsqae erat A CaseiTellaiiiio, ips» 

5 fugi Diort«m TitaTerat, legates ad CaeBarem mittnnt pollicen- 
tarqne sese ei deditaros atqne imperata facturos; petnnt at 
Maiidiibraciam ab iniuria CassiTellaani dtfendat atqae in 
civitatem mittat qui praesit imperininqne obtineat. His 
Caesar imperat obeidSs qnadragint& frumentumque exercitni, 

10 Maadabracinmqae ad eds mittit. Illi imperata celeriter fe- 
cemnt, obeides ad nnmemm frumentiuDqae misemnt. 

21. TrinOTantibna defeneis atqne ab omni militDm iniuria 
probibitis, Cenimagnl, Segontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci, Cass! 
legationibns missis sese Caeeari dedant. Ab his ct^noBcit ndn 
longe ex eo loco oppidnm Cassivellanni abesae silvis paliidi- 

5 basqne munitnm, qnd satis magnns bominnm pecorisque 
nnmerns conTenerit. Oppidnm antem Britanni vocant cnm 
silv&B impeditas vallo atqne fossa muniernnt, qno incnraionig 
bostinm vitandae cansa convenire consnernnt. £0 proficlsci- 
tar cnm legionibns; locnm repent egregie D&tQr& atqne opere 
10 mnnitom, tamen hnnc dnabos ex partibiis oppngn&re con- 
tendit. Hostes panlisper morati militum noetronun impetnm 

means tbM tbe aimj cooJd deTasuite 
odIj tlie narrow atrip tbroneh which 
the luUntiry coold march, whereas ihe 
cavalry onsht to have laid waste the 
cooDUT for miles on each side of the 

Chap. SO. The Trinovantes Tolon- 
tsrily offer mbmissioD. 

1. TrlnoTMiUi: in Essex: see map. 

S. ad •um . . . Ttnerat; probabi; 
among those meDtioned In IV. SI, 10. 

i. IpM. "(while) be himself": Le. 

8. mlUat: the object la Mandubra- 

Chac 31. Other tribaa i 

Caesar takes the Btranghold of Cas- 

1. (UfiUria: rromCasBlrellaaniia. 

mUUnm (notirerum) intBrik: this 
does not impl; that Caesar hsd marched 
Into their connlrr. Tbe other siatea 
saw that Caesar did not inarch against 
tbose who submitted. 

4. eo locO: wbere tbe envoys bad 
come to him apparently on the north- 
ern bank ot the Thaioes. 

oppidnm CasBlTallaiml: sapposed 
to be St. Albans. 

6. ODpldum . ■ . Tockntonm, "tbe 
Hrilons call it a town when." The 
ippidum was a place of reTnxe. not » 



non tnlemot a^seqne alia ex part« oppid! Si^cenint. Magnna 
ibi nmnema pecoria repertns multlqne in fuga sunt compre- 
henBi atqne interfectl. 

22. Dnm baec in his Iocib gernntnr, CaaeiTellaiiiiaB ad 
Cantinm, quod esBe ad mare Bapr& demoustraTimus, qaibas 
regidnibus qaattnor reges praeerant, Cingetoriz, Carrilius, 
Tasimagulng, Segovax, u&ntios mittit atque his imperat uti 
coactis omnibuB copiis castra nav^lia de improviBo adoriantnr &< 
atque oppugnent. HI cnm ad castra veDisBent, nostri ernp- 
tioue facta, multiB e5rum interfectis, capto etiam Dobili dace 
Lugotorlge, buob incolumea reduxerunt. CaflBivellaunua hoc 
proelio nuntiato, tot dgtrlmentia acceptia, vflBtatiB f inibus, max- 
ime etiam permotna defectione clvitatum, legfitoa per Atrebft- ict 
tem Commium dg deditione ad CaeBarem mittit. Caesar cnm 
coDstituisBet hiem&re in coutinenti propter repentinds Oalliae 
motuB neqne multnm aeatfitis Bupereeset atqne id facile eztrahi 
poBse intellegeret, obaldes imperat et quid in annds singuloB 
TectigallB popnlo Remand Britannia penderet cOnatituit; in- i& 
terdlcit atque imperat CaasiTellaun& n6 Mandnbracio neu 
TrinoTantibna noceat. 

23. ObBidibuB acceptis exercitnm redncit ad mare, n&vea 
invenit refect&a. HiB d&dnctis, quod et captitdrnm magnnm 
numernm hsbebat et non nullae tempeatate dSperierant uavea^ 
duobus comme^tibua exercitnm reportare institnit. Ao sicacci- 

Chap.33. Casslvellatuiusliisll^tes 
an auack on the Roman fleet. When 
this falls he offers hostagea. 

i. Buprft: In 14, s. 

B. eailra nlTlllft: the camp by the 
sea. wblcb enclosed cbe fleet. 

10. defaotlOne: cf. si, 2. 

11. Commlnm: cf. iv. ai. il 

13. propter . . . mAttu: therewere 
none aa jet, but he [eared there wonld 
be if he kept so large a pari of his arm; 
In Britain. 


■\j Id September. 
la . . . POBM, " that this time could 
easily be wasted"; I.e. It he tried to 
capture or thoroughly BUbdoe Caaslvel- 

14. auld . . . TBCttgUlB, "bow 
much trlbnie each year"; an empty 
form, since no troops were left to en- 
lorce paymenc. None was paid; nor 
did any Roman army return to Britain 
till 43x.l>„ nearly a century laler. 

Chap. 33. CaeBai returns to Qanl. 

4. comme&tlbui. "voyages," 
"trips"; the original meaning of the 



s dit uti ex tantd uaTium namero tot n&vig&tifiiiibns neque hoc 
neqiie superiore anno ulla omnino n&viB qaae militSs portaret 
desideraretur; at ex iis quae inaaes ex contineati ad enm remit- 
terentDr pridris commefitus expositta militibna et qn&a postes 
Labienus faciend^B cnr&verat, namero LX, perpaacae locum 

10 caperent, reliqnae lerS omnes reicerentar. Qa&s cum aliquam- 
diii Caesar IrustrA exspectSiSset, ne anni tempore & nfirigjltidne 
exclflderetur, quod aequinoctium suberat, neceasario angustiua 
militSs collocaTit ac summa trauquillitate conaecuta, aecunda 
initfir cnm solvisBet vigilia, prima luce terram attigit omneaque 

m incolumeB naves perduxit. 

24. Subdoctis nayibna concilioque GallQrum Samarobrirae 
peractd, quod $5 anno friimentum in Gallia propter aiccitates 
angtiatiua proT^nerat, coactus est aliter ac anperidribuB annia 
exercitum in bibemia colloc&re legidngsque in plures civitates 
£ distribuere. £x qnibus unam in Morinos ducendam C. Fabio 
legato dedit, alteram in Nervios Q. Ciceroni, tertiam in £su- 
tIos L. Bdscio; qn&rtam in Bemls cnm T. Labigod in cdnfinio 
Treverornm hiem&re iusait; trea in Bellovacts coUocavit; his 
M. CraBsnm et L. Mun&tinm Flancum et C. Treb6nium Ug&- 

10 tdB praef^cit. tJnam legi&nem, quam proximo trans Fadum 
conscripserat, et cohortgs qninque in Eburones, quorum para 
maxima eat inter Moaam ac Rhenum, qni sub impend Ambi- 
origis et Caturolci erant, misit. Hia militibns Q. Titurium 
Sabinnm et L. Aurunculeium Cottam legfitos praeesBe iussit. 

u Ad hunc modum distributlB legionibus facUlime inopiae rei 
frfimentariae seae mederi posse exiBtimavit, Atque barum 

a. tot niTlKlUSolbiu: ablative ab- 

8. prtSrli . . . mlinlbUB, "haTlag 
landed tbe soldiers from the first trip." 

«t qufti; i^obrdlnkM vlth gwu; tbe 
antecedsDt la tx ilt. 

». fftolend&s cbrftTer&t: (or cod- 
Btrucclon, see App. 2gS, II, ft; tor tbe 
fact. SM II, a. 

lociun. "destination." 

10. auHKAt. TilotrantuT; la the 

LT Sept. 20, aod 

la. Quod ... I 

Caesar bad been In Britain i 

see noM on od lolU occOtutn. 8, S. 

(UfUBtlUB . ■ . colloa&Tlt, "crowd- 
ed tbe soldiers rather closely." 

la. Monndjt TlsUl&, prlmfc Ifioe: 
the vofage. theretore, ocoapled aboDt 

■, Google 


tameQ omninm legiOnnm hibema, praeter earn qnam L. Rdscid 
in pilc&tisaimam et quietissimam partem dQceadam dederat, 
miltbus passuam centum contmSbantur. Ipse interea, quoad 
legiongs collocfitSa mnnltaqne bibems cogndriaeet, in Gallia n 
morarl cOnstituit. 

25. Eratin Camntibae anmrnd locd n&tns Taagetins, cuiue 
maiores in sua ciTitate regnum obtioDeraat. Huic Gaeear prd 
eius Tirtute atqae in b6 .beneTolentia, qnod io omnibuB bellie 
BingalarT eiuB opera fnerat ubub, maiorum locum reatituerat, 
Tertiam iam banc aimam r€giiaatem inimlc! palam muUis ex t 
cTvitate anctdribns interfSc^rant. Dgfertur ea rga ad Caesarem, 
nie veritna, quod ad plurSs pertiugbat, ng civitfia edrum im- 
pulau dgficeret, L. Plancam cum legidne ex Belgio celeriter in 
Carnutea proficisci iabet ibique hiem&re, qoorumqae cpera 
cognoverit Tasgetium int«rfecttim, boa comprehensSa ad b& to 
mittere. Interim ab omuibuB quibns legidnes trfididerat certior 
factus eat in hlberna perrentnm locumque hlberuls esse mu- 

26. Biebns circiter xy qaibus in hiberna Tentam est, ini- 
tium repentini tamultua ac defectionla ortum est ab Ambiorige 
et Catuvolco, qui, cum ad finga rggni ani Sabino Cottaeqna 
praeato fuiasent frumentumque in hlberna comportaviasent, 
Indutiomari Trgveri nuntiia impula! ands concitaveruat anbi- n 
tdque oppresaia lignatOribua magna manu ad caatra oppugnanda 
Tenemnt. Cum celeriter noatri arma cepiasent vallnrnqne 
aacendissent atqne, iiii& ex parte Hiapauia eqnitibua emiaBis, 
equeatri proelio Buperidrea fuissent, deBpcrata re hostes buob 
ab oppugnatione reduxeront. Turn ano more conclamavernnt lo 
nti aliqui ex noatrls ad colloquiom prcdlret; Habere seae quae 
de rS commUni dicere vellent, quibua rebua controveraiaa 
minui posse apSrArent. 

27. Mittitnr ad e6a colloqnendi oaasfi C. Arpineiua, eques 
BomanuB, famili&ria Q. Titurl, et Q. IHniusex Hiapania qui- 
dam, qui iam ante missu Caeaaris ad Ambiorlgem ventitare 
cdnanerat; apnd quOa Ambionx ad banc modam looQtos eet: 


5 Sete pro GaesariB in a& beneficiis plarimnm ei confiteri debgre* 
qnod eins opera Btlpendio llberatnB easet quod Ataatncia, 
fiQitimis sals, pendere conangsset, qaodqne ei et filins et 
fratris filins a Caesare remiss! esaent, qads Atnatuci obsidnm 
nnmero missos apQd se lo servitnte et catSoIs tennisseot; 

10 Deque id quod fecerit de oppngnatidne castrdram aut iudicio 
ant ToloDtate sua fScisse, sed coactd cmt&tia; snaqae esse 
eins modi imperia nt ndn minus haberet iuris in ae moltitndo 
qnam ijne in mnltitndinem. CivitatT porru hanc fnisae belli 
caasam, qnod repentinae Gallomm coninratidni resistere non 

15 potnerit. Id se facile ex homilitate ana probare posse, qnod 
non aded eit imperitus remm nt snis copiia populnm Bomanum 
BQperari posse oonfidat. Sed esse Galliae commune consilium; 
omnibus hibemis Gaesaris oppngnandis banc esse dictnm diem, 
ne qua legio alter! legion! subsidio venire posset. Non facile 

10 Gallda Gallis negare potuisse, praesertim cum de recaperaiid& 
common! libertilte consilium initum Tideretnr. Quibus quo- 
niam pro pietate satisfecerit, habere nnnc se rationem oflSc! pro 
beneficitB Caesaris; monere, orare Titnrium pro hospitio nt 
suae ac militam salnti consnlat. Magnam manum Germa- 

» nornm conductam Rhgnum transisse ; banc aSore bidno- Ip- 
sornm ease consilium velintne, prinsqnam flnitiml sentiant, 
C-dnct5s ex hibemis militea aut ad Ciceronem ant ad Labienum 
dcdiicere, quorum alter m!lia paaanum circiter quinquaginta, 
alter panlo amplius ab its absit. Illud s§ pollicgri et iure iu- 

so rando confirmare, tutum se iter per eu&s fines datumm. Qnod 
cnm faciat, et civitati sese consulere, qnod bibernis lev^ur, et 
Caesari pro eius meritis gratiam referre. Hac oratione babita 
disc edit Ambiorix. 

28. Arpineins et lunius quae audierant ad legatos defe 
runt, nii repentina re perturbati, etsi ab hoste ea dicebao' 
tnr, tamen non neglegenda exiatimabant, maximSque hac re 
permovebantur, quod civitatem ignobilem atque humilem 

t Eburdnnm su& aponte popnlo B&man5 bellnm facere auaam 
vix erat credendnm. Itaqne ad conailinm rem dSfemnt, 


magnaqne inter eoB ezsistit coatrdversia. L. AamncnlgiaB 
compturesque tribuQi militam et prTm5rum ordinam centuri- 
on&B nihil temere agendum neqne ex hibernis iaiuBsu Oaesaris 
discedendnm exiatimabant; qaantasvia copiaB GermftnSniin lo 
Buatineri posBe munitiB hibemiBdocebant; rem esse teatimdnid, 
quod primum hostinm impetam maltiB ultro Tolneribug illatia 
fortisBime aastinneriat ; r6 frumentaria non premi; intereft et. 
ex proximiB biberDis et a CaeBare coDTentara sabsidia; poB- 
tremo quid esse leviuB aut turpiuB qnam aactdre hoste dg aum- is 
mia rebuB oapere cflnsilium ? 

29. Contra ea TitiiriuB aero factiirds cl&mit&bat, cnm 
maiores maads hostinm adiuuctia Genn&nis coaTenisBent, ant 
com aliqnid oalatnJt&tis in proximia hiberols esaet acceptnm. 
Brevem consulendi esse occ&sionem. Caesarem aS arbitrari 
profectam in Italiam; neqne sliter Garontgs interficiendi Tas- s 
gett cunBilium fuisae captHrdB, neqne Ebnr5nSa, ai ille adeaaet, 
tanta contemptiOne noatri ad caatra Tenturda. S^ai nonhoatem 
auctdrem, sed rem spectare; aubease Rhennm; magnd eaae Ger- 
manis dol5ri Arioviati mortem et snperifirSs ooatriiB Tictoriaa; 
ardgre Galliam tot contntn^lila acceptla anb populi Eomani lo 
imperinm redactam, anperiOre gldn& re! militaris exatlncta. 
Poatremo quia hoc aibi peranadgret, aine certa ape Ambiorigem 
ad eina modi ooQailinm dgacendiaae? Snam aententiam in 
utramque partem eaee tutam: ai nihil eaaet darius, niilld cnm 
pericnlo ad proximam legionem perreotiiroa ; ai Gallia omnia is 
cum Germania conaentiret, unam ease in celeritjte poaitam 
aalutem. Cottae quidem atque eorum qui diaaentirent cSnai- 
linm quern habere exitum ? in quo bT non praesens perlculnm, 
at certe longinqu^ obaidione famea eaaet timenda. 

30. H&c in utramqne partem disputatione babitfi, cnmi 
Cotta primiaqne 5rdinibua Writer resiatergtnr, 'Vincite, ' in- 
quit, 'ai ita Tultia, ' Sabinus, et id claridre voce, nt magna 
para militum ezandlret; ' neqne is anm, ' inquit, ' qn! gravis- 
aimg ex vobis mortia perlcnlo terrear; hi aapient; ai grarius s 
quid acciderit, aba t6 rationem repoacent, qui, a! per tS liceat, 


perendinfi die cnm prozimis hibemis conmncti commanetii 
cum reliqnis belli casnm KOBtineuit, non reiectl et releg&ti 
loDge & ceteris snt ferro sat fame intoreant/ 

31. Cdnanrgitnr ex consilio; comprehendant ntmrnqne et 
drant ng eui disaenaidne et pertiDaci& rem in snmmnm peri- 
calnm dedacaot: Facilem esse rem, seo maneant, sen proficis- 
cantar, si modo finiim omn^s sentiant ac probent; contra in 

■ dissgnsioDe nullam b6 salutem perspicere. Res dispntatione 
ad mediaro noctem perducitnr. Tandem dat Cotta permotos 
manOs ; enperat senteotia Sabini. Proonnti&tar prims luce itu- 
roe. CoQs&niitTir vigiliis reliqna pars nootis, cam soa qnisque 
miles circomspiceret, quid secom portire posset, qnid ex in- 
to Btrumento hibemdrnm relinqnerc cogergtor. Omnia exc6gi- 
tantur qn&re nee sine pericnlO mane&tnr et laHgnfire militnm 
et vigiliis pericnlnm aageatar. Primft Ince aic ex castriB pro- 
ficiscnntor ut quibus eeset persQiBum non ab hoate, sed sb 
homine amlcisBimo c&nsilinm dattim, longiBBim& agmioe maxi- 
li misqne impedimentiB. 

32. At hostes, poste&oaam ex noctam& fremitQ Ti^Tsqae 
A6 profectidne e&mm Bens^mnt, coUoc&tls Insidils bipertitd in 
silviB opportune atqae occnltd locd & mllibna passnom circiter 
dn&buB, Romanomm adventam exBpect&bant, et, cam e6 msior 

B pars agminis in magnam oonvallem dgmiBiBset, ex ntraqne parte 
eias Tsllie sobito sg oetenderant DOTissimosqne premere et 
primOa prohibere ascSnsG atque iniqnisaimd noatris locd proe- 
linm committere coeperant. 

33. Tom d^mum Titfiiins, qui nihil ante proTidisBet, 
trepidare et concarsare coboiteaqae diaponere, haec. tamen ipsa 
timide atque at earn omnia dSficere vidgrentor; qaod plernm- 
qne iia accidere cdoaa^Tit qoi in ip65 negfitid cSnailiam capere 

B cdgnntor. At Cotta, qai cogit&sset haec poaae ia itinere 
accidere, atque ob earn causam profectioniB aactor nOn fuisset, 
nulla in rg commdni salflti deerat; et in appellandis cohortan- 
disqae militibus imperatoris et in pugnfi, militia oGBcia praeatft- 
bat. Cam propter longitiidiaem agminis nSn facile omnia per 


as obire et quid qnOqne locS faciendum esset prdrid^re poaUDt, vt 
insBgratit pronuotiari nt impedimenta relinquerent atqne in 
orbem ooDsiBterent. Quod conBilinm ets! in eias modi cfisd 
reprehendendam non est, tamen incommode accidit; nam «t 
■nostris militiboB epem minoit et hostes ad pngnam alacridr€8 
effecit, quod nfin Bine Bummd timore et despgratiSue id factum m 
TJdeb^tnr. Praeterea accidit, qnod fieri necesee erat, nt vulgd 
militga ab Bignis diecederent, quaeque qaisqiie eorum c&rissima 
haberet ab impedimentis petere atqae ampere properAret, 
clamore et flgtu omnia complerentur. 

34. At b&rbarig cdnsiliam n5Q dsfnit. Nam dacSs e&nun 
tota aci@ prdulintian inesSrant ne quia ab loc& discSderet: 
Illorum ease praedam stqne Jllla reserv&rl qnaecnmque RdmJln! 
reliquisaent ; proinde omnia in rjctSrii pOBita eziBtim&rent. 
Kostri tametei ab duce et & fortunft dSBerebantur, tamen & 
omnem epem salutis in Tirtute pQngbaut, et quotigns qnaeqae 
cobors prdcarrerat, ab ea parte magnns nameruB hostinm 
cadebat. Qua r§ animadversA Ambiorix pr&nuoti&ri iubet nt 
procul tsla coniciant nen propina accSdant et qnam in partem 
Roman! impetnm fScerint c€dant (lerit&te armdrum et coti- i» 
diaa& esercit&ti5ne nihil iis nocSr! poaae), rurBos aS ad Bigna 
recipienteB Insequantur. 

35. Qnd praeceptd ab iia diligentiaaimg obaerv&tO, cum 
qnaopiam cobors ex orbe excesserat atqne impettim fScerat, 
hostea T^lficiBBim^ refagiSbant. Interim earn partem niidaii 
neceaae erat et ab latere apertd tSla recipere. BursoB, com in 
earn locum unde erant €greBBl rerert! coeperant, et ab ile qui' s. 
cesBerant et ab iiB qui proximi steterant circamTeniSbantnr; sin 
antem locum tenere vellent, nee virtuti locus relinquebatnr 
neqne ab tant& mnltitiidiiie coniecta tela conferti vitare pote- 
rant. Tamen tot incommodia conflictftti, mnltis vnlneribns 
acceptiB TesiBtebsnt et magn£i parte die! consiimpta, cum & ift 
prima luce ad boram octavam pugnftretur, nihil quod ipsis 
eBBct indignnm committebant. Turn T. BalTentio, qui superi- 
Ore annd primom pilum duxerat, virfi forti et magnae -auctOri' 


tatis, ntramqiie femur tragula tr&icitur; Q. LucfiiiiuB, fliasdem 
IS ordinis, fortiBsime pugnana, dnm circnmventd filid aabveiiit, 
interflcitur ; L. Cotta legatas omn€8 cohorteB ordinesque ad- 
hortans in adrerenm ds fand& vulneratiir. 

36. His rebus perm5tu3 Q. Titurius, cum procnl Ambiori-- 
gem suda cohortantem c5u8pexiBset, iuterpretem Buam, Cd. 
Pompeium, ad eum mittit rogatum nt aibi militibosque paroat. 
Ille appellatuB reapondet: Si relit agcum colloqui, licere; 

s Bperare a multitudine impetrari poaae qnod ad militum salutem 
pertineat; ipsi vero nihil nocitum iri, iuqne earn rem sS suam 
fidem interpoaere. Ille cum Gotta saucio commuuicat, si 
videatur, pugna at ezcSdant et cum Ambiorige una colloquan- 
tnr: sperare Be ab eo de ana ac militnm aalute impetrari poaae. 
10 Gotta se ad armatnm hostem ituram negat atquo in eo perse- 

37. SabinoB quoB in praesentia tribunoB militum circum aS 
habebat et primorum ordinum centuriones Be seqni iubet, et, 
cum propius Ambiorigem accesBisaet, iussua arma abicere 
imperatum facit suisque ut idem faciant imperat. Interim, 

5 dam de condicionibus inter se agunt loogiorque consulto ab 
Ambiorige inatituitur aermo, paolatim circnmventus interfici- 
tar. Turn Tero sue mdre Tictdriam couclamant atque ulnlatum 
tollunt impetuqne in nostras fact5 ordJnes perturbant. Ibi L. 
Gotta pngnana interficitur cum maxima parte militum. Reliqai 

10 se in caatra recipiunt unde erant egressi. Ex quibus L. Petro- 
sidius aquilifer, cam magna multitudine hostiam premeretar, 
aquilam intra vallum proicit, ipse pro castris fortiasime pag- 
nana occiditar. Illi aegre ad noctem oppagnatiduera Busti- 
uent; nocte ad unum omnes desperata salute se ipsi interfici- 

15 unt. Fauci ex proelio elapal incertls itineribus per silvas ad 
T. Labienum legatam in hibema perveniunt atque earn de 
rebus geetis certiorem faoiunt. 

38. H5c victfiria sublatua Ambiorix statim cum cquit&t& 
in Ataatucos, qui erant eiua rggnS finitimi, proflciacitur; 
neque noctem neque diem intermittit, peditatumque se subsequ! 

,,, .GlKwIc 


inbet. BS demdnstrfitft Atnatnciiqna concit&tTs, posters die 
in Nerrids perrenit hortfitarqne n6 sni in perpetuam libeniDdi » 
atqae nlciaceadi Rdrnfinfis pr<> iie qa&s acceperint IniuriiB 
occ&Bi6nem dimittant; interfectds esse legfitos dnos magnam- 
qne partem ezercitus interlBse demonstrat: Nihil ease negStl 
subittJ oppressam legidnem qnae cnm Cioerdne biemet interfici; 
se ad earn rem profiiStur adintdrem. Facile hao dr&tidoe ii 
Nerriis peranfldet. 

39. Itaqne cdnfeatim dimisalB nuntiis ad Geutrones, 
GradidB, LeTicda, Plenmozids, Oeidumnds, qui omiies sab 
e6ram imperiO sant, qnam mazimaa manus poBBnot cogant et 
dg improTlBo ad Cicer^nis hibema advolant, ndndam ad earn 
f&ma de Titiiri morte perlilta. Hoic qnoqae accidit, quod » 
faitneceSBs, ntnon nulll milites, qm lign&tidniB miinitifliiiaque 
caas& in silvfis disceasisseiit, repentlno eqnitum adveatii inter- 
ciperentur. His circamTentlB magna maQu EbarOngB, Nerrii, 
Atnatuci atqae bOram omnium socii et clientgB logidnem op- 
pugnare incipiunt. Noetri celeriter ad arma concurrunt, N 
vallum conscendunt. AegrC is dies sustentatur, quod omnem 
Bpem hostSa in celerit&te pdnSbant atque banc adeptoB victoriam 
in perpetuum ag fore victorSs oonfldebant. 

40. Mittuntur ad Caeaarem oonfeatim a GicerSne litterae 
magnia prdpositis praemiis, si pertuliasent ; obseBBls omnibas 
viia miaai intercipiantur. Koctii ex e& materia quam muniti- 
onia cauB& comportftyerant turrea admodum cxx excitantur 
iacredibill celeritate, quae deesBo operi videbantur perficiuntur. 6 
Hostes poatero die multo maiiiribuB coactia copiia caatra 
oppugnant, foBsam complent. A nostriB eadem ratione qufi 
pridie reaiatitur. Hoc idem reliquTs deincepa fit diebus. Niilla 
para noctumi temporia ad laborem intermittitur; ndn a^ria, 
non rulneratia facnlt&B quiiitia datur. Quaecumqne ad proximi to 
diei oppugn ationem Opua aunt noctu comparantur; multae 
praeuBtae audea, magnua muriklium pilonim numems inatitu- 
itur; turrea contabulantur, pinnae loricaeque ex cr&tibua 
attoxuntur. Ipse Cicero, cum tenuisaimS. valStudine OBset, ni 

. I .Google 


IS nocturaum quidem sibi t«mpnB ad qniStetu relmqii€bat, nt 
altrd militnm concnrau ac vocibna Bibi parcere cdger€tar. 

4 1 . Tnm duces principeaque Nerviorum, qui aliquem aer- 
moniB aditum caasamqae amicitiae cum Cicerone habebant, 
coUoqui aese velle dlcnnt. Facta, poteat&te, eadem quae Am- 
biorix cum Titurio egerat commemoraat: Omnem esse in armls 

G Galliam; Germauda Bhenum trauaiaae; Caeaaris reliquorumque 
hiberna oppugnari. Addunt etiam de Sabini morte; Ambio- 

• rlgem oatentant fidei faciendae causa. Errftre eoa dicunt, bI 
quicquam ab iia praesidi sperent qui auis rebna diffidaut; seae 
tameu hoc ease in Ciceronem populnmque Romanum animo, 

10 ut nihil iiiai hiberna reciiaent atque banc inveteraacere consue- 
tudinem nolint; licero illia incolumibua per ae ex bibernia 
diacedere et quaacumque in partes veHnt aine metii proficiaoi. 
Cicero ad baec unum modo reapondet: Non eaae cdnauetudi- 
nem populi Romani accipere ab hoate armato condicionem; si 

IS ab armia diacedere velint, b6 adiutoro utantur Igg&t&sqae ad 
Caeaarem mittant; sperire eg pr6 eius iQatitiil quae petieriat 

42. Ab h4c sp5 repulal Nerril vallO pedum x et fossa 
pedum XY biberna cingunt. Haec et auperifirom annornm 
conauetQdine k nobis cogDoveraiit et, quoadam de exercitu 
nacti captiT5s, ab bis docebantur; sed, nulla ferramentdram 

6 copia quae esaeut ad hunc uaam idonea, gladiis caeapitgs cir- 
cnmcidere, manibus aagulisque terram exhaurire cogebantur. 
Qua quidem ex re hominum miiltitiidd cognoscT potuit; nam 
minus horia tribus milium pedum xv in circuitii muuitionem 
perfec6runt. Reliquia diebua turrea ad altitudinem valli, 

w falces testiidineBqae, quaa idem captivi docuerant, parare ac 
facere coeperunt. 

43. Septimo oppugniitionia die maximo coortO vento fer- 
veutea fiisili ex argilla glandea fundia et fervefaota iacula in 
casaa, quae more GalUco stramentla erant tectae, iacere coepe- 
runt. Hae celeriter ignem comprehenderunt et venti magni- 

• tudine in omnem locum castrorum distnlernnt. Hostes 

., .Coo>;Ic 


mazimO clamore, sicuti part& iam atque expldr&tft TictOrift, 
turrgs t«Btudiii€sque agere et acfilis Tftllnm aecetidere coepg- 
rant. At tanta militnm virtm atque ea praeeentia animi fait 
at, cnm andiqae flammS, torrerentar maxim&qoe tgldram 
mnltitudiae premerentar saaque onmia impedimenta atqae la 
omaes fortunaa conflagrare intellegerent, nfin modo de TfiUo 
decederet iigmo, sed paene ne reepiceret qaidem qnisqaam, sc 
tam omn^B &cerrim€ fortisslmeque pngnarent. Hie dies 
nostria longS graviBsimaa fuit ; sed tamen hunc habuit eventum, 
at eo die maximua numeraa hoatium vnlner&retnr atqae inter- i6 
ficergtur, at sg aab ipad rallo conatipaTerant recesanmqne 
primia altimi ndn dabant. Paulum qnidem in-termiaaft flammft 
et qaodam loc5 tnrri ad&ctfi et contingente v&Uum, tertiae co- 
hortis centurifiiies ex ed qad at&bant locd recesserunt sadaque 
omngs remdrgmnt, niitii rdcibnaque hoat^a, ai introira rellent, a> 
vocare coepgrnnt ; qadram prSgredi anaua est nemd. Tam ex 
omni parte lapidibaa cooiectis detarbati, turmque aucoSnaa 

44. Erant in ea legione fortisBiml Tiri, centaridn§8, qui 
iam primia ordinibua approplnquarent, T. Puilo et L, A'oreiinB, 
Hi perpetuaa inter ae controveraiaa habebant quinam antefer- 
retnr, omnibusqae annis de loco snmmis aimnltatibua conten- 
debant. Ex his Pall5, cum acerrimg ad miinitidn^a pugnfiretur, b 
'Quid dubitaa,' iaquit, ' Vorgne? ant quem locum taae pro- 
bandae virtiitiB exspectas ? Hie dies dS nostria contrdverailB 
iudiciibit.' Haec cum dixisset, procedit extra munitidnes, 
qoaeque pars hostium confertiBBtma est visa irrumpit. Ne 
Vorenua quidem Bese tnm valid continet, eed omnium veritaB to 
existim&tidnem aubsequitur. Uediocri Bpatid relic td Pullfi 
pilum in hostea immittit atque unum ex multitijdtne prdcur* 
rentem tr&icit; quo percuaao et exanimato, hunc aciitia prote- 
gunt hoatSa, in illam universi tela coniciant neque dant prd- 
grediendi facultatem. Tranafigitur acutum PulISni etTerfitnm n 
in baited dSflgitur. Avertit bio casus vaginam et gladium 
educere conanti dextram mor&tur manum, impeditnmqu? 

822 CAESAH'S gallic war, V, 47 

hoBtSs circa msistuiit. Snccurrit ioiiniciis illi Voreniia et 
laboranti sabveatt. Ad hunc sg confestim a Pnllone onmiB 

10 maltitiidd convertit; ilium veruto transfizam arbitrantar. 
Gladid comminna rem gerit Vorenua atqne uno interfecto reli- 
quoB paalum pTopellit; dum cupidins instat, in locum delatoB 
inferiorem concidit. Huic ruraua circumvento fert sabBidiuni 
Pallo, atque ambo incolumes compluribua interfectis summa 

36 cum laude seee intra munitioneB recipiunt. Sic fortuna in 
oontentione et eertamine utrumque versaTit ut alter alteri in- 
imlcuH auxilio aalutlque esBet, neque diiudicari posaet uter utri 
Tirtute anteferendus rideretar. 

45. Quanto erat in diga gravior atque asperior oppugnatio, 
et maiime quod magna parte militnm confecta TolDeribus rea 
ad paucitatem defenaorum pervenerat, tanto crebriores litterae 
niintiiqna ad Caeaarem mittebantur; quorum para deprehcnsa 

G in cdnapectu nostrorum militum cum cmciatu nec&batur. 
Erat unuB intua Nerviua, nomine VerticS, loc6 natus honeBto, 
qui a prima obaidione ad Ciceronem perfugerat aummamque ei 
fldem praeatiterat. Hie aervo ape libert&tia magniaqne persna* 
det praemiia ut litteras ad Caesarem deferat. HSa ille in iscnld 
10 illigataa efEert et Oallua inter Galloa sine iilla anspiciSne ver- 
aatuB ad Caeaarem perrenit. Ab eo de periculia Cicerdnia 
legionisque cognoscitur. 

46. Caeaar, acceptia litterla h5ra circiter undecima diSi, 
atatim nilntium in Belloyacoa ad M. Grasaum mittit, cuina 
hibema aberant ab so milia paasuum sxv; iubet media nocte 
legionem proficiaci celeriterque ad ae venire. Exit cum niintio 

c CraaBUB. Alterum ad 0. Fabium legatum mittit ut in Atreba- 
tiam finea legionem addiicat, qua aibi iter faciendum aciebat. 
Scribit Labieno, ai rei publicae commodo faoere poaait, cum 
legione ad finea Nerviorum veniat. Reiiquam partem exercitiia, 
quod paulo aberat longiua, non putat exapectandam ; equitea 
10 circiter quadringentoa es proximia hibernia cogit. 

47. Hora circiter tertia ab antecursoribua de Craaai ad- 
rentu certior factua eo diG milia paaauum xx procedit. CraaBum 


Samarobrivae praeficit legifioemqne el attribnit, qood ibi im- 
pedimenta exercitus, obsidea clTit&tnm, litteras publicas, fru- 
mentamqne omUe qaod ed tolerandae biemis caaaa dgvezerat b 
relinqu^bat. Fabias, ut imperatum erat, non ita maltum 
moratuB in itinera cum legidne occnrrit. Labienns interitu 
Sabini fit caedfl cobortiam cognitft, cnm omngs ad enm Treve- 
rdrum copiae TSnisaeut, Veritas n€, si ex hibemls tugae similem 
profectionem fScisset, bostinm impetum sustingre ndn poBset, lo 
praeeertim qu&s recenti Victoria efierr! sciret, litteras Caesari 
remittit qaanto cum pericnld legiOnem ex bibernis ednctiirns 
esset; rem geatam in Eburdnibus perecribit; docet omnes eqni- 
tatuB peditatuaqne cdpiaa TreverOrum tria milia paBsnum 
longe ab bqib caatris conagdisae. u 

48. Caesar Gonsilio eius probato, etBi optnione triam 
legionum deiectns ad dnas reciderat, tamen ilnam communis 
Balutis anxilinm in celeritate pAnSbat. Venit magnis itineri- 
bus in Kerviorum fines, ibi ex captiTis cognoscit quae apud 
Ciceronem geraniur quantoque in periculo rea ait. Tnm s 
ooidam ex eqnitibua Gallia magnia praemiia peranadet nti ad 
Ciceronem epiatnlam deferat. Hanc Graecis conscriptam lit- 
teria mittit, ne intercepta epistnla nostra ab hostibas consiliit 
Gognoscantnr. Si adire nou possit, monet ut tr&gnlam cum 
epistnl& ad amentum deligata intra manitioues caetronim lo 
abiciat. In Utteria BCribit ae cum legionibua profectum c€ler- 
iter affore; hortatur nt pristinam virtutem retiueat. OaUue 
perioulum Teritas, nt erat praeceptam, tragnlam mittit. Haec 
casG ad tnrrim adbaesit neque & Dostris bidnO animadversa 
tertid die a qnSdam milite conspicitur, dempta ad CicerOnem is 
defertnr. Ille perlSctam in conventu militum recitat maxi- 
m&qae omngs laetitig afficit. Turn fumi incendiorum procal 
Tidebantur: quae r€B omnem dubitatidnem adventus legidnum 

49- Galli re cognitfi per expl6rat6r€e obeidionem relin- 
qnnnt, ad Caeaarem omnibug c&piis contendnnt. Haec erant 
arm&ta circiter milia LX. CJcer5 data facnlt&te Galium ab 


eddem Yerticdoe qaem supra d€m6natraTimiiB repetit qn! 

6 litteraB ad Gaesarem dgferat; banc admonet iter caatg dlligeii' 
terqae faciat; perscribit in litterts hostSs ab s8 discesBisse 
onmemque ad eum mnltitudiiiem coiiTertiaae. Qnibas littens 
circiter media nocte Caesar allatis sqob facit certiorgs eosqae 
ad dituicandam animo confirmat. Postero dig luoe prima 

ID movet castra et circiter milia passuum qnattaor prdgressas 
trans rallem et rlTum multitudinem hoatiam cSaapicatar. 
Erat magnt periculi rgs cum tantia copiia iniquo loco dimicare; 
turn, quoniam obgididne liberatum Ciceronem sciebat, aequQ ' 
animo remitteudum dS celeritate exlstimabat. Gonsldit et 

IB quam aeqniaaimo locd potest caatra communit atque baec, etai 
erant exigua per a€, viz hominum milium aeptem, praesertim 
uiillia cum imped imentis, tamen augnatila viarum quam 
maximg potest contrahit, ed cOnsilid, nt in aummam contemp- 
tidaem boatibaa reniat. Interim specnlatOribus in omnga 

so partes dimissis ezpl5rat quo commodissime itinere vallem 
tranaire possit. 

50. E6 die parTulis equestribns proeliia ad aquam factis 
utrlqne seag aao loco continent: Galli, quod ampliorea copias, 
quae nondam convenerant, ezapectabant ; Caesar, ai forte 
timoria aimulatione hoatea in auum locum elicere posset, at citr& 

6 vallem pro castria proelio contenderet; sT id efficere non poseet, 
ut eiploratis itineribua minore cum perlcnlo vallem rivumque 
translret. Prima luce hoatium equitatna ad castra accedit 
proeliumquecum noatria eqnitibus committit. Caesar conaalto 
equites cedere aSque in caatra recipere iubet; aimal ex omnibus 

ID partibos caatra altiore rallo miiniri portasque obatmi atque tu 
hia admin istrandla rebus quam maximg concurs&ri et cum 
simulatione agT timoria iubet. 

5 1 . Qaibus omnibus rgbns hoatSa invlt&tl copiaa trfiducunt 
aciemque iniqud locd cdnstituunt, noatris vgro etiam dg valid 
dgductis propiua accgdnnt et tela intra munitionem ex omni- 
bua partibus coniciunt praeconibuaqne circammissts pronuu- 

B tiari iubent, sea quis Gallos sea Bomfiana velit ante horam 

,,, .Goo;;lc 


tertiam ad Be tr&naire, sioe pericnld licSra; poet id tempos 
HOD fore potest&tem. Ac sic nostroa contempBSmnt, nt, ob- 
atructia in speciem portia siiignliB drdinibns caeepitam, qaod e& 
non posse introrumpeie videbantnr, alii Tallnm manu actndere, 
alii foaaaa complSre inciperent. Tnm Caesar omnibas portis lo 
^ruptioiie facta equitatuque Smiaso celeriter hostes in fngam 
dat, sic at! omoiad pngDandi causS. reaiateret ngmo, magunm- 
qne ex iis numerum occidit atqne omnga armis ezuit. 

52. Longins prdseqni Teritus, quod ailvae paldd§sqae 
intercgd^bant, omnibus snia incolomibns eddem die ad Gicero- 
nem perrenit. Inatitut&s turrSs, testudiiigs maniti&nfiaqne 
hostinm admiratnr; legiSne producta cognoscib ndn decimum 
qnemque esse reliqnnm militem sine rnlnere; ei: his omnibna b 
iudicat rSbns qaanto cum pericnlo et quanta cnm virtate rSa 
sint administratae. Gicer6nem pro eiua merito legi&nemque 
collandat; centurion^s singillatim tribunoaque militam appel* 
lat, quorum egregiam fuisso virtiitem teatimfinid Gioerdnia 
cogDoverat. De ciiau Sabini et Cottae eertius ex captivia lo 
GOgaoscit. Post«r6 die c^ntione habita rem gestam propdnit, 
milites cdnsoUtar et coufirmat; quod detrimentom culp& et 
temeritflte ISg&ti sit accfptnm, hoc aeqaidre animd ferendum 
docet, quod beneficid de5rum immort&liam et virtiite eorum 
expi&td incommod5 neque faostibus diutina laetitia neque ipais it 
longior dolor relinqu&tur, 

53. Interim ad LabiSnnm per RSmds incr^dibili celeritate 
de victoria Gaeaaris fama perfertur, nt, cam ab hibemis 
Giceronis milia passunm abeaset circiter LX eoqne post horam 
aonam diei Gaeaar perrgnisset, ante mediam uoctem ad portas 
castrorum clamor orergtur, qud clamdre significatio victoriae & 
gratul&tidque ab B6mia LabiSno fieret. Hac fama ad TreTeros 
perlatfi Indatiomama, qui postero dig castra Labieni oppugnare 
decrererat, noctu profugit copiasque omnes in Treveros redfi- 
cit. Caesar Fabium cum ana legioue remittit in bibema, ipse 
cum tribus legionibns oircum Samarobrivam tiinia hibemia lo 
hiemare cdQstituit et, quod tanti mOtus Galliae ezBiiterant, 

: .Coo>;lc 


tdtam biemem ipse ad ezercitum mangre dScrgvit. Nam 1115 
incommodo de Sabini morte perlatd omnga ferg Gatliae civita- 
teB de bello coiiBUltabaiit, DuntioB legatidnSaque in omnSB 

IB partes dimittebant, et qnid reliqui consili caperent atqae uude 
initium belli fieret ezplorabaot, noctumaqne in locis desertis 
concilia habebant. Neqnp ullimi ferg t&ttas hiemis tempus 
sine Bollicitudine Caesaria intercesBit, qnin aliquem dS cdnsililB 
ac motu Gallornm nuntium acciperet. In bis ab L. Bdscid, 

10 qaem legion! tertiae decimae praefScerat, certior factuB est 
magnaa copi^ earum ciritatum quae Aremoricae appellantnr 
oppn^andL sni caoBa conveniBse naqne longias milia paBsuum 
oct5 ab hibemiB suls afuiBse, sed nuntio allatd d6 victdria 
Caesarie disceBBisBe, adeo ut fugae similiB disceBBna vidergtur. 

54. At Caeaar principibns cniuaqae cTvitatia ad se eyocatls 
alifta territandd, cum se scire quae fierent denuntiaret, aliaa 
eohortands magnam partem G^Iiae in officio tenuit. Tamen 
SenonSs, quae est ciritas in primis firma et magnae inter 

G Gallds anctOrit&tiH, Cavannnm, qnem Caesar apud eda regem 
constituerat, cuias fr&ter Moritasgus adventii in Galliam 
Oaesaris cninsque maidrga rggnam obtiauerant, int«rficere 
piiblicd cdnsilid cdnati, cnm ille praeseusieaet ac profQgisset, 
nsqne ad ftngs inseouti rggno domoqne ezpnlgrant, et, mlasis 

10 ad GseBsrem satisfaciendi cansa legatis, cum is omnem ad ag 
sen&tnm venire iuBsisBet, dicto aodientea non fagrunt. Ac 
tantum apud bominga barbaros Talait ease aliqn&s repertds 
prlncipSs belli inferendi, tantamqae omnibus Toluntatum 
commiitationem attulit, nt praeter Haednga et Rgmos, quos 

ti praecipno semper honore Caesar habuit, alteroa pro vetere ac 
perpetna erga populum Romannm fide, alteroB prd recentibua 
Gallic! belli officiis, nulla ferg civitas f nerit non auapecta nobis. 
Idque adeo baud scio mirandumne sit, cum compluribna aliis 
de cauaia, turn maxime quod ii qui Tirtute belli omaibua genti- 

M bus praeferebantur, tantum ae eius opinionia deperdidiase nt 
popnli Bomani imperia perferrent, gravissime dolgbant. 

55. Trererl vero atqne iDdutiomarus totlus hiemis uullom 


tempng iQtermlseraiit qnin trans Rhgnum ISg&tdB mittfirflnt, 
clvitatge soilicit&reot, pecanias pollic^rentur, magna parte ex- 
ercitua noetrl interfecta mnlto mindrain BnpereBse dicerent 
partem. Keqne tamen ulli civitati GermaQ&rum persaaderl b 
potuit ut Rhgnum transiret, cum 86 bis ezpertos dicerent, 
ArioTisti belid et Teacteroram tr&UBltn; non esse ampllna 
fortunam tempt&turos. Hac sp€ lapeas Indotiomarns nihild 
minus c&pias cogere, ezercere, a finitimis equOa par&re, exsalgs 
damnatusque totu Oallia magnis praemiiB ad se allicere coepit. u 
Ac tantam aibi iam his rebus in 6alli& anctdritfttem compar&Td- 
rat at undiqne ad enm legatidnee concnrrerent, grfitiam atqne 
amicitiam publics privatimque peterent. 

56. Ubi intellezit ultro ad a€ venlri, alterft ex parte Seuo* 
nee Gamuteaqne conscientia facinoris iostigftn, alteril Ner- 
Tioa AtnatucoBque bellum Romania pargre, neque sibi toIdq- 
t&riorum copias defore, si ex finibus buib prdgredi coepiBset, 
arm&tam concilium indicit. Hoc mOre Qallorum est initiam > 
belli; quo lege communi omnSs puberSs arm&ti convenire 
ooguntur; qni ex lis noTisBimus venit in conspectii multit^di- 
nis omnibuB omcifitibas aSectua necatur. In eO concilid Cin- 
getorlgem, alterina principem factionia, genernm sunm, quern 
Bupri dSmdnatr&Timus Gaesarie Becutum fidem ab eO non dia- lo 
ceasisse, hoatem iudicat bonaque eins piiblicat. Hia rgbos 
c&nfectis in concilid prdnuntiat arceasitum ae a Senonibns et 
Gamutibus aliisque compluribus Galliae civitatibus; hue itu- * 
mm per finSs Remomm eSmmque agrds popul&t&mm sc, 
prinaquam id faciat, castra Labienl oppngn&turum. Quae fieri is 
Telit praecipit. 

57. LabignuB, cum et loc! n&tdr& et manQ munitiaaimis 
caatria sese teneret, de buo ac legiSnia perlcnld nihil timSbat; 
nS quam ocoilBidnem rei bene gerendae dimitteret cdgit&bat. 
Itaque, a Gingetorige atqae eina propinqnia oratione Indutio- 
mAri cognita quam in concilio babuerat, nuntiOa mittit ad t 
finitimaa cirit&teB equiteaqae undiqne evocat; hia certam diem 
conveniendi dicit. Interim prope cotidie cum omui equitfttft 

: .Coo>;Ic 


IndutiomarnB sub caatria eins vagabatnr, alias at sitam caa- 
tromm cognosceret, alias coUoquendi aut territandl cansa; 

10 eqnites plemrnqne omnes tela intra vallum coniciebaDt. Labi* 
eniis BQOS intra munitionem continebat timorisqae opinionem 
qtiibuBcumque poterat rebus angebat. 

68. Gam maiore in dies contemptione Indatiomirua ad 
castra accederet, nocte una intromissls equitibos omDinm fini- 
timarum civitatam, quos arcesaendos curaverat, tant& diligen- 
tia omnes saos cnatodiia intra costra continnit at nulla ratidne 
6 ea res enuntiari aot ad TreverSs perferri posset. Interim ei 
consuetudiue cotldiana IndatiominiB ad caatra accgdit atqus 
ibi magnam partem die! consumit ; equites tela conicinnt et 
rnagD^ cum contumeiia verborum nostroB ad pugaam gvocant. 
KuUd ab nostrig dato reeponeo, ubi visum est, sab Teepernm 

ID diapersi ac disaipati diaceduot. Sublto Labienus du&bua por- 
tis omnem eqnit&tum gmittit; praecipit atque interdiclt, per- 
territia hostibna atque in fugam coniectTs (quod fore, sicut 
accidit, videbat), unum omnes petant Indatiom3,rnm, neu quis 
qnem prins vnlneret quam ilium interfectum viderit, quod mora 

IB reliquorum spatium nactum ilium eSugere nolebat ; magna 
proponit ils qui occiderint praemia; submittit cohortea equiti- 
bua aubeidio. Comprobat hominia consilium fortiina, et,'cum 
unum omnea peterent, in ipad fliiminiB vadd dSprebgnsus Indu- 
tiomarns interficitur caputque eins ref ertnr in castra ; redeuntds 
* to equitea qnos possunt consectantur atque occidunt. Kac re 
cognita omnes Ebnrdnnm et Nervidrum quae convenerant 
copiae discednnt, panloque habuit post id factum Caesar quiSti- 
Orem Galliam. 



The enforced leiaure of the winter was improved by Caesar in making 
preparations for the coining struggle with the insurgents. Two legions 
were levied in Cisalpine Gaui, and a third was borrowed from Fompey, 
making ten legions now under Caesar's command. Before the arrival 
of spring he surprised the Nervii with four legions and ravaged their 
country with fire and sword. Returning to winter quarters he called 
an assembly of the Gauls, to which all sent representatives except the 
Senones, the Camutes, and the Treveri. He overawed the first two of 
these tribes by a prompt advance against them, and received hostages 
from them, 

Caesar's chief purpose for the year was the punishment of Ambiorix 
and the Eburones for the slaughter of Sabinus and Cotta with their men. 
He set about the task methodically, first stripping them oE allies and 
possible places of refuge. To their north lay the Menapii, the only state 
whicb had never submitted to Caesar. Hastening thither he burned 
villages, carried off cattle and men, and received the submission of the 
state. Then he marched south to the support of Labienus, who was 
in pursuit of the Treveri ; but before his arrival Labienus had drawn them 
into an engagement in which they were defeated with great loss. In 
order to overawe the Suebi, who had intended to join the Treveri on 
this occasion, and who might help Ambiorix, Caesar built another bridge 
across the Rhine, some distance above the place where he had made the 
first, and crossed in force. He fought no battle there, because the Suebi 
withdrew far into the interior and it was no part of his plan to subjugate 
Germany. Having accomplished his purpose of intimidating the Ger- 
mans, be withdrew, leaving enough of the bridge standing to suggest 
to them that he might return. 

Caesar had now thoroughly cowed the states all about the Eburones, 
and was ready to take his vengeance. He marched through the Ardennes 
into their country, sending cavalry ahead to surprise Ambiorix it pos- 
sible; but the wily chief eluded his pursuers and disbanded his army. 
The rest was a man-hunt. Caeaar divided his army into three bodies, 
in order to cover the territory more thoroughly. Even so he could not 
deetroy everything, and he sent out a general invitation to the neighbor- 



ing Gauls to come and share in the plunder of the wretched Eburones. 
A body of German horsemen who had heard of this invitation came over 
to share in the pillaging. Hearing, however, that Caesar had left all his 
baggage in chaise of Cicero with a weak garrisou, they surprised and 
nearly captured the camp. In spite of all Caesar's efForts, Ambiorix 
sever was caught ; but such of his people as escaped death ware left with- 
out houses or cattle or crops. 

Caesar then returned to the Senones and Camutes and instituted an 
investigation of their revolt, which resulted in the condemnation to 
death of Acco, a chief of the Senones. Making such a disposition of his 
forces for the winter as gave them control of the area of the revolt, Caesar 
went to Italy, where matters of great moment awaited his attention. 

Caesar was a keen observer of manners and customs and wished, in 
some part of his work, to describe those of the Gauls and the Germans. 
This description might equally well have been given in any other book, 
since it was necessarily a digression from his narrative. But as there 
was only a short story to tell in the sixth book, be took tbe opportunity 
offered by the uneventful expedition to Germany, and there inserted 
his interesting and valuable account of tbe peoples with whcm he was 



1. Mnlfos dS caasls Caesar maidrem Oalliae mfltntn exBpeo- 
t&ns per M. Silanum, C. Antistinm Eeginnm, T. Sextiam 
iegatos dllectom habere instituit ; Bimnl ab Cn. PompSid prd- 
consnle petiit, qnoniam ipse ad arbem cum impend rei pablioae 
cansa remaoSret, c|n5a ex Ciaalpin& Gallic c6qbu1 saoriimeQtd » 
rogariBBet ad signa conveiure et ad b€ proficlsci iub€ret, magnl 
interesse etiam in reliquum tempns ad opini6uem QalUae exie- 
tjmans tant&B Tidgri Italiae facilitates nt, b! quid CBBet in bellS 
dgtrimenti acceptnm, non modo id brcTi tempore earciri, Bed 
etiam maidribns augSri cdpiis posset. Quod cum Fompgina et w 
rei pnblicae et amicitiae tribuisset, oeleriter confectS per suds 
dilectn, tribas ant« ex&ctam liiemem et odnstitutis et addactis 
legidnibns duplicatoque earum cohortiam nnmero qnfis cnm Q. 
Tituiid ftmUerat, et oeleritfite et cdpiis docuit quid popnli 
B&m&ui disciplina atqne opes possen't. u 

2. InterfectO Indutiomiird, at docaimOB, ad elns proptn- 
qaoB i TrSveris imperinm defertor. lUi finitimoa Qerman&s 
soliicit&re et pecaniam polIioSri non deslstunt. Com & proxi- 
mis impetrare noa posseut, nlteridres temptant. Inrentls ndn 
nalliB ciritatibos idre iurando inter Be confirmaat obsidibugque K 
de pecuni& oavent; Ambiorigem aibi societfite et foedere adiun- 
gunt. Qnibua rebus cognitis Caeaar, cum ondique belhim 
parari videret, NerviSs, Atuatncds, Menapida, adiunctia Cis- 
rhenania omnibns Gemifinia, ease in armis, Senonea ad 
imper&tum non Tonlre et cum Camutibns finitimiBque cIt- u 
itatibua consilla commQnlcire, & TreverTs Germanoa crebria 
legationibns BoUicit&ri, mfiturins sibi de bell 6 cOgitandum 

3. Itaqne nondum hieme cdnfecta proximla quattnor coactEs 
legiOuibua de imprfiviBd in fings Nerviorum contendit et, prius- 



quam illi ant convenire ant profngere possent, magnO pecoris 
atque hominaiD namero capto atque ea praedS, militibnB conceasft 
E T^atatiaque agris, in deditidnem Tenire atque obsidSs nbi dare 
coegit, Ed celeriter confecto negdtio rurens in hibema legi- 
ones redfixit. CoQcilio Galliae prtmd T€re, nt inatitnerat, in- 
dicto, onm reliqni praeter Senonee, Camutes, TreverOsque 
TeniBsent, initinm belli ac defectioniB hoc ease arbitratna, nt 
10 omnia postponere vidSretnr, concilimn Lntetiam Parlsiornm 
transfert. GonfiiieB erant hi Senonibns civitaternqne patnun 
memoria coniunxerant, sad ah h5c cdnsilio afniase existimft- 
bantnr. Hfic r€ pr5 snggeatu pronuntiata eddem dig cum 
legioaibUB in SenonSs proficiscitur magniBqne itineribns ed per- 

» TGOit. 

4. CognitS eiua adventa Acc6, qnl princepe eiua c&nsili 
fnerat, inbet in oppida multitudinem convenire. CJinantibus, 
prinsquam id efBcI poaset, adesse ESmanSs nQntifltur, Keces- 
sario sententia dSsistnnt leg&t5aqae deprecandl cauaa ad 
B Caesarem mittnnt; adennt per Haednds, qnSrum antiquitus 
erat in fide civitaa. Libenfcer Caesar petentibna Haeduis dat 
Teniam exciiBatidnemque accipit, qtiod aestivum tempuB inatan- 
tis belli, ndn qua«stidni8 esse arbitratur. Obsidibus imperatis 
centum, h5B Haeduis cnstddiendds trftdit. Eddem Gamnt^B 

10 legatos obsidgsqne mittunt, ubi dgprecat5ribu3 Remi^, qndrum 
erant in clientelii; eadem ferunt responsa. Peragit concilinm 
Caeaar equitSsqne imperat civit3,tibuB. 

6. Hac parte Galliae pacata, totus et mente et animS in 
bellnm TrSverdrum et Ambiorigis insiBtit. Gavarinnm cum 
equitatu Senonum secum proficTsci iubet, nS quia aut ex huins 
iracnndia aut ex eo quod meruerat odi& civitatia motuB exsiatat. 

b Hia rebus cgnatitutis, quod prO explOrato habSbat Ambiorigem 
proelid non ease contenturum, reliqua eiua conailia animo cir- 
cumspiciebat. Erant Menapii proplnqui Eburonnm finibna, 
perpetnis paludibua sllviaqne muniti, qui iini ex Qallia de pace 
ad Gaeaarem legatoa nuniquam miserant. Cum hia ease hos- 

10 pitinm Ambiorigi sciebat ; item per Treveroa vgnisse GermilniB 


in amlcitiam cogndverat. Haec priaa ill! dStratieiida aaxilia 
extstim&bat qnam ipenm belld laceBseret, nS d68peT&t& salute 
ant se in MenapiuB abderet ant cum TrftnarhenaniB congred! 
cogeretnr. Hoc inito cdnsilid t&tioB exwcitus impedimenta ad 
Labienam in Trgveros mittit dn&sqae legidnea ad enm proficieci » 
iubet; ipse onm legionibns ezpeditis qnlnqne in Menapids pro- 
ficjscltor. Illi QulU co^otg manfi loci praesidio trSti in silv&s 
paludesqne confnginnt snaque eddem confernnt. 

6. Caesar partltis copiis cam C. Pabio leg&t& et M. Crassd 
qnaestore celeriterqne eSectie pontibns adit tripertito, a«diScia 
Ticoaqne incendit, magnd pecoria atqne hominnm nomero poti- 
tnr. Qnibua rebns cofioti Menapii I^g&tds ad enm p&cia peten- 
dae causa mittunt. Ille obsidibua acceptia hoatium s5 babitQ- 1 
rum numerd confirmat, a! ant Ambiorigem ant eins leg&t5a 
fmibna snla recSpiaseut. Hia cdnfirmatis rCbna Commium 
Atrebatem cum eqnitatu cnstodis loco in Meiiapiis relinqnit; 
ipse in TrgTerSa proficiacitur, 

7. Dnm haec a Caesare gemntur, Trgreri magols ooflotia 
pedit&tuB eqnitatilBqae c&piis LabiSnum cum iin& legiOne, quae 
in edrum finibua hiemabat, adoriri parabant, iamque ab ed ndn 
longina bidui via aberant, cum duaa vgniaae legidnSs miaaQ 
Caeaaria cognoscunt. Positia castris a milibna paaauum ZT t 
auxilia Germanoram ezspectare constitnant. Labignna hostium 
cognito consilio aperana temeritate eorum fore aliquam dimi- 
candi facnitatem, praesidio quinque cohortium impedimentis 
relicto, enm viginti qninque cohortibua magngque equitatu 
contra hostem proficiscitnr et mille passnnm intermisso apatio to 
castra commiinit. Erat inter Labienum atqne boatem diffioili 
tranaitu Siimen ripiaque praeraptis. Hoc neqne ipae tranaire 
habebat in animo neqne hostes trilnsiturds ezistimabat. . Ange- 
batur Ruxiliorum cotidie apes. Loquitur consulto palam, qno- 
niam German! appropinqu&re dlcantnr, aese suaa exeroitdeque la 
fortiin^ in dubinm non devocatiirum et postero die primA lace 
castra mdturum. Celeriter haec ad hostes deferuntur, nt es 
magno Galldmm equitum numerd ndn nulloa Galliois r£bus 

. I .Google 


CkTSre n&tnn cSgSbst. Labienos, nocte tribnnlB mQitnin prl- 
n misqae 6rdiiubii8 coaTocatiB, quid eai ait consili pr5pdnit et, 
qafi fBcfliug boatibns timdriB det enspicidnem, mudre strepitfi 
6t tnnmlta qnam popnli Sdmfini fert cdnsnetudo castra moveri 
iabet. His rSbns tagae giiuilem profectidDem efficit. Haac 
qnoqne per expldr&tfirSB ante Incem in tantA propinqait&te cas- 
ft tromm ad bost^a defemntDr. 

8. Viz agmen noTisBimnm extrS mdnitioneB proceaserat, 
cnin Galll cohort&ti ioter-sg dC sp^ritam praedam ex manibos 
dlmitterent : Longmn esse, perterritta Bdmanls, Germandnun 
aaxilinin ezapectare, neqne soam pati dignitlitein at tantia 

i copils tarn exigaam mannm, praeeeitim fngieDtem atqae impe- 
ditaiii, adoiirl non andeant, flumen tranaire et inlqnd locS 
committere proelinm doq dabitant. Quae fore anspic&tiu Labi- 
Sdiu, nt onmea citra flumen eliceret, eadem nsoa Bimnl&tiSne 
itineria placide prSgrediebatnr, Tom praemisBis paalmn im- 

» pedlmentis atqae in tnmald qnodain collocatia, ' Habetia,' 
isqait, 'milites, qnam petlstia f acnlt&tem ; hostem impeditO 
atqne iniqnd loco tenetis; praeetfite eandem nobis dncibos vir- 
tfttem qoam saepe nomerd imperatori praeatitiBtis, atqne illnm 
sdeaae et haec coram cemere eiiatimate. ' Simnl eigns ad boa- 

s tern converti aciemqne dgrigi iabet et, paacis tnnma praesidid 
ad impedimenta dlmissTs, reliqnos eqoites ad latera dispooit. 
Crieriter noetri clamore Babl&td pila in faoatga immittant- BlI, 
abi praeter apem qnoa fngere credebant Infestis aignia ad b€ 
ire Tidgrnnt, impetam ferre ndn potnemnt ac piimd concarau 

» in f ngam coniecti prozimas siIt&b petienmt. Qa5B lAbienna 
eqnitata cdnsectatna, magno namerd interfecto, complaribas 
captis paacis poet diebns cmtatem recepit. Nam Gennuii 
qoi aoxilid veniebant percepta TreTerdnim faga sSsS domnm 
nceperunt. Com bis propinqoi Indntiom^i, qni defectionis 

• anctoreg fnerant, comitati eos ez ciritate excesserunt. Cin- 
getorigi, qnem ab initio permansisse in officio demdnatravimas, 
pnncip&tna atqoe imperinm est traditnm. 

9. ' Caesar, postqnam ex Uenapiis in Trereros T^nit, doabos 


dS cauBia Bhgnnm tr&naire cfinstitiiit ; qnfiram una entt qnod 
Germ&ni amilia contrft 86 Trfiveris miaeraat, altera, ne ad eda 
Ambiorii receptam habSret. H;a conatitutiB rebna, paold 
supra eum locum qud ante exercitam traduxerat facere pontem 6 
instituit. Ndta atque Tnatiiut& ratiune mE^nd mllUnm atudid 
panels diebns opns efficitnr, Firmo in Treverls ad pontem 
praesidio relicto, ne qaia ab hie Bubito motna oreretnr, reliqnaa 
cdpifte equitatnmque tr&ducit. Ubii, qni ante obaidea dederant 
atqae in deditidnem vSneraat, purgaudi sui caue& ad eum lo 
l6g&tds mittnnt qui doceant neqae auziLia ex sua civit&te in 
TrgTerds misea neque ab aS fidem laeaam ; petunt atqae orant 
nt sibi parcat, nh comm&ni odid.Germ&ndrum innocentgs pr5 
nocentibuB poen&B pendant; si amplias obaidum relit darl, pol- 
lioentur. Cognita Caesar causa reperit ab SnSbia auxilia miaaa u 
esse; Ubidrnm satisfactionem accipit, aditua viftsque in SnSbds 

lO. Interim panda post diSbns fit ab TTbiia certior SnabOa 
omngs in nnum locnm copias cogere atque iiB nationibua quae 
sub eOrnm sint imperifl denuntiare nt anxilia peditataa equita- 
tusqne mittant. His coguitis rebus rem friimentfiriam prdvi- 
det, castrls idfineum locum deligit; UbiiB imperat ut pecora 5 
deducant saaque omnia ex agris in oppida conferant, spSrAna 
barbar5s atqne imperitos homines inopia cib&ridrum addnotos 
ad iniqaam pugnandi condicionem poase dgduci; mandat nt 
crebros expldratdrgs in Sngb^s mittant qnaeque apud eds ge- 
rantur cognoscant. III! imperata facinnt et panels digbna inter- u 
missis refemnt: SuSbfis omn€s, posteaquam certiorSa nuntil 
dg ezercitu Romanomm renerint, cum omnibns suls aocioram* 
que copiis qnas coSgissent, penitns ad extrSmds finea ae 
recgpisse. Silram esse ibi infinita magnitudine, quae ap- 
pellStur Bacgnis; hanc loi^g introrsus pertinere et prd u 
natiTO muro obiectam Cheruscos ab Sneborum Sngbdsqne 
ab ChgrusGorum iniuriia incursioitibusque prohibere; ad eius 
silvae initinm Suebos adventnm Romanorum exspeotare o&a- 

,,, .GiKwIc . 


I I . Qaoniam ad hnac locnm perrentnin est, ndn alifinnni 
eBBe videtar de Galliae Germaiiiaeque muribns et quo differant 
hae iia,tioQSB inter b6s£ pr6pdnere. In Gallia ndn 85lam in 
omniboB ciTitfitibos atqae in omnibus pftgis partibnaqoe, aed 

5 paene etiam in singulis domibns facti&nea aunt, e&mmqne fac- 
tionam principes sunt qui sum mam anctdrititem eornm iudicid 
habere extatimantnr, qudram ad arbitrium iudiciumqae snmma 
omnium rgrnm consiliorumque redeat. Idqne eiuB rei causa 
antiquitus institutum videtur, ne quia ex plebe contra potenti- 

10 orem anxili egSret; auos enim quisque opprimi et circnmTenirl 
non patitnr, neque, aliter el faciat, uUam inter snos habeat 
auctoritatem. Haec eadem ratio est in Bumma totins Galliae; 
namque omn&a civitatgs divlaae snnt in dnas partes. 

12. Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, alterins factionis prin- 
cipes eraut Haedui, alterius Seqnan!. Hi cum per s€ minus 

Chap, 11-38. The ____ 

manners of the Qanls and the Oei- 

Cha.p. 11-30. The customs and 

Chap. 11. Party aplrit and party 
leaders In Ghktd. 

1. loouM, *'poliit," In tbe nanatlve. 
Caesar has been desciiblng his second 
Invasion ot aermany. 

3. qnO, "in what (respects)'; an 
ablatlTe of apecIQoation. 

4. partlbUH, "aUtrietB." 

B. sIheuIIb domlbut: an example 
has been seen In Che case ol the broth- 
ers, Dumnorlx and DlvlcUciis. Book I. 
It Is evident that Cheae fatUdnii are not 
unlike onr political parties. 

■&rum . . . r«deat. "ol these fac- 
tions, chose who are thought to have 
. . . are chiefs to whose decision, etc. ' ' 

B. liul : supply u as the antecedent, 
and as the subject of tant. 

•Brum: l.e.cbememberBat the party, 

T. quorum . . . redeat: i.e. these 
priiidpa are not stale maglscrales, buc 
■■chiefs ot snch sort thac to their de- 
GlElOD all their partisans' private affairs 
and plans are referred. ' 

8, elUB r«I; explained by the clause 

10. knxill; verbs meanloK to be 

without uau^y govern theablatlTe, but 
tgeS governs etcher tlie genitive or the 

qnliqua: Le. each chief. The whole 
description of these chiefs applies fairly 
well CO some of our political bosses. 

13. bMO . . . aaUla«, " this same 
system Is followed In general by Qaul 

OlJllae is a predicate genitive with 
TOtiS at. 

Chap. II. The states which play 
the same part among other states as 
the ohie& among their fellow clti- 

1. Enm . . . Tinit: in B8 ac. For 
mode see App HM, a: O.-Li. SBO: A. bib: 
B. «88, 1,A: H.-B. 550,o: B. BOO.I. 

3. altertuE 88quanl: but in I, si, 
10. DIvlclacus tells Caeear that the 
Arveml are the head ol this faction 
The Arveml bad long been the head, aoA 
DomlnaUy may have been atiU In that 


valSrent, quod snmma aaotdrit&a aDtlqnitns erat Id Haednis 
magnaeqae edrom erant olientelae, Qerm&nda atque Arioristiim 
sibi adiunzerant edeqne ad e& magols iactaris pollicit&tidnibns- » 
qne perduxerant. Proeliis vero compl&ribas factia Becnndis 
atqne omiii ntJbilit&te Haedndrnm interfectfl, tantam pot«iiti& 
anteceBserant at magnam partem clientiam ab Haeduie ad sS 
tr&ducerent obeideeqae ab his prmcipnm Hlius acciperent, et 
pablice iQrSre oogerent nihil ae contr^ S^qoanos cdnBili ini- m 
tiirds, et partem finitimi agr! per vim occnp&tam poBsidgrent 
Galliaeqne totina priDcipatnm obtinerent. Qua neceesit&tfl 
adductuB DivioiacaB aazili petendi canaa Komam ad sea&tam 
profectuB infocta re redierat. AdveDta Gaesaris facta commu- 
t&tione renim, obeidibaa Haedaia redditia, veteribua clientells u 
restitutiB, noTia per Caeaarem comparfitiB, qnod ii qui &6 ad 
eoram amicitism aggregftrerant meliOre condlcidne atque aeqni- 
6ie imperio bS uti Tidebant, reliqnls rebna eomm gratia digni- 
t&teqne amplificata, Sequani principatum dimiaeraDt. In 
eoram locum Bern! BQCcesBerant ; qnoe quod adaequare apud ao 
Gaesarem grfitia intellegebatur, il qui propter veterea inimici- 
tias nullo modo cum Haeduia coniungi poterant ae Eemia in 
olientelam dicabant. Hob iUi diligenter tnebautur; ita et no- 
vam et repente collectam auctoritatem tenebant. £d tameo 
Btatu r€s erat, ut longe principes haberentnr H<wdai, secundum » 
locum dignitatia Bemi obtinerent. 

posttlou; bat Id face Uie Sequani. helped 
b; Arlovlatus, bad displaced ttiem. 

hi, "Chelatler." 

4. Oarmbi6B, sic.: to the next few 
Uoea Caeaar repeats In brlet what Dlrl- 
dacuB told blm In I, 31. 

10. lUiTaisupplyprtndpeiriLBsnbJect. 

IS. Bemam profactu*: ct. I, si, w, 

14. Infaatt ra, "wltbont acoom. 
pliBhlDg anytblng." 

eOliimDtfctl6iLe : reaulUiis from Cae- 
■ar'sdefeatot Arlovlatos. The ablatives 
absolute taaj be translated by either 
principal or eaosal clauses. 

16. quod . . . TliUbftnt stves tb« 
reason Tor novU . . . comparStit. 
IT. BfilUm = Baiduorum. 
la. iittH.-'thattheyenJoyeil." 
Tallqnia rSbn*. " by all other means. " 
30. IWinl: Caesar favored them be- 
cause of their assistance Id his Urat 
campaign against the Belgae; see es- 
pecially II. S and 4. 

auOa , , , tntallaiab&tUT, "because 
U was understood that (bey [the Reml] 
were eqaal to the Haedut In Caesar's 


1 3. In omnl Qalli& efirum bomiuam qnl sliqa5 saat no- 
merfl atqne honore genera Bunt dao; nam pleb^s paeoe servd- 
nun habStoT locd, quae nihil audet per se, n&Il! adhibStnr 
cdneilij^. PlSrique, cnm ant aere ali6n5 ant magnitadine tribu- 
s torum ant iniuTi& potentiSrum premantar, aese in serrit&tem 
dioant nObilibne; qnibtis in bSs eadem omnia snnt inra quae 
dominis in sery&s. Sed d€ bis dudbus generibns altemm est 
druidam, altemm equitnm. III! rgbns diTinis interannt, sacri- 
flcia publica ac prTv&ta prdcurant, religiones interpretantnr; ad 

» e5s magnus adulgscentinm nnmema dieciplinae cansft concnrrit, 

. magnoqne hi sunt apnd eds bonore. Nam ferS dS omnibos 
controTereiia publicis priTatisqne conBtitutmt, et, si qnod est 
admissnm facinna, si caedea facta, si de h^rSditate, de fTnibtu 
contrOveraia eat, idem decernunt, praemia poenaaqne conatita- 

is nnt ; ai qui aut prlvatna aut populua eorum decreto nOn stetit, 
sacrificiis interdicuut. Haec poena apud eds eat grsTiBelma. 
Qniboa ita est interdictum, hi nnmerd impidrnm ac aceleratd- 
mm babentnr, hia omnea decednnt, aditnm efimm aermdnem- 
qae defngiunt, ng quid ex cont^gidne incommodi accipiant, 

*> neque iis petentibus ilia redditur aeque bonds ullue cominunic&- 
tar. His antem omnibns drnidibns praeeat unna, qui eummam 
inter eos babet auctoritatem. Hdc mortnO aut, al qui ex reli- 
quis excellit dignitate, succedit', ant, si sunt plures parSs, 

4. earn iiremuiitur: lor mode see 
App. 240. 
8. qu»» . , , ■BrrBs, "aa masters 

T. est druldum, "is that ot the 
Dnilils." Very little Iti known or Dculd- 
itna bejoad what Caesar Mlla us here, 
though much has been guessed and 
written about It. Caesar ma; bare got 
hie lutonualiou from Dlvlclacus, who 
was a Dnild. II the Druids had the 
Mrength which Cai 

HurprUlng that the; did Dot do more to 
uall; Qaul. 
8, Intersuat, "havachargeoi." 

•ei: the rest o[ the people. 

13. aAutltnuBt,"renderdeclsloiis." 

15. dierSUt nfin it«tll, "does not 
abide by the decision." 

18. Baorlflctla Intardlount : I.e. they 
eieommunlcaie the oflender, 

IS. hlsd#afidimt,'-avaldtbem." 

20. nequB . . . r«dditur: Le. Cher 
cannot appeal to courts ot Justice II any 
wrong is done them. 



Bnffrggio drmdnm, ndn CDiaqnam etiam annis d6.piiDcip&tfi 
COB tend ant. Hi oertd anni tempore in f inibae Gamatam, qoae m 
regio totius Qalliae media habStnr, cdnsidant ia I006 cdnBe- 
cratd. Hue omnes nndiqae qni GontrOrersiaB habent con- 
Teniniit eOromque decrgtls iudiciisque parent. DiscipUna in 
Britannia reperts atqae inde in Galliam tr&naUta esse exlstlmft- 
tnr, et none qni dlligeDtios earn rem cogoOBcere volant pU- sd 
ramqae illd diBceudi oansli proficiscnntnr. 

1 4. DmidSB & b«ll6 abesse cdnsu^rnnt neqne tribnta nn& 
cam reliqaia pendant. Tantis ezcit&ti praemiis et 8a& sponte 
maiti in discipHnam conveninnt et & parentibns propinqalaqae 
mittaatnr. Magnam ibi nameram veraaam Sdiscere dicontar. 
Itaqne annOs nOn nulli Tic&nOs in diBcipliai, permanent. & 
Ifeqae fas esse eziBtimant ea litteris mand&re, cam in reliqnis 
lerg T£bns, pnblicis priy&tiBqne ratidnibos, Qraecis Utterls 
atantnr. Id mihi du&bns de canals Inatitaisse videntnr, qnod 
neqae in valgaB diaciplinam efferr! velint, neqne efis qni dis- 
cant litteris cOnfisdB minas memoriae stndgre ; qnod ferd pl^ id 
risqne accidit, at praesidid litter&ram diligentiam in perdisceadd 
ac memoriam remittant. In primis hoc volant persa&d£re, 

9S. dflarttta: [oro&Msee App. lis. 

dlselpllna, "the ayatem." 

Itt BrltannU i«p«rta: it is more 

likely tbaC It orlgHutUy passed Irom 
CJaul to Britain, outgrew some of Ita 
Inrbarlsm In Oanl, but retained its 
original features In tlie less clTlllEea 

1. i Wilt: the fact tbac tbe Drold 
DlTloiaoas onoe commandsd some of 
Caesar's anxlUaries (II, S, i4» shows 
that they might be warriors If they 

m: )>rlmitlve laws. maS' 
1ms, and religious formulas are usually 
found to be In verse, because Terse Is 
more saally committed to memory tlian 

S. aa: Le. tbelr 

num. "althDogh." 
T. TAtiOnlbnt, 

Sraaois lltterli: i-e. the Gallic lan- 
guage written in Qreek characters. 

8. Id: le. U4VC . . . mandOrt, 

9. dlBCfplInam: including the 
sacred chants and formulas by which 
men conld approach and conununjcat* 
with ibe gods. So loug as tbe Druids 
Icept this knowledge to themselves, they 
oould control the people. 

10. minus Btudir*. "to pay leas at- 
uatlon 10." 

Qnod: subJect'of-iKiTdW, and explained 
)>y the appoaltive, ut . . , rrniUtant. 

11. pTa««tdl6. lit. "because of tbe 
protection of" = "depending on." 

la. hoo persuidAre, "to conrlnca 
men of this"; /ioc is explained by tko 



nOu iBterire animis, Bed ab aWls post mortem tr&naire ad alios; 
atqoe hdc mazimS ad Tirt&tem excitari putant, metu mortie 
15 neglgctd. Knlta praetere& dg gideribns atque edmm motu, 
d6 mundi ac terrarum magnitudine, dS rgrnm naturii, de 
deSrum immortalium vi ac potestate dispntant et iurentati 

15. Alteram genaB est equitnm. Hi, cnm est uaua atque 
aliquod bellum iiicidit (quod fere ante Caesaris adventum qnot- 
annis accidere solebat, ntl ant ipai iniuriaa inferreiit aat illatas 
prdpulsarent) , omnes in bello veraantur, atqne e&mm ut quia- 

s qne est genere cdpiisqne ampUssimus, ita plurimos circnm se 
ambactds c1ient€sque babet. Hanc unam gratiam potentiam- 
que nfivgnint. 

1 6. Natid est omnis 0all5mm admodum dsdita religioni- 
bus, atque ob earn causam qui sunt afifecti gravioribus morbis 
qnlqtie in proelils periculisque versantnr aut pro rictimis ho- 
mines immolant aut s6 immolatur5s vovent, administrisque ad 

6 ea aacrificia druidlbus utimtur, quod, pro vita hominis nisi 
hominis vita redd&tur, non posse dedrum immortalinm numen 
pl&cari arbitrantur; publiceque eiuadem generis babent insti- 
tuta sacrificia. AHi immani magnitudine simulacra habent, 
quorum contexts vimluibuB membra tTvIs hominibus complent; 

ID quibus succensTs circumTenti flamma exanimantur hominSa. 

IS. ab alUa ... ad ftlUia: tbe doc- 
Irlne of the transmlsracloa of souls, 
which was held \iy macr of the ancients. 
and which still eilsts in gome eaaiem 

14. •xcItArl. "Chacmen are Incited." 

Chap. 15. TbeKntshts. 

1. alteruin gsnni: ct. is, T. 

enm aiti tor mode see App. MO. 

a. anod: subject ol idlebal, and Sz- 
platned by titi . . . prSpttltSTtnt, 

4. Ut qulique eit ampllislmiu, Ua 
plailmil, "the more dlsllngalsbed one 
ol them Is. cbe more, etc." The most 
nrlklDS example Is thai of Orgelorlx. 

6. banc U 

. uOrenmt, " 

Is the only . , . which tba; koow." 
Chap. 18. Human sacriflcea. 
S. homlnfla; object of tioth immo- 
lant and immotSturos, Although Caeaar 
doea not say that he aaw an Inataace ot 
buman sacrifice, there la no good reason 
to doubt tbe truth ol his statement. 
The practice seems to have ceased after 
tbe Roman conqaeet. 
T. pftblIc4,"ODbehairot tbestate." 
babsnt Inatltftt*, lit. "they hare . . . 
escablisbed, " = " they regularly per- 

8. iliiinUaTa: colossal siatues In 
lorni ol men. 

Tlmlnlbna, "made ot 

' wlckerworh." 



Snpplicia edram qni in fnrtd aat in latrdcinio ttat in aliqna 
nozia sint compreh^DBi ^fitidra dia immortftlibos esse arbitran* 
tor; sed, cum flitis generis cdpia dSficit, etiam ad ionocentiatn 
Bopplicia dgBcendnnt. 

17. Dedrom mazimS Mercnriam colant; hoios aunt plu- 
rima aimol&cra; hnnc omniam inventdreni artinm feront, hnnc 
Tiaram atqne itioemm dncem, bunc ad quaestda pecQniao mer- 
cfiturasqne habere vim masimam arbitrantnr. Post banc 
Apollinem et M&rtem et lovem et Stinervam. DS hb eandem s 
fere quam reliquae gentSs habent opTnionem: Apollinem mor- 
bos dgpellere, Minervam operntn atqne artificiornm initia trjl- 
dere, loyem imperinin caelestinin tenSre, M&rtem bella regere. 
Huic, cum proelio dimic^re cdnatituSrnat, ea quae bell& cdpe- 
rint plernmqae devorent ; cam saperfiTgrnnt, snimAlia capta im- lo 
molant reliquflsqne r6a in nnum locam cfinfemnt. Mnltis in 
civitatibus h&rnm r€min ezatructds tnmnlOs locis consecratis 
conapicari licet; neqne saepe accidit ut neglectfi qaiapiam reli- 
giSne ant capta apad sS occnlt&re aat posita tollere andgret, 
graTiflsimninqite ei re: Bupplicium cam cmciatu cdoatita- is 
torn est. 

18. Galli sg omnSs ab Dite patre prognfttda praedicant 
idqne ab drnidibnB prdditum dicont. Ob cam cansam spatia 

IS. »Uit oompretijiiil: ihe moae Is 
dne to Indireal distHturse. 

14. lUaaaiidiiiit, " ihey resort." 

Chap. IT. The Oallia gods and 
their powere. 

1. Heronrlnm: the Qalllc goda wen 
not the auna aa the Roman. B^m wbat 
Caesar ooold learn of the Qalllc gods he 
thought ibat thej coTrespoDded to cer- 
tain Bomao gods, uid he gives the Ko- 
man oaioes. ta the same way the 
RonuuB Identified their gods with those 
ol the Qreeka. though they were not 
really the eame. 

3. femnt, " they call." 

bune . . . duoMii: i.e. he polnta oat 
the way iviSrum) and accompanies them 
oo their lonmeya lilintrum}. 

1. tridare, "teaches." 

9. ceperlnt: perfect snbJniictlTe by 
ImpUed Indirect dlsconrse, tor the 
fnture perfect. 

14. aapt« . , . ooanlttra: compai« 
tbe crime of Acbaii and Ite punishment. 

poaita, "what has beeo deposited" 
In the sacred spots. 


patT«, "astbelrtatber." 
3. Ob oun eknum: I.e. being chu- 
dreu of tbe god who mled In dukneaa. 



onmie temporis non nnmerd digram, sed noctium fimant; di£B 
n&t&lSs €t mgnsiam et annomm initia sic obeerraDt Qt nootem 

fi digs sabsequatuT. In reliqais vitae inBtitutie hdc ferg ab reli- 
quia diSemnt, quod bdos Itber&e, nisi cam adol&Tgrunt nt m&- 
nns mllitiae snstingre possint, palam ad sg adire non patinntur, 
filiomqne paerlli aetate in pnblic& in conepecta patrie aeaistere 
tnrpe d&cnnt. 

19. Viri, qnant&fi pecfinijls ab nxdribus ddtis nomine ac- 
cSperunt, tant&s ex snis boms aestimatione facta cnm dfitibus 
commiinicant. Huius omnis pecuniae coninactim ratio habe- 
tnr fractaaque aervantar; nter e5rum vita anperayit, ad eum 

s pars ntrinaque cam frnctibus snperidmm tempornm pervenit. 
Viri ia nxOrgs, sicuti in liberds, vitae necisqne habent potesti- 
tem; et cum pater familiae illustridre Ioc5 natns dSceaait, eins 
propinqui conveniunt et, dg morte si rgs in suapicidnem venit, 
de uxdribuB in serrilem modum qnaestiOnem habent et, si 

10 compertum eat, ignl atqne omnibaa tormentis excrnciftt&s in- 
terficiuiit. Funera sunt pro oultii Galldrum maguifica et 
Bamptuosa; omniaque qnae vlvis cord! fnisae arbitrantar in 
igcem inierunt, etiam animiJia, ac paulo Bupr& banc memo- 
riam Bervi et cllentgs qnds ab lis dilectos esse c6nat&bat, iiistis 

u> funebribua confectla, una cremabantur. 

S. u6n num«TS . . . nntunt: aawe 
■peak of A fOTCntKtt (foaruwD Dishes). 

dlii . . . aubaaanttui: Le. eocbda; 
began U sntiBet and lasted till Cbe fol- 
lowing suniet. So eacb mouth begau 
with the night when the rum moon was 

5. r«ra ftb nllqnt*, "tiom Klmoat 

all other peoples. " 

7. palUD . . . ftdlta, "to approach 
them In pabllc." 

Chap. IB. TherelationBOfhaBbaiid 
and wife. Tsneral coetome. 

t. TlTl, QiiantfcB paofUiU* KcoipA- 
nmt, tantlB oum dfitfbni oommDnl- 

4. frfletbB, " the proBts." 

B. At morte . . . Ttnlt: Le. 11 his 

wives are suspeoced of mmTlBring him. 

•. UXCrlbUt: evidently tbe Qalllo 
nobles practiced polrgamy. 

In ■■rrUsm modum: i-e. by torture, 
which WBs the Roman method of oiam' 

to them when alive." The bitming of 
the dead was not the only method used 
bytbeQauls. Tombs have been opened 
whlcb contained vases, rings, armor, 
and tbe bones of horses and dogs. • 

IS. lupr&HuiomMiiorlMii, -betora 




20. Qnae ciTit&t^a commodios saam rem publicam admi- 
nistrare esistimautar habent Iggibus B&ncttim, si quis quid dS 
Tg publica & fiiiitimia rumdre ac f&ma acceperit, nti ad magis- 
tr&tnm dsferat n&re cam qu<} alid oommunicet, quod saepe 
homines temerfiride atqne imperitos falsis rumdribns terrSn et s 
ad faciunB impelll et de BnmmiB rSbng cOnBilinm capere cogni- 
tum est. Magistr&taa quae visa sunt occultaut, quae esse ex 
usii iadicaveruiit multitudini prfldunt. Dg rS piiblica nisi per 
concilimn loqui nOn couoSditnr. 

2 1 . Oerman! multum ab h&c cdnsnSttidine diSe]*aiit. Kam 
neqne druides habent qui rebus dlTinis praesint, neque sacri- 
ficiis student. Dedrum uamerfi efis 86lds ducnnt qnds cemnnt 
et quorum apert£ opibua iuTantur, SOlem et Valcftnum et Lu- 
nam; reliquos ue t&m& qnidem accepernnt. Vita omnis in ■ 
renationibuB atqne in stndils rel milit&ris cfinaiBtit ; & pairfs 
labor! ao duritiae student. 

22. Agricnltnrae ndn stndent, maiorque pars eOrum rlotQB 
in lacte, ciseo, came c6nsistit. Neqne quisqnam a,gi\ modum 
certnm ant fines habet proprios; sed magistratus ao principes 

Chap. 9 

Hov the magistratea 

1. quft* QlTltkUa, "Uie statu 
oommodlai, "beat." 

3. habsnt . . . BfciLOtiiiii uti. " BftTe 
It QStabllflbed bf law that." 

4. ntva: the regular word Iot " and 
Dot ■' In Babatsnllve ToUtlra clauBea. 

quB : tlie proper IndeQQiM after nA», 
juHt BH after n?. 

5. qoKnltum est, " it has beea 
toanil," Id tV, S, Caeaar bas told ns 
how eager the Gaula were for gossip, 
and how ready to act hastily on un- 
lonnded rumors. 

T. quae liu. lunt, "what seems 

8. par ooneillnm: i.e. in a formal 
meeting ol the tribe. 

Chap. 31-9S,_ The maimers and 

e Oauls In r< 


and in mode of 

druides: therhad priests, bat not 
orgsnlied as the Druids were. 

S. BtudttiLt, "parmucbattentlonW; 
but they did oSer sacrifices at times. 

D. rellquei . . . a,aaSpinuit: but 
Tacitus names Mereury, Marn, and Her- 
cules as their princlpaldeltles- Caeaar'a 

that of TacltoB. though he spent very 
little time la Germany. Perhaps the 
worship o( these gods was Introduced 
Bfler Caesar's tln^ie. 
t. aOnslstlt, "la spent," 


Chap. aa. There 
ownerehlp of land. 

1. n6n student: yet they did prac- 
tice agrlcaltute. Tacitus says that the 

and old men; but compare IV. I.V-IS. 
S. proprlBt, "othlsown"; of.IV.l, 




in annds singolSa gentibiu cogn&tiSnibiisqiie hominnm, qaiqae 
( uoa coigmnt, qnantom et qud locd visam eat agri attribaant 
atqne anno post alio translre cdgnnt. Eidb rei mnltaB afferaot 
caasas : ne aasidaa cdnsagtudine capti stadiDm belli gerendi 
agricultura commutent ; u6 latda tiaia parare Btndeant potec- 
tiores atque humilidreB posseaaidniboa ezpeUaot ; ad accoratins 

load frigora atque aestus Titandds aedific«nt; a& qua oriatur 
pecuniae cupidity, qua es rS factidiiSa diBsSnaiOnSBque nas- 
cuntnr; ut animi aeqnit&te pl&bem contineant, cnm sofis qais- 
que opgB cnm potentiasimia aequ&ri videat. 

23. Civitatibaa maxima lauB eat quam latiaaimg circum ae 
vastatia flnibua sdlitudinea habere. Hoc proprium virtutis ez- 
latimant, expulsoa agria finitimoa cedere, neque quemquam 
prope ag auddre cdnaiatere; aimul hSc b6 fore tutiorea arbi- 

G trantur, repentinae iucuraionia timore anblatO. Cum bellnm 
ciTitaa ant illatum d^fondit aut iolert, magiatratua qui e! bello 
praeeiiit et vitae neciaque habeant poteatatem dsligantnr. la 
p&ce BuUaa eat communia magiatratuB, sed principda regionum 
atqne pagorum inter auds iuadicnntcoDtrdTeraiaaqueminnunt. 

10 Latrocinia aullam habeut infamiam quae extra finea cuiaaque 
civitatia f iunt, atque ea iuveiitiitis ezercendae ac desidiae mina- 
endae causa fieri praedicant. Atqne ubi quia ex priDcipibua 
in concilia dixit ae ducem fore, qui sequi velint profiteantnr, 

bare banded together." 
S. quuitum . . . asrl. "as mucta 

locallt; the; see fit" 

i. aI16: the adverb. 

multu oaiufti: bItbii la tbe follow- 
ing nt and ut claiues- 

8. agrlenltftTi. "tor agriculture"; 
App. HT. 

13. aulml aaanlUta, "in a con- 
tented trame of mind. " 

Chap. 3S. The relations eiiatiiie 

1. m&xiDM lau»: oi. IV, s, i. 
3. flnlbns, "their border lam 
koe: eipi^ned by t 
proprium Tirtntla, 

9. mlnnunt, "settle." 

10. latr6oliila , , . flnnt: a general 
opinion among primitive peoples. 

IS. ■< dneem fora: or some pillaging 

ani . . , prollManlai. " let any who 
wish to follow volunteer " ; an Indlnct 
quotation o[ the teat 



cdneargant ii qui et caoaam et hominem probant, anoinqne 
aaxilinm poliicantor, atqae & maltitudiae coUaadantur; qui ex u 
hiB Bocuti nOn suDt in dSsertdnim ac prftditfimm nnmeri} dfi- 
oantnr, omninmqae his r€nim posteA fid€B d€rog&tur. HoBpi- 
tem violire f &B n&D patant; qm quftcnrnqne d6 cansft ad 60b 
Teaemnt ab iiiiDri& prohibent sanctdBqae babeut, hisqae om- 
ninm domua patent Ttctasqae commuDicJltiir. m 

24. Ac fnit anteft tempuB cnm Germftn&B Gall! TirtOte bq- 
per&rent, nltrfi bella iiiferrent, propter homiQum mnltitQdlnem 
agriqae inopiam trans RhSnom col&Di&B mitterent. Itaqae ea 
quae fertiliseima Qerm&niae ennt loca, circam Hercyniam ail- 
vam, quam Eratostheni et qnibnsdam Oraecia f&m& nutam esse e 
Tides, qnam illi Orcyniam appellant, Volcae TectoBagSa occa- 
p&rgruit atqne ibi cOnsSdSmntj quae gSns ad hoc tempna bla 
sedibnB sSbS continet anminamqne habet iastitiae et bellicae 
landJB opinidnem. Ktinc, quod in efidem inopiii, egeatftte, pa- 
tientiA qD& ante German! permanent, eddem victu et coltu lo 
corporis atantur, Gallis aotem prfiTinci&rnm propinqnit&s et 
tr&nsmarin&rum rgrum nfititia multa ad cdpiam atque usfts 
largitnr, paulatim assngfacti snperfin multisque victi proeliiB 
ng Be qnidem ipsi cum illis virtute comparuit. 

25. HniuB Hercj'niae silvae, quae supra demdnstrjlta eat, 
UtitGdo novem digram iter expedite patet ; non enim aliter 

IB. M bU: Le. or Uuwe who bare 

IT. osmium Timm fldii. "all con- 

Chap. 94. The Gaols, once saperioT 
to the QermaDH in war, are now lu- 

t. trill* . . . mlttaimt: Caesar did 
not undentaDA tbe lacls. Tbe Ganla 
orlstnallT ome trom ease ol the Rhine, 
Tbe QaUic tribes In Gernutnr were not 
colonies sent Irom Gaul, but people who 
had tMen lert behind. 

B. anlbmOkin," some other." 

S. ilU: the Greeks. 

Tolua TMtoaAKSi; the map shows 
these people in the Frorlnce. That 

means that tbe majority of them bad 
long ago crossed into OaoL The rem- 
nant, ol whom Caesar is speaking, can- 
not be located exaclly. 

10. qo&uit*, "asberore." 

11. pTftTlncUmm: Transalpine and 
Cisalpine QanL 

IS. trtoBHiarlniniin tinun: im- 
ported goods came Into Ganl very large- 
ly by way of MassUia (Marseilles). 

multa . . . UxgltiLr, "supply many 
things (or their possessioa and use." 

U. lp«l: theQaals. 

Chap. 3B. DescriptlOD of the Hm- 
cynian forest. 
3. IktltBdO: from north to sonth. 



flnlri potest, neqae mSneur&s itinernm novenrnt. Oritur ab 
HelTgtidrnm et Nemetum et Bauracoram finibns rect&qne flu- 
G miais Danuvi regione pertinet ad fines Dacornm et Anartiam; 
hino 8g flectit sinistrdrsus diverais a flumine regionibna multa- 
minqae gentiam fines propter magnitudiQem attingit; neqne 
quisqaam est buius Germaniae qui sS aut adisee ad mitiom 
eius silvae dicat, cam diemm iter lz procesBerit, ant qnfl ex 
10 locd oriatur accSperit ; tnultaque in e& genera feraram n&sci 
constat quae reliquls in locis vTsa non sint; ex qnibuB quae 
niazim€ differant & ceteris et memoriae prfidenda videantur 
haec sunt. 

26. Est bOs cervi 6gGr&, cuius & medi& fronte inter aorSa 
UBum coniu exsistit, exceleiua magieque dgrSctum bis quae 
ndbia n6ta sunt comibus; abeius summd sicut palmae rimlqne 
l&tS diSunduntur. £adem est fgminae marisque nfitura, ea- 

s dem fdrma magnitudfique cornuum. 

27. Sunt item quae appellantar alcgs.. H&rum eet oOn- 
aimiliB capris figura et varietae pelHum, aed magnit&dine paald 
antecSdunt mutilaeqae sunt comibas et crura aine nSdis arti- 

•zpadltO, " lor 

S. minitktfca Itlnamin; sncb as 
pkces or mllea ; Cherefore Che; could not 
Mil how tar anch a traveler could walk 

4. iflotft . . . TaBtOna, "In »coiirse 
parallel with the rlrer Danube," 

B. DftoSrum St AnaTtlum: Uiese 
peoples Urea bejiond the great south- 
ward bead of the Danabe, too tar east 
to b« shown on the mapsln this book. 

a. dlv«r*U . . . regianlbtu, lit. "In 

a direction turned Irom the river " = 
"leaving the river." 

8. butni QermlinlBe, "of this part 
of tSermany"; I.e. the western part, 

lattlnm: the eastern end. 

9. eum, "althongh." 

13. DMrnoTlM prOdenda, "worth 
mentioning. " 
IS. tMBC, " the foUowlog." 

ChHEL 36. Ths TelDdear. 

1. b6i: tbe Romans gave this name 
to any large homed animal with which 
they were not familiar. Hera Caesar 
seems to mean tbe rdndeer. But the 
Germans seem to have amused them- 
selves by trying to And ont howmach 
they could malie Caesar believe about 
the animals " which are seen nowhere 
else." Of oonrse the relndew has a pair 

S. rteut, "as it were," "aktod ol." 

palinu: l-e. anllers like the palm of 
tbe hand, Bai and with projecting 

4. aadam, etc. : the female reindeer 
has smaller horns than those of the 
male; but female deer of other kinds 
have no horns at all. 

Chap. 37. Description of the elk. 

3. eaprls, "| that of) goats." 

TarlaUB, " varied color." 

. cemllnu, "they 



onlTBqne babent, Deque quiStis cansft prScambnnt neqae, si 
qa5 affilotae g&bq concid&rant, grigere e6B6 ac gublevare poB- 1 
sunt. Hia sout arbor^s pr5 cnbTlibna ; ad e&s b6 applicant atqae 
ita panlam modo reclin&tae quietem capinnt. Quftrnm ex Yfis- 
tigiis cam est animadTerBum & TenitSribna qnfl b§ recipere 
odnsttSriat, omnSB eo locd aut ab rfidiclbns Bubrunnt aut acci- 
dant arborea, tantum at Bnmma species earum stautinm relia- lo 
qafitar. Hiic ctim se consnetudine reclin&Tfimnt, inflnnils 
arbores pondere affllgnnt atqae un& ipsae conctdnnt. 

28. ' Tertinm est genns edrum qni uri appelluitar, HI 
SDDt magnitfidine panld- Infrfi elepbantds, speciS et colore et 
%ar& tanri. M^na tTb edrnm eat et magna TSl6cit&s, neqne 
bomini neqne ferae qnam odnapexernat parottnt. Hds studi&ee 
foTeis captdB interflcinnt; hflo sS labdre dflrant adulfiacentes s 
atqae hdc genere TSafitidoU exercent, et qui plnrimfiB ex his 
interfecSmnt, rel&tis in publicnm corniboB quae sint testimd- 
nift, magnam ferunt landem. Sed asanescere ad hominSa et 
m&nBaefieri n6 parYnli yaidem except! posaunt. AmpIitQdd 
comaum et figura et species maltum S. nostrorum bonm comi- lo 
bus diflFert. Haec studl&s€ conqnlBita ab labr!s argentd circnm- 
cladnnt atqae in amplisaimis epnliB prfi pdcnlia utnntar. 

29. Gaesar, poatqnam per Ubida expldrfitdreB comperit 
Sneboa aese in 8ilTa,B recepisae, inopiam frilmenti veritoB, qnod, 
nt snprfi demonstrayimua, minime bominSs Qermtol agricnl- 
tdrae student, cdaatituit n5n prdgredi longins; sed ng omnino 
metam reditua an! barbaria tolleret atque at edrum aaxilia tar< ■ 
d&ret, reductO exercitu, partem ultimam poutis quae rip&s TJbi- 

tiave mutUated boms "; I.e. their horns Chap. 38. Descriotloii of the wild 

kn short wad Irregular, appaarlng to be °^ 

mntllsted. 1, •st«»nun, "oonslateor Chow. " 

e. aRUctfta, "thrown down." 3. apMU, etc.; descriptive ablattrea 

9. ah, "at." modlBsd by the genitive, tauri. InsMad 

10. tuitnin . . , relllKlu&tnr, lit. oC the more usual adjective. 

"so far that the complete appearance of T. quae ilnt: a purpose clause: " to 

them standing lslaft"s"but only ao serve as proof. " 

tac that a complete resemblance to 9. at , . . azottptl, "not erm If 

Btandins trees Is left." caosht while very young." 

11. Ikftn, "against them." 11, ablabrii, " 



drnm contjngebat in longitfldiaem pednm dncentSniiii raeoiadit, 
atqne in extr^mS poote tnrrim tabnlatdrum qoattnor coustitmt 
pr&eaidininqae cohortinm duodecim pontis tneodl caaeft pdoit 
10 magnisqae earn locam munitidnibna firmat. EI locd praesidi- 
dqne C. Volcficinm Tallnm adaleacenteni praeficit. Ipee, 
cam maturSscere frumenta inciperent, ad bellam Ambiorigis 
profectDB per Ardaennam Bilvatn, qaae est tdtius Oalliae max- 
ima atque ab ripis Rheni fmibusque Trgverdmm ad Nemoa 

15 pertinet mlHbuBque ampliae quingentia in loDgitudinem patet, 
L. Minucium Basilum cam omnl eqaitfttu praemittit, si quid 
celeritate itineris atqaa opportnnit&te temporia prdficere possit; 
monet at igngs in castria fieri prohibeat, oe qua eias adrentus 
procal signific&tii} fiat; agaS cdnfeatim aabaequi dicit. 

30. Baailas at imper&tam est facit. Celeriter contr&qne 
omnium opinidnem confeotd itinere mnltda in agria inopinaotga 
dSprehendit; eoram iodioiO ad ipaum Ambiorigem contendit, 
quo in loco cum paucia eqaitibna ease dic€b&tar. Multam cam 

a in onmibua rebus, tnm in r€ militari ^test fortuna. Nam at 
m^no accidit casu at in ipsnm incaatnm etiam atqae impara- 
tam incideret, priasque eins adrentas ab hominibus videretnr 
qaam fama ac nuatiuB affeiretur, sic m^nae fuit fortunae, 
omni militari iaatramento quod circnm se babebat erepto, 

10 raedia equisque comprebenslB, ipeum eSugere mortem. Sed 
hoc factum est, qaod aedificio circumdato ailva, at sunt ferS 
domicilia Gallorum, qui vitaadi aeBtfls causa pleramqne eilri- 
ram ac fluminum petant propiuquit&tea, comltga familiaresque 
eius anguato in loco pauJisper equitam nostrdrum rim auatinu- 

16 grunt. Hia pugnantibua ilium in equum quidam es aula intu- 
lit; f ugientem silvae texgmnt. Sicet adsubeundampenonlnm 
et ad Titandnm multum fort&na valuit. 

3 1 . Ambiorix copiaa anas iudiciflne non condiixerit, qaod 
proelid dimicandum n6a existimaret, an tempore exclnsna et 
repentind equitam adrentu probibitus, cum reliqunm exercitum 
subaequi crgderet, dubiam est; sed certg dimiasia per agr^s 

e nuntiia sibi quemque conaulere iusait. Quornm pars in Arda> 


annam silvaiii, pars in oontinentSB pslfldSs prof&git; qui proz- 
imi Oceans fuSrnnt, hi InBalls seeS occuIt&Ternnt qngs aestiia 
effioere cQiiBuenint; mnltl ex aoie flnibuB Sgreiui sS snaqae 
omnia atieniaaimis credidernnt. GatnToIoug, rgx dimidiae par- 
tis Eburonum, qa! un& cum Ambiorige cdneiliam inierai, lo 
aetate iam cSnfeotas, cum laborem belli ant fagae ferre qoh 
posset, omaibaB precibus dgtestatus Ambiorigem, qui eias con- 
sili anctor fnisset, taxO, caius magna in Oallia Oermanifiqae 
copia 9Bt, se ezanimSvit. 

32. Segni Gondrusiqne ez gente et namerS GermAnfimm, 
qui sunt inter Ebnron^s TrgrerOsque, legatOs ad Gaesarem 
mnenint or&tnm ne BO in hostium numero duoeret neve om- 
nium Germandrnm qui esBent citr& Rbennm Qnam eaae caasam 
iudicaret: Nihil se de bello cogitfivisse, nulla Ambiorigi aux- b 
ilia mlsisse. Gaesai explorfita re qimegti6ne oaptivdrum, si qnl 
ad eds Ebnrfines ez fugfi. coovgnisBent, ad se ut rediicerentnr 
imper&vit; si ita fecissent, fines efirum Be violatuinm negavit. 
Turn copiiB in tres partes dietributiB impedimenta omnium 
iegidnam Atuatncam contnlit. Id caatelli ndmen est. Hoc lo 
ferg eat in mediis EbnrSnam finibus, ubi Titiirina atqae An- 
ruDcnleius hiemandi caus& consederant. Hunc cum reliquis 
rgbus locum prob&bat, tum quod snperidris anni munitidnes 
integrae mangbant, ut militum laborem sublevaret. Praesidio 
impedimentis legionem quartam decimam reliquit, iinam ez u 
his tribus quae proxime conscriptas ex Italia traduxerat. Ei 
legioni castrisque Q. TuUium Giceronem praefecit ducentosqad 
equites ei attribuit. 

33. Partito exercitu T. Labienum cum legldnibuB tribus 
ad Oceanum verBus in eas partes quae Menapios attingunt pro- 
ficiBci iubet; G. Trebonium cum pari legionnm numero ad eam 
regionem quae Atuatucis adiacet depopulandam mittit; ipse 
cum reliquis tribus ad flumeu Sabim, quod influit in Mosam, s 
extremasqne Ardnennae partes Ire constituit, quo cum pancie 
eqnitibuB profectum Ambiorigem audiebat. Discedens poet 
diem septimnm sese reversi'Tom confirmat, quam ad diem ei 

. ..,j.-vGooglc 


legi^Di qnae in praesidio relmqaebfttar deberi frumentDm 
10 sciebat. Labignnm Treboninmque hortatar, si rei publicae 
commodo facere possint, ad earn diem revertontar, ut rursus 
commiinicatd cdnBilid exploratiaqae hostium rationibns aliad 
initinm belli capere possint. 

34. Erat, at supra demdnstrarimaB, maoDB certa nulla, 
n6n oppidam, ndn praesidiuni quod sg armis dgfenderet, sed ia 
omngs partSe dispersa multitudo. Ubi onique aut vallSs ab- 
dita aut locus silvestris aut palus impedita spem praeeidi aut 

5 salutiB aliquam ofEerSbat cousederat. Haeo loca Ticinitatibua 
erant Dota, magnamqae res diligentiam reqairebat, non ia 
Bumma exercitus tuenda (oulluin enim poterat uniTersis a per- 
territiB ac dispersis perTculum accidere), aed in singuIiB militi- 
bus cdnserraDdis ; quae tamen ex parte rea ad ealutem exercitua 

10 pertinebat. Nam et praedae capidit&a moItoB longiuB seToca* 
bat, et silTae incertis occultiBque itineribus cdnfertoa adire 
prohibebant. Si negotinm confici atirpemque hominnm BCelera- 
tornm interfici vellet, dimittendae plures manus diducendique 
erant militea; ai continere ad aigna manipnlda vellet, ut inati- 

16 tnta ratio et conauetddo exercitus Rgm&nl postulfibat, locuB 
ipae erat praesidio barbarls, neque ex occultd insidiandi et dis- 
persos circumveniendi singullB deerat audacia. Ut in eiaa 
modi difGcaitatibas, quantum diligentia prdTid€ri poterat, 
prdvideb^tnr ut potiua in nocendo aliqaid praetermitteretur, 

10 etsi omnium animi ad nlciscendum ardebant, quam cum aliqoO 
militum dgtrlmento noc€r6tur. Dimittit ad finitimaB.ciTit&t&s 
nuutida Caesar; omn^ evocat ape praedae ad diripiendos Ebn- 
rdtiea, ut potiua in Bilvia Gallonun vita qaam legionarius milea 
periclitetur, simul ut magna multitfidine circnmfusa prd tSli 

» facioore stirps ac nomen ciritatis tollatnr. Magnus undique 
numerus celeriter eouTenit. 

35. Haec in omnibus Eburonum partibua ger€bantur, diSs- 
que appetebat septimua, quern ad diem Caesar ad impedimenta 
legionemque reverti constituerat. Hie quantum in hello for- 
tiina poeait et c^uant6s afFerat caaiia cognosci potuit. Diraipitis 


ac perterritiB hostibos, nt dSmonBtrfiTimne, manns erat d&Us b 
quae parvaminodo cansam timj^ris affeiret. Tr&ns BbSnnm ad 
Oerm&iios perrenit f ama diripi EbnrdnSa atqne nltrd omngs ad 
praedam eroc&ri. G5^iiiit eqnitnm duo milia Sngambri, qal 
sunt prosiml Rh^aS, & qnibns recept.68 ex fug& TgncterdB atqud 
TJsipetes Bupr& dooaimns. Tr&Dseunt Rhenom Q&Tibas rati- lo 
basque trigintS. milibus paBBnnm infrA earn loonm abi p5n8 
erat perfeotua praesidinrnqne & Caeaara relictam; primds Eba- 
rOnnm fines adeunt; mnltOa ex fug& dispersOa ezcipiunt, 
m^nd pecoris namero, cnina annt cnpidisBimi barbari, potinn- 
tnr. lavitiltr praedfi longias prdcSdant. Ndn 1i6b paludeB is 
bells latrocinilBqne n&tos, noD ailvae morantur. Qaiboa in 
locis ait Caesar ex captivis qoaeruDt; profectnm longias repe- 
riunt omnemqae exercitam disceBsiase cognSscant. Atqae 
anaa ex captiyia, 'Quid t58,* inqait, ' banc miseram ac tenaem 
sectfimini praedam, quibna licet iam esse fortunatisaimOs? w 
Tribaa boris Atuatucam venire potestia; hue onines suAa for- 
iQa&B exercitaa Romandram contnlit; praesid! tantam eat nt . 
nS muras quidem cingi poaait neqae qaisqaam 6gredi'extr2 
munitiones audeat. ' Hac obl&ta spS Qemftni qnam nacti erant 
praedam in ocoalto relinqnnnt; ipsi Atoatncam contenduat is 
&si eddem dace cuius haeo indicio cogndTerant. 

36. Cicero, qui omnes saperiorea diga praeceptis Caesani 
Bnmm& diligentia militSa in castria continnisaet ac nS calonenl 
qaidem quemquam extra munitiouem egredi paaeaa esaet, sep- 
timo die difEidena de numero dierum Caesarem Odem aervatu- 
rum, quod longiua progressum audiebat neque ulla de reditu s 
eiuB fama afferebatur, simul eorum permotuB vocibuB qui illiua 
patientiam paeae obBessionem appellabaut, si qaidem ex castria 
Sgredi nSn licgret, nullum eiua modi casnm exspectana qud, 
Dovem oppositis legionibuB maximoque equitatu, diapersTs ao 
paene deletis boatibua, in milibus paasnum tribus offendi pos- lo 
set, quinque cobortes frumentatam ia proximas segetes mittit, 
qu&s inter et caetra unus omnino collia interest. Compl^Ss 
erant in castria ex legionibus aegri relictij ex quibns qui bds 


Bpati5 di^rum convalTieraiit, circiter ccc, sob TexUl5 anft mit- 
> tnntiir ; magna praetere& multitudO caldnam, magna via ifimeii* 
tomm, quae in caatrTs subsgderat, facta potestfite Beqtiitnr. 

37. Hoc ipso tempore casu German! eqnites inteireniant 
protinDsque eodem illo quo renerant oursu ab decaman& port& 
in castra Irrumpere conantnr, neo prias sunt Tisi, obiectie ab 
e& parte silvis, quam castris appropinquarent, osqae eO nt qui 

• sob Tallo tenderent mercatores recipiendi stii facnltatem &on 
haberent. Inopinantee nostri re nova perturbantnr, ac Tix 
primum impetum coliors in statioae soatinet. Circuinfandun* 
tnr bostSs ex reliquia partiboa, si quem aditnm reperire possint. 
AegrS port3.B noBtrl tnentnr, reliqnos aditHa locus ipse per ad 

N munitidqoe defendit. Totia trepid&tnr castrla, atque alina ex 
alio causam tumnltna qnaerit; neqne qnd aigna ferantnr neqne 
qoam in partem quiaque conveniat prdvident. Aliua caBtra 
iam capta prdnnntiat, L'lina delStO exercitii atque imperatdre 
victores barbarfia vSniaae contendit ; plerique novSa aibi ex loc6 

» religionea fingont Gottaeque et Tituri calamitatem, qui in 
eodem occiderint castello, ante oculoa ponnnt. Tali tin:Qre 
omnibus porterritis confirm&tur opinio barbarie, nt ex captTvd 
audierant', nullum ease intus praesidinm. Perrnmpere nitnn- 
tnr aeque ipai adhortantor ne tantam fortunam ex manibuB 

M dimittant. 

38. Erat aeger in praesidio relictna P. Sextins Bacnlna, 
qui primum pilum apud Caesarem duxerat, cniua menti6nem 
BUperioribus proeliia fecimus, ac diem iam quintum cibo cam- 
erat. Hie diSiana suae atque omoinm saluti inermis ex taber- 

» niculd prodit; videt imminere host§8 atque in Bummo esae rem 
diacrimine; capit arma a proximis atque in port£ conBiatit. 
Consequuntur hunc centuriones eins cohortiB quae in atatiQne 
erat; paulisper una proelinm sustinent. Eelinquit animus 
Sextium gravibus acceptis vnlneribus ; aegre per man us traditus 

10 Berr&tnr. Hdc apatio interpositO reliquT sgsS confirmant tan- 
tum nt in miinltidnibne cdnaiatere audeaiit Bpeciemque defgn- 
eomm praebeant. 



39. Interim cSnfecta frflment&tifine militSB noBtri clamS- 
(em exsndiuQt; praecnrrant eqnit^a, qnantfi rSs sit in periculO 
cogndBCQQt. Hlo TerS nulla miinitio est quae perterritds 
recipiat; modo o6DBcr!ptI atqae usne militjlriB imperitt ad tri- 
bunam militam ceatnridnesqne 5ra conTertnnt; quid ab his s 
praecipi&tnr exepectant. Nemo est tarn fortlB qnio re! noyitata 
pertarbetar. Barbari sigDa procnl c&nspicilti oppugnatidne 
desiatimt; rediase pnmo legioues credunt, quas longins diBces- 
eiBse ex captlTis cognorerant ; postea deapecta paucitate ez 
omnibus partibas impetum faciunt. lo 

40. Caldngs in proximum tumnlum procamint. Hiuc 
celeriter deieoti b§ in signa manipal&Bque coDicinnt; eo magia 
timidSs perterrent militSa. Alii cnne6 facts at celeriter per- 
mmpaut cgBsent: Qaoniam tarn propinqua aint castra, etsi pars 
aliqua circumventa ceciderit, at reliqu5s serrari posse; alii tit & 
io iugO cdnaiBtant atque eundem omnes ferant c&snm. Hoc 
veterSs nfln probant milites, quoa sub vexiUo una profectSs 
docaimos. Itaque inter se cohortati, duce C. TrebSnio, equite 
Romano, qni lis erat praepoBitus, per medios hostea perrum- 
pant incolumeBqne ad Qnam omnfes in castra perreni ant. Hob id 
anbBecatI caloneB eqnitgaqus eOdem impetfi mllitum TirtQte 
serratitar. At ii qui in iugo conatiterant, nSllO etiam nunc 
UsQ rei militftris percepto, neque in eo quod prob&verant cdn- 
eilid permanere, ut aS locO anperiore d§fenderent, neqne earn 
quam prdfniase aliia vim celeritatemque viderant imitari potu- is 
emnt, sed s€ in castra recipere cdnati inlquum in locam demi- 
aerunt. Oeatnriones, quorum nfin nulll ez inferidribus ordinibua 
reliquamm legidnum rirtutis causa in auperifiree erant ordines 
huina legionis trdducti, ne ante partam rei milites laudem 
fimitterent, fortissime pugnantea concidenint. Militnm pars, so 
fadrum virtute submotis hoatibus, praeter spem incolnmis in 
castra perrenit, pars a barbaris circumventa periit. 

4 1 . Oerma&i desperata oxpugnatione castr6rum, quod noa- 
trda iam cdnatitisse in munitidnibua ridebant, cum e& praed& 
qnatn in silrls depoaaerant trana IUi6num a€a6 Tec6perost. Ao 


tantns fuit etiam post diacessQin hoBtiam terror ut ea nocte, 
s cum C. VolusgnuB misBtis cam equitata in caetra venisset, fidem 
Hon facerat adeaae cum incolumi Caesarem ezercitu. Sic om- 
nium animoa timor praeoconpaverat nt, paene alien&tfi meote, 
deletig omnibus cdpiis equitatum bS ex fug& rooepiaae dioerent 
Deque incolumi exercitu Qerm&noB castra oppngnatnros fuissA 
10 ooatenderent. Qnem timorem Gaesaria adrentna aostulit. 

42. Kerersns ille, eventiiB belli hod IgndraDs, iiDum, quod 
cohort€9 ex statiOoe et praesldio essent emiaaae, qnestoa — d6 
miDimnm qnidem c&Bui locum relicqu! dSbuisae — multnm for- 
tunam in repentind hostinm adreutfi potuiBae iudic^vit, molto 

B etiam amplius, quod paene ab ipsd valid portisque castrfirnni 
barbards avertiBBet. Quanun omnium rernm oiasime admi' 
raudum vidgbatur qnod GermSuI, qui eo cdDsiUfi BhSDum 
transierant, ut Ambiorigis fInSs dSpopulfirentur, ad castra 
Bomanorum delati optatissimum Ambiorigi beneficiom obtn- 

10 lerant. 

43. Caesw riirsns ad vexandfia }i<»itgB profectns, magnA 
equitum coact6 numerd ex flnitimis civitatibns, in omnS* 
partes dimittit. Omnes tIcI atque omnia sedifioia qnae quia - 
que conepezerat incendebantur ; praeda ex omnibus locis agf- 

B batur; frumenta ndn sdlam a tanta multitudine iumentomm 
atqae hominum c6naumebaDtur, sed etiam anni tempore atqne 
imbribns pr&oabuerant, at, si qui etiam in praesentii b£ go- 
cultassent, tamen bis d8duct5 ezercitii rgmm omoium inopia 
perenndum vidSrStur. Ac saepe in enm locam ventom est, 

10 tauto in omnes partes dimisBo equitatu, ut modo rianm ab sS 
Ambiorigem in fug& circumspicerent captivi nee plang etiam 
ablsse ex cdQSpect& contenderent, ut 8p6 cdnseqnendl illatft 
atque infinite labore auacepto, qui a& summam & Caesare gr&- 
tjam initurds pntarent, paene natiiram 8tudi& vincerent, sem- 

IB perque paolnm ad summam fellcitatem dSfuisse videretur, 
atque ille latebris aut saltiboa ae eriperet et noctu occnlt&tns 
alias regionea partgsqne peteret ndn mai&re equitum praesidid 
quam quattuor, qnibus solis Titam suam committere audsbat. 


44. Tall mods vaatatla regiOnibna exercitum Caesar daaram 
cohortimn danmo Durocortorum RemOrum dgducit, conctlio- 
qae in eom locum GalUae indictd d€ coDiurfitidne Seooaam 
et Camiitnm qnaeBtionem habgre institriiit ; et d6 Accone, qui 
princepB eina cdnsili faerat, graviore sententia prdnuntiata g 
mSre maiSrum eupplicium sumpait. Non nulll iudicium Teriti 
profflgerunt. Qnibns cum aqua atqne igni interdixiaaet, duas 
legiones ad fines Treverorum, dua* in Lingonibus, sex reliquas 
in Senonam finibuB Agedinci in hibemia collocayit, frnmento- 
qae eieroitni proviso, at instituerat, ia Italiam ad conventiU u 
agendds profectns est. 



For more than a year Gaul bad beeu ready for revolt: it lacked only 
an oppoitunity and a leader. Early in 53 b.c. the opportunity came, 
ftnd with it the leader appeared. For the flrat time Caesar had to meet 
a man who could unite all Gaul against him. In the previous books 
Caesar has been the hero of the story; in Um seventh he shares the honor 
with Vercingetorix. 

In the fall Caesar had quartered his army in the northern h&lf of 
Gaul, chiefly at Agedincum, and had gone to upper Italy. In the 
winter the Gauls learned of serious disturbances in Rome, which seemed 
sure to keep Caesar in Italy. This was their opportunity, for they be- 
lieved they could cope with the legions if Caesar were absent. The 
Camutes struck the first blow by killing some Romans who were at 
Cenabum. The news reached Vercingetorix at bis home in Gergovia, 
among the Arvemi. Since his state would not rise at once, be collected 
troops, made himself king of the Arvemi, and began stirring up revolt, 
in other states. In a short time be was the recognised head of a con- 
federacy which included almost every state north, west, and southwest 
of tbe Haedui. 

It was still winter when Caesar, summoned by this news, returned 
to the Province. His army was 200 miles away; tbe Haedui, who lay 
between, were suspiected; Vercingetorix was in a position which threat- 
ened Caesar if be tried to join tbe army. By skillful maneuvering he 
drew Vercingetorix out of tbe way, tben with a few horsemen rode night 
and day to join his legions at Agedincum. Vercingetorix at once at- 
tacked a town of the Boii. Although it was too early to move an army 
comfortably, Caesar had either to relieve the Boii or let his other allies 
see that be could not protect them. As usual, Caesar chose to act. 
Marching by a circuit he had taken two towns and was lajang siege to a 
third before Vercingetorix would raise the siege and march to meet him. 
The Gallic leader arrived just in time to be defeated in a cavalry battle 
and to witness the surrender of tbe town. Caesar then marched to 

Vercingetorix now showed his mastery over bis followers by per' 
Buading them to adopt a desperate plan. Caesar bad been getting his 


.,, .GiKwIc 


Buppliea from the hpuses and towns alojig his line of march. The Gauk 

decided to bum every house and every town, except those which 
seemed impregnable, along Caesar's route. Veroingetorii wished to 
burn Avaricum, but the Bituriges believed that it could not be talcea, 
and he allowed it to stand. Caesar laid siege to it, while Vercingetorii 
confined himself to cutting off Caesar's supplies. For twenty-five days 
the defense was stubborn, but at last the town was taken and nearly 
40,000 men, women, and children were slaughtered. 

Judging by bia past experience with the Gauls Caesar believed that 
this disaster would break up the coalition against him and that he would 
now have to deal only with single states. Accordingly he divided his 
army, sending Labienus with four legions north, against the Senoues 
and the Parisii, while be himself marched south with the remaining six, 
against the Arvemi. But Caesar had made a mistake. Vercingetorix 
reminded his followers that be had never wished Avaricum to be de- 
fended, promised to extend the revolt, and demanded better discipline 
in the future. Ue held the states he already had and won over new 
ones, ao that Caesar with his six legions had to face a more formidable 
enemy than before, when he had ten. 

But Caesar marched to Gergovia, as he had planned, and camped be- 
fore it in perplexity. The town was situated on a high hill. Vercinget- 
orix had arrived before him and was encamped on the upper part of 
the bill, under the walls of the town. Against such a position aggers 
and towers were useless. With so small an army the town could not be 
Invested and starved into submission. Caesar saw that he must with- 
draw, but he felt certain that if he did not first win some success the 
Haedui would rise against him. One day he learned that the Gauls 
had left their camp in order to fortify a weak spot in their lines. De- 
termining to sack the camp, he sent a part of his legions up the hill, 
under orders not to attempt to take the town. But the soldiers pushed 
on. Already a few had mounted the walla of the town, when the Gauls 
hastened up and drove them down the hill with heavy loss. The neces- 
sary retreat followed defeat instead of success. 

Instantly the Haedui rose: they plundered one of their own towns, 
in which Caesar had great stores of provisions; there they got possession 
' of Caesar's hostages, his one means of holding the states which had not 
yet revolted; and they posted guards along the Liger, which they be- 
lieved unfordable.' Nevertheless, with the speed which bo often dis- 
concerted his enemies, Caesar marched to the river, found a ford, got 
supplies from the Haeduan fields, and marched on among the Senones. 
There he was joined by Labienus, who had extricated himself from a 
most perilous position by winning a great victory at Lutetia (Paris), 


The revolt of the Haedui and their capture of Caesar'B hoetagefl waa 
the Bign&I for the revolt of almost all Gaul. Only the Remi and the 
Lingonea remained faithful to Caesar, By the unanimous vote of a 
council Vercingetorix was made commander-in-chief ot the whole 
country. With 80,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry he renewed his wise 
policy of cutting off Caesar's supplies and refusing battle. At the same 
time he sent an army to invade the Province. So seriouj was the situa- 
tion that Caesar decided to march to the Province, partly to defend it, 
partly to get reinforcements. 

Then Vercingetorix made his first mistake. He decided to attack 
the retreating Romans, hoping either to cut them ofi or at least to strip 
them of their baggage. But his own army was defeated and fled for 
refuge to Alesia, cloeely pursued by the Romans. There Caesar de- 
termined to end the war. The town lay on a hill, as impregnoible as 
Gergovia; but Caesar now had his entire army, and he began a ring of 
fortififstions, within which the Gauls were to be staived into surrender. 
Before the investment was complete, Vercingetorix sent out all his 
cavalry with orders to bring every fighting man in Gaul to the rescue. 
He himself ehoae to stay with his 80,000 infantry, to hold the town till 
relief should eome. The result shows that this was his second anti last 
mistake, since his leadership was more needed outside than within. 
Caesar had now to prepare for a double attack, from without and from 
within. The inner line of works was made eleven miles in circumference, 
the outer fourteen. These lines were strengthened by every cunning 
device his ingenuity could suggest. 

At last, when the supplies of the besieged were almost exhausted, 
the great relieving army came into view, 250,000 infantry and 8,000 
cavalry. But this great host was crippled by the tack of a capable 
leader. The supreme command lay in a council of delegates from the 
several states, under which four generals acted. On the day after their 
arrival the Gallic cavalry attacked the Romans, while the besieged sal- 
lied out to attack the inner line. The cavalry was defeated, and the 
besieged returned to the town. Then a night attack was directed, beth 
from within and from without, against the works in the plain west of the 
town. This too proved fruitless. 

The third and last attack was almost successful. Sixty thousand 
picked men attacked the weakest point in the outer line of defense, and 
the besieged displayed deeperate courage at several 'points in the inner 
line. If the rest of the rdieving army had attacked several parts of the 
outer line at the same time, the Gauls would surely have won the victory; 
for the soldiers posted at the points of attack were not sufficient to de- 
fend them. But, lacking unity of purpoM, the great QalUo army did 


nothing, and Caesar wa« able to send to the rescue troops from other 
p&rta of the Une. The 60,000 were almost all killed, and the rest of the 
relieving annj' dispersed to their homes that night. 

The end had come. The besieged were starving and hopeless. 
Verdngetorix told them that all was lost and they might hand him over, 
living or dead, to Caesar. They accepted the offer and sent word to 
Caesar. Verdngetorix rode out from the town alone and bowed him- 
self at Caesar's feet. We are told, though not by Caesar, that six yean 
later he appeared in Caesar's triumphal procession and was then 

Caesar's narrative concludes with the submission of the Haedui and 
the Arvemi, which immediately followed the fall of Aleda. In his 
winter quarters at Bibracte he wrote the seven books of his Commen- 
taries, in which the breaking of the great rebellion forms a fitting climax 
for lus story. But his work was not yet complete. Though concerted 
resistance was at an end, he spent two years more in quelling smaller 
revolts here and there, and in conciliating the states which had been 
conquered. The events of these years are contained in an eighth book, 
written by Hirtius, one of his oSJcers. Then came the civil war with 
Fompey, and Caesar left his work so well done that Gaul never revolted, 
even during the years when Caesar could have spared neither time nor 
men to subdue her. 



i. Qiiigt& GftlliS, Caesar, ttt constitnerat, in Italiam ad con* 
Tantus agendoB proficTscitur. Ibi cogndscit de P. Clodl caede, 
do senatusque consnlto certior factas, ut omnes ionidreB Italiae 
.■Miiiiurarent, diUctum tota provinci^ habere Instituit. £ae 

i res in Oalliam Transalpinatu celeriter perferantnr. Addnnt 

, tpsi et afBngont ramoribus Galll, quod rea poscere videbfitur, 

retineri tirbanfi mdta Caeearem neqne in tantis disB^nsionibuB 

ad exercitam venire posse. Hac impulBi occasione, qni iam 

ante ee populi RomSni imperiu aubiectoa doUrent, IiberinB 

>v atqne andaeiue de bello consilia inire incipinnt. Indictis inter 
se principes Galliae conciliiH ailyeatribuB ac remotia locTa que- 
mntnr dg Acconis morte; posse bnnc caBtim ad ipaos recidere 
dSmdnstrant; miserantur communem Galliae fortunam; omni- 
bus pollicitationibaa ac praemila dgpoacunt qn! belli initium 

IS faciant et sui capitia perlcalo Oalliam in llbertatem vindicent. 
In primia rationem eaae habendam dicunt, priusqnam eOrum 
clandeatitia conailia efferantnr, ut Caesar ab exercitu inter- 
cludatur. Id esse facile, quod neque legiones audeant ab- 
aente imperat.5re ez hlbemis egredi, neque imperator sine 

*3 praesidiS ad legiones pervenire poaait. Poatremo, in acie 
praeatare interfici qnatn non veterem belli gloriam libertfltem- 
que quam a maioribua acceperint recnperilre. 

2- His rebus agitutis niiUum per- 
i'-.ulum communia salutiB cauafi reciiaiire, prlncipeaqne ex om- 
nibus bellnm facturos poUicentur, et, quoniam in praeseutia 
obsidibua cavere inter ae non poaaint, n6 rgs efferatnr, nt 

• iure iurando ac fide sanciatur petunt, collatia milit&ribna sig- 
nia, quo more eorom graviaaima ' caerim5nia contingtar, ne 
foctO initio belli ab reliqaia dSserantnr. Tarn colland&Us 

n„jN.«j.-v Google 


CarcutibiiB, datd iare iurando ab omnibuB qui aderant, tempore 
eius rei cdnstitato a ooucilio disceditar. 

3. tJbi ea dies vSnit, CamnteB Gotaato et Conconneto- 
danmd dncibus, desperatis homlDibus, Genabnm sigDo dato 
Goacurmnt civesque Romands, qui aegotiandi caoB^ ibj con- 
Btiterant, in bis G. Fufium Gitam, hoDflstam equitem Roma- 
nnm, qui rei frumeot&riae iussu Gaeaaris praeerat, interficiunt ■ 
bonaqne eornm diripinnt. Celeriter ad omngB Qalliae civitates 
lama perfertur. Nam ubi quae maior atque illustrior incidit 
tCb, clamOre peragr6B regiOnSsqae Bignificant; bunc alii dein- 
ceps excipinnt et proximis tradont, ut turn accidit. Nam 
quae CSuabi wiente Bole geata esBeat ante primam oonfectam n 
vigiliam in finibus Arrernomm audita BOut, qnod epatium eBt 
milium pasBUum circiter clx. 

4. Simill ratione ibi Vercingetorlx, Geltilll filing, Arrer- 
nu8, anmmae potentiae adulescena, cqIub pater princip&tum 
totiuB Galliae obtlnuerat et ob earn caueam, quod regnum ap- 
petebat, a ciritate erat interfeotna, ooDTOcatis buIs clientibns 
facile incendit. Cognito eiuB coosilio ad arma cononrritur. t 
Probibetur »b Gobannitioue, patruo buo, reliquiBqne principi- 
buB, qui banc temptandam fortQnam non esistim&baDt ; expel- 
litur ex oppido Gei^ovia; noii deaiatit tamen atque in agris 
babet dilectum egentinm ac perditorum. Hac coacta manu, 
qaoecumqne adit ex ciritate ad anam sententiam perducit; la 
hortatur ut communis llbertatiB cauBa arms capiant, magnis- 
que coactia copiis adTersarioB au5s, a quibus paul&^ante erst 
Siectus, expellit ex ciritate. Bex ab suis appellatur, Dimittit 
qa&qneTerauB lugationSs; obteetatnr ut in fidg maneant. Ce- 
leriter sibi Seaonea, Pariaios, Pictonea, Cadiircoa, Tnronoa, is 
Anlercoa, LemoTioea, Audoa reliquoaqoe omnea qui Ocesnnm 
attingunt adinngit; omnium conaensu ad eum defertnr impe- 
rium. Qu& obl&tS. poteBt&te omnibus his civitatibua obaideB 
imperst, certnm namemm militum ad ae celeriter addiicT iu- 
bet, arm6rnm qijwitnm quaeque cmtae domi quodque ante k 
tempns efficiat constituit: in primia equitatui studet. Sum- 


mae diligentifte snmmam imperi seTeritatem addit; magnitn- 
dine supplici dubitantes cogit. Nam mai&re commisso dglioto 
igni atqiie omnibus tonnentis necat, leviore de caaaa anribna 
» desectis ant singulis eSossis oculis domom remittit, nt aint re- 
liqnis docnmento et magnitudine poenae perterreant alios. 

5. His sQppliciis celeriter coacto exercitu, Lacterinm Ca- 
durcnm, snmmae hominem andaciae, cam parte oopiamm in 
ButenoB mittlt; ipse in BiturigGs proGcTscitar. Eius adventu 
Bituriges ad Haeduos, quorum erant in fide, leg^tos mittunt 

B subsidium rogatum, quo faciliua hostium copi^ snstinere poe- 
sint. Haedui d€ consilio legatonim quos Caesar ad exercitnm 
reliquerat cdpi£ts eqnitatus peditatusque subsidio Biturigibne 
mittunt. Qui com ad flumen Ligerim Tenissent, quod Bituriges 
ab Kaednis dividit, paucos dies ibi morati neque flumen trans- 

)0 ire ausl, domuin revertuntar legatisque noatris rentintiant se 
Bitarigum perfidiam veritoB revertisae, qnibus id oonsili fuisafl 
cognOTarint, ut, si flumen transissent, una ex parte ipsi, a1ter& 
Arverni b6 circamsistereut. Id eane de causa qnam Ugatis 
proniinti&Terint, an perfidia adducti fecerint, quod nihil nobis 

IB constat, nOn videtur pro certo ease ponendum. Bituriges 
eorum disoeasu statlm eg cum Arverois coniungunt. 

6. His rgbug in Itallam Caesarl nunti&tis, cum iam ille nr- 
banas rgs Tirtute Cn. Pompfii commodiorem in statum peire- 
nisse intellegeret, in Tranaalpinam Galliam profectus est. Ed 
cum Tenisset, magna difficnltate afficieb&tnr qua ratione ad 

G exercitum perrenire poaset. Nam si legiones in prorinciam 
arcesaeret, se absente in itinere proelio dimic&turas int«lle- 
gcbat; si ipse ad ezercitum contenderet, n€ iis quidem qui 
eo tempore quisti viderentur auara salQtem recte committi 

7. Interim LucteriuB CadOrcua in Rut^noa missus earn 
civitatem ArverniB conciliat. PrOgresBUS in Nitiobroges et 
Gabaloa ab utrisque obaides accipit et magn& coacta manu in 
prdTinciam Narbonem versns irrupti6nem facere contendit. 

i Qua rg niintiata Caesar omnibus consiliis anterertendnm existi- 

., .Coo>;Ic 


mftvit ut Narbonem proficlBceretnr, E6 cum T€niBBet, timentSs 
oonfirmat, praesidia in Rutenis provinciallbng, Volcta Are- 
comicis, Toldaatibna circmnqne Narboaem, quae loca hoetibus 
nant flnitima, constituit; partem copiarnm ex proTiBcia sap- 
pUmentamqae quod ex Italia adduxerat in Helvids, qa! fines lo 
Arvemdmiu contingant, coiiTeaTre iubet. 

8. His rebus comparatis, repressS iam Laoterid et re- 
in5t&, qaod intrare intra praesidia perical&Bani putftbat, in 
Helvids pro&ciacitur. EtsT mona Cebenna, qai Arrernds ab 
HelTilB diBcIudit, durisBimo tempore auni aUiaaimft Dive iter 
impediebat, tamen discuBsA nive in altitadinem pedum Bex s 
atqne ita viia patetactis snmmd militum labore ad ftnga Ar- 
Temorum perveuit. Qnibua oppresaia inopinantibaa, quod s6 
CebeunA at m^rS mdnltos exiatim&bant, ac ne singnlari qni< 
dem umquam homini e5 tempore anni aSmitae pataerant, 
eqnitibua imperat ut quam lAtiaaimS poBsint Tagentnr et quam u 
maximum hostibua terr6rem inferant. Celeriter haec fama ao 
nuntii ad Vercingetortgem perferuntur; quem perteniti omnes 
Arvemi circumBiatuntatqiieobaeoFaiitiit suia fortunia cdnsa* 
lat, nS ab hoatibaa diripiantor, praesertim cum videat omne ad 
Be bellum translatom. Quorum ille precibus permotus caetra is 
ex Bitnrigibua movet in ArTernoa versus. 

9. At Caesar bidunm in bis locls morfttus, quod haec d€ 
Vercingetorige ubu ventura opinione praeceperat, per causam 
suppUmentl eqnitatusque cogendi ab exercitfi discedit, Bru- 
tum adulSacentem bis oopils praeficit; bnnc monet ut in omnes 
partes equitSs quam latissime pervagentur: Daturum Be ope- • 
ram nS longias tridao & castris absit. His oonatitutiB rSbua, 
BUls inopinantibuB, quam maximia potest itineribas Yiennam 
perrenit. Ibi nactus recantem equitatam, quem mnltia ante 
diebns ed praemiserat, neqae diumo neqAe noctnmd itinere 
intermisBd, per fines Haedudram in LingonSs oontendit, ubi lo 
dnae legifinea biem£tbant, at, ai qnid etiam dS su& salitte ab 
Haeduia inlr€tur eonsili, celeritate praecnrreret. £5 com per- 
Tfinisset, ad reliqn&s legiones mittit prinsqae omnes in finum 

: .Coo>;Ic 


locoin cfigit qnam di flios adTenta Airemls nnntiari poBset. 

■ H&c tS cognita YerciDgetoriz rnraoB in Bitnriges ezercitnm 
redacit stqne inde profectos GoTgobinam, Boi&rnm oppidam, 
qnoB ibi HelTetico proelio Tict5a Caesar collociveTat Haedoie- 
qne attribnerat, oppngnare inBtitnit. 

lO. Magnam haec res Caesari diflBcnlt&tem ad cdiisitiam 
capiendnm afferebat: si reliqnam partem Uemis quo locd 
legiones contineret, nS stipendlariiB Haednt^rnm ezpngnatiB 
cnncta Gallia deficeret, qaod nallmn amlcis in eo praesidinm 

t positnm videret; bI matnriiiB ex faibemlB edaceret, ne sb re 
frdmentaria dfiria anbvectiombne labor&ret. Praest&re Tisnm 
est tamen omneB difficaltatea perpet! qnam tant& contomelift 
accepts omninm sndnun Tolnnt&tes align&re. Itaqne cohorta- 
tns Haednds d€ snppoitandd commefita praemittit ad Boios 

to qai dg and adventu doceant hortentnrqno nt in fidg maneant 
atqne bostiam impetnm m^oo animd sOBtineuit. Ba&bns 
AgedincI legionibna atqne impedimentia totins ezercitQa relio- 
tis ad BoiuB proficiscitur. 

1 I. Alterd die cnm ad oppidnm Senontun VellsDDod^niiin 
vSniaset, nh qnem post se hoetem relinqneret, et qn6 ezpedtti' 
Ore r6 framentsri& utergtnr, oppngn&re institnit edqne bidud 
circamTallarit; tertid dig missiB ex oppidd ISgatis d6 dsditidne, 

s arma cdnferri, iumenta pr5duct, sescentds obsides daii iabet. 
Ea qnl conficeret, G. Treboninm Iggatam relinqnit; ipse, nt 
qoam primom iter cdnficeret, Cenabnm Camntatn proficiscitnr ; 
qnl tarn primnm all&to nnntid de oppngti&tidne Vellannodnni, 
cnm longins earn rem dnctnm in esMimgrent, praesidinm 

» Cenabi tnendi canBi, qaod eo mitterent, compar&bant. Hno 
bidnd perreuit. CastrTs ante oppidnm positiB die! tempore ex< 
cluans in poatemm oppngn&tidnem differt qnaeqne ad earn rem 
Qani sint militibna imperat et, qnod oppidnm Cenabnm pdns 
AQminis Ligeris contingebat, verituB n6 noctfi ez oppidd pro- 

u fngerent, dnas legiongs in armis excnbSre inbet. CenabSnses 
panlO ante mediam noctem silentiO ex oppidO Sgreesi flumen 
tr&uure coepenmt. Qui re per expldr&tdres nuntiiLt& Caesar 
, . . .C. 


legifinSB qnfts expedlt&e esse ineserat, portis incSnsIa, intrft- 
mittit atqne oppidd potitnr, perpaacis ex hoBtinm nomerd d6* 
sider&tis qnln conctl capereDtnr, quod pontis atqae itinenmi at 
sDgDBtise maltitudini fngam intercluBeraiit. Oppidnm diripit. 
atque incendit, praedam mHitibos ddoat, exercitum Ligerim 
traducit atqae in BitDrignm Cn^a perrenit. 

1 2. Vercingetorix, nbi A6 Gaesaris adveota oognOTit, oppnir- 
natidne deBiBtit atque obviam Caesarl proficiBcitnr. Ille oppidnm 
Bitnrlgnm positum in rift NoviodQnnm oppngnare institnerat. 
Quo ex oppidd cum l6g&tl ad earn vSnisfient Oratum ot sibi 
IgQdsceret suaeqne Titae odDBoleret, nt oelerit&te reliqnos rSs B 
conficeret qua pUraqne erat cdnsecutns, armn cSnferri, eqada 
prod^oi, obsidgs dan iabet. Parte ism obsidnm tradita, cum 
reliqua administrarentur, centnridnibaa et paucis militibuB in- 
tromisBiB qui arma iumentaqne conqulrerent, eqnit&tns hostinm 
procal tTbub eat, qn! agmen Vercingetorlgis anteceBBerat. Qaem lo 
fiimnl atqae oppid&ni conspezerunt atque m spem aoxili ven6- 
rnnt, cl&mdre Bubl&td arma capere, port&B clandere, maram 
complSre coep6raiit. GentnriCnSs in oppido, cam ex aiguificft- 
tione Oalldrom novl aliqoid ab ils inlrl cdnsill iateUezlBsent, 
gladilB dSstrictls portilB occapftTSrnnt sadaqae omnSs inoolamfis is 

1 3. Caeaar ex castria eqait&tam educi iabet proeliumque 
eqaeatra committit; labdrantibns iam sais Oermanda eqoitSa 
circiter cccc aubmittit, quOa ab initio aSonm habgre institnerat, 
Eonun impetum Galli sustinere non potaerant atque in fngam 
coniecti mnltia ftmiaBls aS ad agmen recepSmnt. Qaibus pro- b 
flig&tls rfirBuB oppidan! perterriti comprehensde eda qnornm 
opera plebem concitatam exiBtimabant ad Oaeaarem peidux- 
erunt seseque ei dedidemnt. Quibua rebus cdnfectTs Caesar 
ad oppidam ATaricum, quod erat maximum munitiBBimnrnqne 
in finibaa Bituiigum atque agri fertilisaima regidne, profectOB IS 
est, qaod e5 oppidd receptO ciritatem Biturigam s5 iti potestft* 
tern redilctunim confidgbat. 

14. Vercingetorix, tot continuia incommodiB VeUannodfUiI, 

., .Coo>;Ic 


OSnAbi, XoTiodunl acceptis, suds ad coDciliom convocat. 
Docet longg ali& ratione esse bellmn gerendum atqne aiite& 
gestam sit. Omnibns modis huic rei stndendam, at pabola- 

B tione et commefitd Komani prohibeantnr. Id esse facile, qnod 
eqaitatu ipsi abundent et qnod aimi tempore BobleTentiir. 
Pabulum secarl non posse; necessario dispersos hoatee ez aedi- 
ficiU petere; hoa omnes cotidig ab equitibus dSUri posae. 
Praetere^ communis salutis caustl rei familiaris commoda neg- 

10 legenda; tTcos atqne aedificia inoendi oportere hoc spatio qao- 
qneveraus quo pabulandi cansft adire posse videantor, Harum 
Ipsis r^rnm cOpiam suppetere, quod, qa&mm in flniboB bellum 
geratnr, efirum opibus subleTentnr; Rdm&Dos aut inopiam non 
laturos aut magnO cnm periculd luiigius a castria processurds; 

IS Deque iuteresse ipsosne iuterficiaut au impedimentis ezuant, 
quibus ^missis bellum geri uou possit. Praeterea oppida 
inceodl oportere quae dou munitidue et loci nat&ra sb omui 
eint periculd tuta, n€ suTs aint ad dgtrectandam militism re- 
ceptacula neu Rdm&nis proposita ad cdpiam comme&tus prae- 

10 damqne tollendam. Kaec at gravia aut acerba videantur, 
multd ilia graviua aestimarl dubere, liberda, coninggs in aer- 
vitutem abstrahi, ipsoa iuterflci; quae sit neoeaae accidere 

16. Omnium couseDBU hac sententia probata, tind die am- 
pliuB sz urbes Bitnrignm iucendunttu*. Hoc idem fit in reli- 
qniB ciritatibus; in omnibus partibns incendia couspiciuutur ; 
quae etsi magno cum dolore omnea ferebant, tamen boo aibi 

G BolacI proponebant, quod se prope explorata victoria celeriter 
fimissa reouperaturos confidebant. DelTberatur de Avarico 
in communi concilio, incendi placeat an defend!. Prooumbunt 
omnibus Oallis ad pedes Biturlges, ne pulcberrimam prope 
tStins Galliae nrbem, quae et prsesidid et ornamento sit civi- 

to tSti, buIb manibns succendere cogantur; facile ,ge loci natHra 
defeuBuros dicunt, qnod prope ex omnibus partlbus d^miue et 
palude circumdatS, ilnam habeat et perangaatum aditum. Da- 
tnr petentibuB Tenia, disauadente primo Verctngetorige, poab 


concfidente et precibtiB ipadnuQ et misericordia valgi. Dfiffil^ 
soreB oppidJ> iddoei dSliguntaF. it 

16. Vercingetoriz mindribuB CaeBorem itineriboB sabaa- 
qnitar et locum castris deligit paludibna BilviBqae munitmii, ab 
ATarico longe milia pasBoam xti. Ibi per certos exploratdres 
in singula diei tempora quae ad ATaricam agerentnr cognSa- 
cebat, et qaid fieri vellet imperabat. Omnes nostras pabalati- B 
dnes frfimentationesque obBervabat dieperBOBqae, cam longina 
necess&rio procederent, adoritbatar magnoqae inoommodd affi* 
ciebat, etsi quantum ratione provideri poterat ab noBtris occur- 
rebatur, ut incertis temporibuB dlverslBque itineribns iretur. 

1 7. GastriB ad earn partem oppidi positiB Caeaar quae inter* 
miasa flumine et palude aditam, ut aupra dlximua, aQgustnm 
babebat, aggerem apparare, vineaB ^ere, tarrgs duas cdnstita- 
ere coepit; nam circumvallare loci natura probibebat. D€ rS 
frumentaria BoioB atque HaeduoB adhortari non destitit: qnd- s 
rum alter!, quod niilld etudio agebant, non maltum adiava- 
bant; alter! non magnis faoultatibus, quod civitas erat ezigna 
et infirma, celeriter quod habuerunt consumpserunt. Summa 
difficultate re! frument&riae aSectd exercita tennltate Bold- 
mm, indiligentia Haedodrum, incendiia aedificiorum, usque ed to 
at complures dies frumentd m!lites caruerint et pecore ex lon- 
ginquioribuB vicis adacto eztrSmam famem suatentarint, nulla 
tameu vox est ab ils audita populi Bomani maieatate et anperi- 
Aribns TJctoriis indigna. Quia etiam Caesar cum in opere ain- 
galas legiones appellaret et, s! acerbiua inopiam ferrent, sS u 
dimiBSurum oppugnationem diceret, universT ab eo ne id faceret 
petebant: Sic s6 complureB annoa illo imperante memisBe ut 
niillam ignominism acciperent, numquam infecta re diacede- 
rent; boc ae ignominiae laturos loco, si inceptam oppugnati- 
onem rel!quiBaent ; praestare omnea perferre aoerbitates qnam at 
non civibus Bomania qui Cenabi perfldiil Qallorum interissent 
psrentarent. Haeo eadem ceoturidnibus tribQnisque militum 
mandabant, ut per eds ad OaeBarera dgferrentnr. 

18. Cum iam murd tnrres appropinqu^Bsent, ez capl^^ 



Caesar cognorit Vercingetorigem consumpto pAbnltJ castra md- 
Tiese propius ATaricum, atqne ipaam eum eqnitatu expedltis- 
qne qai inter eqnitcs proeliart consaeasent inBidiandi causa, ed 
G profectnm quo nostros pqstero die pabnlatnin venturos arbi- 
traretnr. Quibus rebas cognitls, media BOcte sUentio profectus 
ad bOBtinm castra mane perrenit. Uli celeriter per expldrti- 
torea adventu Caeearis cognitS carroa impedimentaqae saa in 
artiores silvas abdidgmnt, o&piaa omaes in loco edito atque 

10 aperto instruxeinint. Qna t6 nunti&ta Caesar celeriter sarcinas 
conferri, arma expediri inseit. 

1 9. CoUis erat Icniter ab mfimd accllvis. Hnnc ex omni- 
bus fer3 partibnB palus diflScilis atque impedita cingebat non 
latior pedibns qninquaginta. Hoc se colle interruptis ponti- 
bns Galli fiducia loci continebant generatimque distributl om- 

5 nia vada eins paludia obtinebant, hJc animo parati ut, si earn 
paltidem EomanT pemimpere confirentnr, liaeaitaotes preme- 
rent ex loco snperiore; ut qui propinquitatem loci videret par&- 
tOa prope aequo M&rte ad dimieandnm exiatimaret, qui 
inlquitatem condiciOnis perspiceret inani simuUtione s6s€ oe- 

10 tentare cognOsceret. IndignantSa militga Caeaar, quod cdn- 
Bpectum suum bostSa ferre poasent tantulo apatio interiectQ, et 
signum proeli expoacentea edocet quanto detriments et quot 
yirorum fortinm morte necesae sit c6nat§re victoriam : Qn5B 
cum SIC animo paratoB videat ut nullum pro sua laude pericu- 

iB Inm recuaent, summae se iniquitatia condemuari debere, nisi 
eorum vitam laude sua habeat cariorem. Sic milites cousola- 
tuB eodem dig reducit in castra reliquaqne quae ad oppngna- 
ti&nem oppidi pertincbant administrare Institnit. 

20. VercingetoriT, cum ad Bu5a redisaet, pr5ditionis Insim- 
ulatus, quod castra propiua Roman5s mdviaBet, qnod cum omni 
eqnitatii diseesBisset, qnod sine imperio tantas cQpiaB reliquin- 
Bet, quod eiuB discessu Roman! tanta opportunitate et celeritate 

i Tgniaaent: Noo haec omnia fortaito aut sine cOnsilid acoidere 
potuiaae; regnum illnm Galliae malle Caesaris coDceBsn qnam 
ipBdmm habere beneficio — tali modd accueatue ad haec reapon- 


at: Quod caBtrs m&Tisset, factum inopia pabuli etiam ipsis 
hortantibas ; quod propitis Rdrngntja acceeeiBBet, peraaaBum loci 
opportunit&te, qai aS ipse sine munitidne defenderet ; equitum lo 
vSro operam Deque in locd paluBtri desiderari debniBBe et illlc 
fnisse iititem qno sint profectl. Sammam imperi se codbqUo 
Dulli discedentem tradidisse, ne is mnltit&diniB studio ad dlmi- 
candum impelleretnr, cui rei propter animi moUitiem Btndere 
omn^B videret, quod diutias laborem feire non poBBent. Ro- ib 
m&Di Hi caeu interTenerint, fortunae, si alionius iadicio voc&ti, 
haic habendam gratiam, quod et paacitatem e5rniii ex loco 
Buperiore cognflscere et virtfitem dcBpicere potuerint, qui di- 
micare nQn sue! tnrpiter se in castra , recfiperint. Imperium 
se a Oaessre per prOditiCinem nullam deBider&re, quod habere k 
TictAria posset, quae iam eseet sibi atque omnibus GalliB ex- 
plorata; quin otiam ipsis remittere, si sibi magia hondrem 
tribaere quam ab se salutem acoipere videantur. ' Haec ut 
intellegatis,' inquit, 'ft m6 sincere pronunti^i, audite Bdma- 
Qos milites.' Prodfioit servos, qnos in p&balati&ne panels ante » 
diebua exceperat et fame rinculisque excraciaverat. Hi, iam 
ante edocti quae interrogftti prouiiiitiarent, militiJs se esse le- 
gidnarids dicuut; fame et inopia addnctos clam ex castris 
exisae, si quid friiment! aut pecoris in agris reperire possent; 
simjli omnem exercitam inopia premi, nee iam Tir€s sufficere ao 
cninsqnam nee ferre opens labdrem posse; itaqne statnisse im- 
perfttdrem, ai nihil in oppngnatione oppidi prSfgcisset, tridno 
exercitum deducere. ' Haec,' inqnit, ' a m§ beneficia habetis, 
quern proditiOnis insimnlatis ; cnius opera sine Testro sanguine 
tantnm exercitnm victdrem fame paene consumptum videtis ; ss 
quem tnrpiter Bh ex hac fnga recipientem ng qna civitfis suis 
finibns recipiat a mg prdTisnm est.* 

2 1 . Couclamat omnis multitMo et sao mdre armis con- 
crepat, quod facere in ed consnerunt oaias orationem appro- 
bant : Summum esse Vercingetorlgem dncem nee de eias fide 
dabitandum, nee maidre ratiSne bellum administrari posse. 
Statnnnt nt decern milia hominum dglecta ex omnibai copiis e 


in oppidum sabmittantuF, nee aolis Bitarigibns communem 
Balutem committendAm censent, qaod paeae in QO, si id oppi- 
dum retinnisBent, snmmaia victoriae coastare intellegebant. 

22. Singnlari mLlitiiiD nostroram virtuti consilia cninsqne 
modi Galldmm occnrrgbant, at est sammae genus sollertiae 
atqae ad omnia imitanda et efficienda qaae a qaoqne tradnntor 
sptissimnm. Nam et laqaeis falcSs avertgbant, qnfts, cum 

■ destinaverant, tormentis intrdrsus reducSbant, et aggerem 
CDQlculis subtrahgbant, eo scientios, quod apud eds magnae 
sunt ferrariae atque omne genus cnnicul<>rum ndtnm atque 
ilsitatam est. Totum antem mtimm ex omni parte turribue 
contabnlaverant atque has coriia intSzeTant. Tum crdbris di- 

M UTDia noctamiaqne Sruptiouibas ant aggeri ignem inferebant 
aut milites occnpatoB in opere adoriebantnr, et nostramm tor- 
rium altitiidinem, qnantam has cotidifiniis agger expreeserat, 
commissiB suarum tnrrinm malis adaeqnabant, et apertoB cu- 
nlculoB praeustfi. et praeacuta m&t«ria et pice ferrefacta et 

u maximi ponderis eaxiB morabaotur moeaibusque appropinqnare 

23. Uuri aatem omnea Gallic! hac fere fdrma sunt. Tra- 
bes derectae, perpetnae in longitudinem paribus intervaUia, 
distanteB inter ae binoB pedea, in sold collocantnr. Hae rerin- 
oinntur introrsuB et mnlto aggore vestiuntur; ea antem quae 

G diximne ioterralla grandibus in fronte aaxia effercinntar. His 
coUocatis et coagmentatia alius iusnper ordo additnr, nt idem 
illnd intervallum servfitur neque inter a6 contingant trabfia, aed 
paribuB intermiaaia spatiia aiugnlae aingnlia saxis interiectiB 
arte contineantur. Sic deinceps omne opus contexitur, dum 

10 iusta muri altitiida expleatnr. Hoc cnm iu speciem varieta- 
temque opus defdrme ndn est, alteraiB trabibus ao aaxlB, quae 
rectia lineta suda drdinga aerrant, tum ad ittilit&tem et defen- 
sionem urbinm auuimam habet opportnnitfttem, quod et sb 
incendio lapia et ab ariet« materia dgfendit, quae perpetnjB 

u trabibuB pedum quadragenum plerumque introrsna revinctft 
neqne perrumpi neque distrahi potest. 

. ., J ■, Google 


24. His tot rebna impeditft oppngn&tiooe, militSs, cum 
U>t6 tempore frigore et assiduis imbribas tardirentor, tamea 
continent! labAre omnia baec saper&Temnt et diSbus xxv ag- 
gerem latiim pedSs oocxxz, altnm pedSs lxxs ezstrns€nmt. 
Gnm is mumm hostinm paene contingeret, et Gaeaar ad opns B 
cfinsuStudine excnbaret militfiBque hort&retnr n6 quod omninO 
tempuB ab opere intermittergtur, paul& ante tertiam vigiliain 
eat animadversum fumare aggerem, quern cunicnlS bostSs ano- 
cenderant, eddemqne tempore KtH mard cl&mOre aabl&td, daJL- 
bua port!s ab utroque latere turrium SruptiS fiebat; alii facSa w 
atque &ridam m&teriam de mnrO in aggerem ^minna iaciSbant, 
picem reliqnSflqne rfis qnibna ignis excitfirf potest fundSbant, 
ut qod primnm ooonrrergtnr aut cni re! ferrStur anziliumi viz 
ratio iniri poaset. Tamen, quod institutd GaesarlB semper 
duae legionSs pro castris exoubfibant plurSaque partitis tem- u 
poribna erant in opere, oeleriter factum est ut alii gmptionibua 
resisterent, alii turrgs reducerent aggeremque interscinderent, 
omnia vSrA ex castris mnltitudd ad reatingnendum concnf- 

26. Cam in omnibus locia, cdnaumpta iam reliqufi parte 
noctis, pugn&r6tur semperque boetibua spea rictOriae redinte- 
graretnr, e5 mi^, quod denatOs plnteSs turrium TidObant neo 
facile adire apertda ad anxiliaDdnm animadvertebant, sem- 
perque ipBl recentes dgfesais auccederent omaemqne Galliae » 
aalutem in illfl TSstigiQ temporis positam arbitrftrentnr, accidit 
inspectantibuB nSbls quod dignum memori& Tisam praeter- 
eundum ndn eziBtim&Timus. Quidam ante portam oppidi GalluB 
per manna sCbi ac picis trftdit&s gUbas in ignem S regidne 
turns prSiciebat; aoorpifine ab latere dextrfi traiectns exanimfi- to 
tusqne concidit. Hnnc ex proximis uuus iacentem tr&nagresBns 
eddem illo munere fnngSbfitnr; eadem ratione ictu scorpidnia 
exsnim&td ^teri succeaait tertiua et tertio qnartus, nee prina 
ille eat & prdpugnatfiribus racuas relictns locna quam restinctO 
aggere atque omn! parte aubmotiB hostibus finia eat pug- m 
tiandi factns. 

n,„Nr,,j-, Google 


26. Omnia expert! Galli, quod res noUa aocceBserat, pos- 
ters dig cdnsiliom ceperont ex oppido profagere, hortante et 
iabente Vercingetorige. Id eilentid noctis cdnati ndn magna 
iactuT& sndram sese eSect^os gperabant, propteres qaod neqae 

• longg ab oppidd castra Vercingetorigis aberant, et palus per- 
petna, quae intercedSbat, Bdmands ad inseqaeBdam tardab&t. 
lamqne hoc facere noctu apparabant, cum matree familiae 
repeate in pQblicnm procurrgnmt fleatesqne proiectae ad pedes 
saoram omnibus precibos petienmt ne ee et communee libe- 

10 rOs boBtibas ad snpplicium dederent, qaoB ad capiendam ingajn 
naturae et ririnm infirmitas impediret. TTbi eos in eententia 
perst&re ridemnt, quod pUmmque in snmmd pericnld timor 
misericordiam ndn recipit, conclamare et significars de fuga 
Rom&nTs coeperant. Quo timore perterriti Galli, ne ab eqoi- 

tt tatu BomaQ&ram viae praeoccaparentur, consUid destitenint. 

27. PoBterd dig Caesar, promota tarri derectisque operibns 
qnae facere inatitnerat, magno coorto imbri, non inutilem 
banc ad capiendum cdnsiliom tempeetatem arbitratus, qaod 
panlo inoaatius cnst5di^ in m&ro dispOBit&a videbat, suds 

B quoque lauguidiuB in opere Ters&ri iossit et quid fieri vellet 
ostendit; legionibusqne in occulto expeditla, oohortatas ut all- 
quando pro tantis labdribas fructum victoriae perciperent, iis 
qui primi muram ascendissent praemia proposuit militibusque 
signum dedit. 111! subitd ex omnibus partibaa eTolarerunt 

10 murumque celeriter complevgrnnt. 

28. Hostes re nova perterriti, miiro turribusque deiecti, 
in foro ac looia patentioribus cuaeatim constiteruat, hoc 
anlmd, nt, si qua ex parte obviam Teniretur, acie inatriicta de- 
pngn^rent. Ubi aeminem in aequuM locum sese demittere, 

B Bed t6td undique muro circumfnndi Tiderunt,Teriti ne omnino 
apes fugae tolleretnr, abiectis armia ultimas oppidi partes 
continent! impetu petiverunt, paraqne ibi, cum angusto exitu 
portarum se ipsi premerent, a militibus, pars iam egressa por- 
tis ab eqnitibna est interfecta. Nee fuit quisqnam qui praedae 
10 atuderet. Sic et Cenabgnai caede et labdre operia incitati non 


aetAte canfectis, non mnlieribns, non infantibae pepercerimt 
D^nique ex onmi nnmerfi, qui fuit oirciter miliam xl, \i. 
Dccc, qni primd cl&more auditd se ex oppidd eieoenuit, inoa 
lumSs ad Vercingetorigem pervea&ruQt. Quos ille mnlta ian. 
nocte eileutio ex faga excepit, et Teritaa ne qua ia caatrls ex iB 
eorom conoarsu et miaerioordia vnlgl eeditio orer^tor, procul iu 
Ti& dispoaitis familiaribus bhIb prmcipibusqne civitatam dis- 
parandoB duducendosqiie ad buob curarit, quae coiqae cirit&tl 
pars oastromm ab initio obvinerat. 

29. PoBtero die concilio convocfito coasdUtas cohortatns- 
qae eat ne sS admodnm aoimd demitterent Dere pertarb&ren- 
tur incommodd. Non yirtute neqoe iu aciS TicJBse BOmilads, 
Bed artificia qnddam et soieDti& oppugn&ttdais, cnins rei fuerint 
ipsi imperiti. Err&re, ei qui in bello omnes secundoB r6rQm t 
proventua exspectent. Sibt numquam placaisse Avaricam de- 
fendi, caiUB rei testSs ipsda baberet; sed factum impFildenti& 
Biturigam et niinia obeeqnentiS, reliqudrum nti hoc incommo- 
dam accipei^tur. Id tamen se celeriter maioribns commodiB 
Banataram. Nam quae ab reliqule Gallia civitatSB disaeiiti- 10 
rent, hae sua diligentia adiuncturnm atque anum cdoBilinm 
totiuB Galliae effectumm, cniuB oonaeasai d€ orbis quidem 
terramm poaait obeiatere; idque aS prope lam eSectnm habere, 
Interea aeqnnm eaae ab ils communis aalutis cansa impetrari 
ut caatra munire instituereat, qud faciliuB repentinoa bostinm » 
impetus auBtinere possent. 

30. Fnit haeo oratid n6n ingrSta Oallis, et maxima quod 
ipse animo non dsfecerat tantd accepts incommodd neque se in 
OGcultom abdiderat et conspectum muUitudinia fugerat; plua- 
qne animo prdrid^re et praesentire existimabatur, quod r6 
integra primfl incendendum Avaricum, poet d€serendnm cgn- 1 
sueTa':. Itaque ut reliqnfinim imperatdnun r^a adveraae 
auctdritatem minuunt, sic haiua ex contrarid dignit&a incom- 
modd accepto in digs ang&batur. Simul in Bpem veniebant 
eina afOrmatidne d6 reliquis adinngendia civitatibua; primum- 
qae eo tempore Oalli caatra munire inetituerunt; et sic erant 10 


aaimo confinnati homines ioBueti labdris, at omnia qaae impe- 
r&rentnr sibi patienda existimarent. 

31. Neo minas qoam est pollioitus Vsrcingetoriz animO 
labdrabat at reliqnas ciTitates adiangeret, atqne eamm princi- 
pes doaiB pollicitatidDibnsqne alliciebat. Hnic rei idoneos 
homines deligebat, qoornm qoisque ant dratione snbdola ant 

■ amicitia facillim6 capere posaet. Qni Avaricd ezpngnato re- 
fugerant armandds vestienddsqne cnrat; simnl, nt dgminntae 
copiae redintegrarentnr, imperat certnm nnmemm militnm 
ciritatibns, qnem et qnam ante diem in caatra addnci veUt, 
sagittariosque omnea, quomm erat permagnna nnmems in 

)0 Gallia, conqniri et ad se mitti inbet. His rebna celeriter id 
qnod AvaricI deperierat expletar. Interim Tentomatna, Ollo- 
Tioonis fllina, rex !N^itiobrogiun, cnins pater ab senatn nostro 
mnlcuB erat appellatua, cnm magnd nnmero eqaitnm anomm 
et quOa ex Aqnitania condnxerat ad enm perTenit. 

32. Caesar Ararioi complflrga diga commorfttna aammam- 
que ibi cdpiam frnmenti et reliqni commefitas nactna exercitum 
ex labore atqne inopia reficit. lam prope bieme cdnfecta, 
cam ipso anni tempore ad gerendnm bellnm Toc&rgtnr et ad 

i hostem proficiaci constitaisaet, sire earn ex palndibns silyiaqne 
elicere alve obsidione premere poaaet, leg&ti ad earn principgs 
Haedadrum reninnt 5rfitnm at maxime necessarid tempore 
civitati anbveniat: Snmmd esse in periculQ rem, qnod, cam 
siDgoli msgietratas antiqaitns cre&ri atqoe regiam potestatem 

K annnm obtinere cOnsueBsent, dno magiatratam gerant et ae 
nterqne edrum Iggibas creatnm esse dicat. HOram esse 
alteram ConTiotoHtavem, florentem et illastrem adnlSsoentem, 
alteram Cotnm, antiquiBaimS, familia natnm atqne ipaam 
hominem enmmae potentiae et magnae cognatidnis, cnins fr&ter 

■E Valeti^cua proxlmd anno enndem magistr&tnm gesserit. Civi- 
t&tem esse omnem in armia; diTlanm senatum, dirisnm 
populum, an&e cniasqae eoram clieat^las. Quod a! diutias 
alS,tar contrftveraia, fore ati pars cam parte civit&tia confligat. 
Id n§ accidat poaitam in eios dlligentiji atqne aaotfiritfite. 
, . .. .C^KwIc 


33. CaeBar, etsi & bello atqne hoste diacedere detrlmentd- 
aam esse existim&bat, tamen non ignor&ns qnanta ex dissSn- 
Bionibns incommoda oriri conauSsaent, ng tanba et tarn conlunota 
popal6 Rdm&nd ciritAs, qaam ipae semper alaisBet onmibnsqiie 
rSbns drnaaaet, ad vim atqne arma dgscenderet, atqne ea pars *■ 
quae minnB sibi cdntlderet snxilia & Veroingetorige arcesseret, 
haic rei praerertendam existimavit, et, qnod ISgibns Haedn- 
drom lis qni stimmam magiBtrfttum obtinerent exogdere ex 
GnibDB n6n licSret, n5 qnid dg iure aut dfi Ifigibns eomm 
deminniBse vid€retar, ipse in HaedadB proficiBCi ebatmt Bena- w 
tamqae omnem et qaSa inter oontrOverBia eaaet ad Be Decetiam 
^Tocavit. Cum prope omnia olvit&e ed conv^iiiBset docSrSturque, 
panois olam convoc&tie ali6 locfi, alifi tempore atqne oportnerit, 
fr&trem & fr&tre ren^ntifitum, cum Iggea dno ex unft familifi 
TiTd ntrdqae n&n Bdlnm magiatrfituB cre&rl vet&rent, Bed etiam » 
in seu&tii esae prohib€rent, Gotiim imperium dSpdnere coCgit, 
GonTictolittoTem, qni per BaoerdOtSa mdre ciTitatis intermissia 
magiBtr&tiboB easet cre&tna, poteat&tem obtingie inaait. 

34. H5c dSoretd interpoaitd, cohort&tas Haedads nt con* 
trdTersi&rum ac diasfinsiSnia obliTiscerentnr stqne omnibna 
omisalB rgbna bnic belld aerTirent eaqne qnae meraiaaent prae- 
mia ab b6, d€Tict& Qallift, exapeot&rent eqnit&tnmqae omnem et 
peditam milia decem aibi oeleriter mitterent qnae in praeaidiia i 
rei fromentfiriae caaB& diapdneret, exercitum in dnfia partea 
diviait: qoattaor legion^ in SenonSa PariBidaqae LabiSnO 
dncendas dedit, eex ipse in Arrem^ ad oppidnm Get^riam 
Becnndnm flnmen Elaver d&xit ; eqait&t&a partem ill! attriboit, 
partem sibi reliqait. Qq& re oognit& Vercingetorlx, omnibas lo 
intermptis eins fiamiais pontibna, ab alter& fliiminis parte iter 
facere coepit. 

36. Cum aterqne atrimqne esIsBet exercitas, in conspectd 
ferSqne 5 regions Caesaris castra pdnSlnt, dispositis expldr&- 
tdriboB, nScnbi effects ponte Bom&ni c5pi&8 tr&dScerent. Erat 
in magnis GaesaH difflcnltAtibna rSa, ng mai6rem aestfttis par- 
tem flnmine impedirStnr, qnod n6n ferfi ante antamnom » 


El&TBT vadd tr&nsiri Bolet. Itaqae, ne id accideret, eilreetri 
locd castria positia & regione aoius eorum pontitun qnds Ver- 
cingetorix reeciadeudos c&raverat, postero die cum dnabaa 
legionibaa in occulto restitlt; reliqafis copi&s cum omnibaa im- 

10 pedimentia, ut oouaaerat, miait, distractla qaibuadam cohorti- 
bua, at numeraa legionum conetare Tideretar. HIb qnam 
longiaaimg posaent pr5gredi iaaaia, cum iam es di6I tempore 
coniecturam caperet in caatra perrentnm, isdem sablicis, qna- 
rum para inferior Integra remauebat, pontem reficere coepit. 

u Celeriter effecto opere legionibasqae tr^dnctiB et locd caatria 
idoneo dglecto reliqaaa copi&s revocarit. Vercingetorix r6 
oognita, ne contra saam voltmt&tem dinuc&re cdgergtnr, mag- 
nia itineribaa anteoeasit. 

36. Caeaar ex eo loco qnintis caatria Gei^ovlam perrenit 
eqneatriqne eo dig proelio lev! factd, perapectd nrbia sita, quae 
poaita in aLtiaaimS monte onmes aditus dificilgs habsbat, dS 
oppugn&tione desperavit, de obsessione non prins agendnm 
e constitait quam rem frumentariam expedisaet. At Vercinget- 
orix, castns prope oppidom in monte positia, mediocriboB circnm 
sS interv&Uis separatim aingalamm ciyit&tum cdpi&a colloca- 
verat, atqae, omDibua eios iugl collibns occnpatia qua dSspici 
poterat, horribilem speciem praebebat, prlncipesqae earum 

ID civitatum quoa aibi ad consilium capiendnm dglggerat primft 
luce cotidiS ad a8 convenire iubebat, aeu quid communicandum 
aeu quid adminiatrandom rideretur, neqne uUum fere diem in- 
termittebat quin eqaeatri proeliO, interiectia aagittarila, quid 
in quoque esaet animi ac virtutia Budmm periclitar^tur. Erat 

IS 6 regione oppidi collia anb ipsiB radicibna montia Sgregie mu- 
nituB atque ex omnI parte circamcisus; quern a! tenerent noa- 
tri, et aqua magnam partem "bt pftbul&tidne libera prohibitari 
hoatea vidgbantur. Sed ia locuB praesidid ab hia non infirmo 
ten^batur. Tamen ailentio noctia Caesar ex caatiia egresaos, 

30 prinsquam anbaidio ex oppidd veniri posaet, dgiecto praesidid, 
potitua loco, duas ibi legidnea ooUocavit foaaamqae dnpUcem 
duodenam pednm a maidribna caatris ad miadra perdnxit, at 


tuto ab repentind boatium iQcnrau etiam singnll commeare 

37.' Dnm haec od Oergoviam gerantur, ConTictoUtaTiB 
Haednus, cni magiatratnm adiudicatam a Caesare demonstraTi- 
muB, Bollicitatna ab ArverniB pecunia cum qnibnadam adule* 
acentibuH coUoqnitnr, qaorum erat piinceps Litavicctis atqne 
eius fratreB, amplisaimfi familia nati adulescentSs. Cam bis > 
praemium communicat boitatnrqae ut se liberda et imperid 
D&tos memiiiermt : Cnam ease Haedaoram civit&t«m quae cer- 
ttBsimam Galliae Tictoriam dutineat; eias anctdritate reliqnaa 
contiQ€ri; qa& tr&dact& locnm cdnaiatendi BomaniB in Oalli& 
d6q fore. Ease aOn nullo so Caesaris beneficio affectum, sic lo 
tamen ut iflstiaaimam apad earn causam obtinuerit; eed pina 
commitm libertati tribuere. Cur enim potius Haedai de ead 
iure et d€ ISgibas ad Caeaarem diBceptat&rem qnam ROm&ni ad 
HaeduOs veniaot? Celeriter adulescentibuB et dratidne magis- 
tratus et praemi6 dgductis, cum sg tcL priacipeB eius coubIU is 
fore profitgrentur, ratio perficiendi quaerebatur, qnod civitS- 
tem temere ad aoacipiendum bellum adduci posse dSd confide- 
bant. Placuit at Litariccus decem illia milibtia quae Caesari 
ad bellum mitterentur praeGceretnr atqae ea duceods curaret, 
fr&trSaque eius ad Caeaarem praeonrrerent. Reliqoa qua rati- to 
Oae agi placeat constituunt. 

38. Litavlccus accepto exercitfl, cam milia passoum circi- 
ter xxz a 6ergovi& abesset, coavocatis subito mllitibuB lacri- 
mans, 'Quo profioiaoimor,' inquit, 'militea? Omnis noBter 
equitataa, onmia nobUlt&s interiit ; principea civitatia, £pore- 
dorix et YiridomaroB, Tnsimnl&ti proditiduis ab Eomania indicta s 
causa iuterfecti sunt. Haec ab bis cognoscite, qui ex ipsa 
caede eSugerunt ; nam ego, fr&tribua atqne omnibus meia pro- 
pinquis interfeotis, dolore prohibeor quae gesta aant pronun- 
tiare.' Frdducuntnr ii qufiB ille edocuerat quae dici vellet, 
atque eadem quae Litavioona prouuntiaTerat multitudini expo- it 
nunt: OmnSa eqnltea Ilaedadrum interfectoa, quod ooUocuti 
cum ArTcmia dioerentnr ; ipsoa Be inter multitudinem militum 


occDltasae atque ex medii caede effugiBse. Goacl&mant Haednl 
et LitaTiccum obBecranfc ut sibi conaulat. ' Quasi vero,' inqnit 

16 ille, ' cSnaili ait res, ac non cecesBe ait ndbis (Jergoviam con- 
tendere et cum Arremis ndsmet coniongere. An dabit&mna 
qnin nefSrid facinore admissS Rdmfini iam ad nds iuterficien- 
dOs concorrant? Proinde, b! qnid in nSbis animi est, perse- 
qnfimar e5rum mortem qni indignisBime interienint, atqne hfis 

to latroueB interficiamns. ' Oatendit cTves Rdmanoa, qui eins 
praeBidI fldflcia ■ana erant; continuo m^nnm numerum frii- 
menti commeatuaque diripit, ipaSs crddeliter eicrnciatos in- 
terficit, K^untida tota cmt&te Haedndmrn dimittit, eddem 
mend^cio de caede eqnitnm et principnm pennoTet; hort&- 

a tur nt aimili ratione atque ipae fficerit suaa iniuriaB perae- 

39. Epor6donx Haednna, enmrnS loco natus adulescena et 
Bummae domi potentiae, et nn3, ViridomaruB, pari aetate et 
gr&ti&. Bed genere dispari, qnem Caesar ab Diviciaco Bibi tr&- 
ditnm ex bnmili ]oc5 ad Bummani dignitatem perduzerat, in 

s eqnitnm >iumer& convenerant n5ming,tim ab eo evocati. Hia 
erat inter bS dS princip&tn contentio, et in ilia magistratnum 
contrdveraia alter pro GonTictolitave, alter pro 0ot5 anmmia 
opibuB paguaTerant. Ex his Eporedorix coguitd Litavicc! 
cdnsilio media ferg nocte rem ad Gaeaarem defert; drat nS 

10 patittnr civitatem previa adulSacentinm conailiiB ab amioitia 
populi Kom&Ql deficere; quod futurum provideat, Bi ae tot 
hominnm milia cnm hoatibua coniunxerinfc, qnCmm aalutem 
neque propinqni neglegere neque cIvitftB levl mftmentfi aeati- 
mare poaait. 

40, Magna affectaa aollicitudine hoc uQnbid Gaeaar, qood 
aemper Haednorum cTvitati praecipnS iudnleerat, nfillft inter- 
poaita dubitatidne legi&nga expeditaa qnattnor equit&tnmque 
omnem ex castria gducit, nee fnit apatium tfili tempore ad 

B contrahenda caatra, qnod rea poaita in celeritate vidgb&tnr ; 0. 
Fabium l^gatum cum legiSnibna duabua caatris praeaidid relin- 
qnit. Fr&tres LitaTiocI cum compreheadi inBslBBet, paold ante 


reperit ad hostgs profugisse. Adhort&tos militgg nfi necess&riO 
tempore itineris labdre permoreantur, cupldlBBitoIs omnibus, 
prdgressua milia passunm sxr agmen Haednfiram cdnspic^tnr; la 
immissd equitatu iter eorum moriltar atqne impedit interdicit- 
qae omnibas ne quernqnam interficiant. Eporedorigem et 
Viridomarum, qada ill! interfectSs exlatimfirbant, inter eqaitSs 
Tersar! 8u5aque appellSre iubet. His cognitia et Litaricci 
fraude perspecta Haedui maiius tendere, dsditionem Bigniflcare is 
et proiecCis armis mortem dgprec&rl incipiunt. Litaviccus cam 
suis cllentibaa, quibuB mdre Galldrum nef9,B est etiam in ex- 
trema fortunA dgserere patrdndB, Gergoviam profiigit. 

4 1 . Caesar nuntiia ad civitfitem Eaednornm missis qui Ba5 
bene&cio conservatos docerent, quds iure belli interficere 
potuLsset, tribusque horiB exercitai ad qnietem datis castra ad 
Gergoviam movet. Medio fere itinere equites & Fabid miss! 
quauto res in periculd fuerit exponunt. Summia copiis castra s 
oppngn^ta demonstrant, cum orebr5 integri defesala auccede- 
rent nostrosque assidud labore defatigfirent, quibus propter 
magnitudinem caBtrOmm perpetuo esset isdem in vallo per- 
manendum. Moltitiidine aagittftrum atqne omni genere telo- 
mm multoa vuluer&toe; ad haec Bustinenda magno usui fuisBe lo 
tormenta. Fabium disceBSfi eorum dnabus relictis portia 
obatrnere ceteraa pluteoBqne vallo addere et se in poBterum 
diem similemqne casum appariire. His rebus oognitie Caesar 
snmmd studio militnm ante ortum aolia in castra pervenit. 

42. Dum haee ad Gergoviam genmtur, Haedui primis 
nuntils ab Litavicco acceptia nuUam aibi ad cognoacendum 
Bpatinm relinquunt. Impellit alios avaritia, alios Iracundia et 
temeritas, qoae maxime illl hominnm geneii eat innata, ut 
levem auditidnem habeant pro re comperta. Bona oivium s 
Bfimandrum diripiunt, caedes facinnt, in servitutem abatra- 
hunt. Adiuvat rem proclinatam Convictolitavia plebemque 
ad furijrem impoUit, nt facinore admisso ad sanitatem revert! 
pndeat. M. Aristinm, tribunum militum, iter ad legiongs fa- 
oientem fide da ;& ex oppido CavUlono edacunt ; idem facere lo 


cOgunt e58 qui negotiandJ cansa ibi constiterant. Hob con- 
tinuS in itinere adorti omnibus impedimentiH exnunt; repog- 
nantga diem noctemqne obsident; maltis ntrimqne interfectis 
maiorem multitudinem ad arma concit:ant. 

43. Interim nuntio allato omnes eorum militee in potestate 
CaeBarig teneri, concurrunt ad Ariatium, nihil publico factum 
conailio demonstraut; qnaestlonem de bonis direptis deceraant, 
Litaviccj fratrumque bona pubticant, legatoa ad Caesarem anl 

i purgandl grfitia mittnnt. Haec facinnt recuperandQram anO- 
mm canaa; Bed cont&min&ti facinore et capti compendia ex 
direptis boniB, gnod ea rSa ad malt&s pertinSbat, et timore 
poenae exterriti cdnsilia clam d6 belld inire incipiant ciTitateB- 
qne reliqnaa Ugationibas sollicitant. Quae tametsi Caesai 

10 intelleggbat, tamen quam mitiasime potest legatoa appellat: 
Kihil se propter inscientiam levitatemque Tulgl gravius d6 
civitate iiidicare neqne de ana in Haednos benevolentiS. demin- 
nere. Ipse maiorem Galliae mdtnm exspectans, ng ab omnibus 
ciritatibns circnmsisteretur, consilia inibat quem ad modom a 

u OergOTia discederet ac rursus omnem exercitum contraheret, 
ne profectio nata & timore defectionis similisque fugae vide- 

44. Haec cogitanti accldere viaa est f acultaa bene gerendae 
rel. Nam cum in minora caatra operia perspicieadi caaaa 
Teniaaet, animadvertit coUem qui ab hoBtibns tenebAtur nuda- 
tum hominibus, qui Bnperioribus diebus tiz prae maltitudine 

G oemi poterat. Miratns qnaerit ex perfngia cansam, qudrum 
magnuB ad eum cotidiS nnmerns cdnfluSbat. Cdnst&bat intei 
omnes, quod iam ipae Caeaar per espldrdtdrSs cogn&rerat, 
dorsum esae etuB iugi prope aeqnum, Bed silveatre etangastum, 
qua eaaet aditns ad alteram partem oppidi; vehementer haic 

Id illoa loco timers nee iam aliter sentlre, uno colle ab Romanis 
occnpatd, 81 alterum amisissent, qnin paene circnmvallati atque 
omni exitu et pabulatione interclusi rideientnr; ad buna 
mQniendnm locum omnea a Vercingetorige evoc&tos. 

45. Hao re oognita Caesar mittit compldrSs eqnitum tai> 


mis ed dg media, nocte ; imperat ut paulo tumnltnoBius omnibus 
locis perrageiitar. Prima luce magnam nnmerum impedl- 
mentdrum ex castris muldrumque prodnci deque his etrimenta 
dgtrahi muUon^Bque cum caseidibns equitam specie ac simnla- * 
tione collibuB circnmTehi inbet. His pancos addit equites, qoi 
latiaa oateotationiB caiiBa vagentar. Longo circuitu e^sdem 
omnes iubet petere regioues. Haec procnl ex oppidd vide- 
bantnr, at erat & Gergovia despectoB in castra, neqne tanU> 
Bpatio certi quid esset explOraii poterat. Legidnem decimam » 
eddem luce mittit et paulum progressam inferidre constitnit 
loco silviBque occnltat. Augetnr 0-alliB BOBpioio, atqne omngs 
illo ad munitionem copiae triLducnntur. Vacna castra hoatium 
Gaeaar couBpicatna, tectia inaignibuB anoram occnlt&tTsque Big- 
niB militaribuB, laros milites, ng ex oppido animadverterentiir, u 
ex maioribas caatris in minora tradiicit legfttiaque, qnoa singulis 
legionibua praefecerat, quid fieri velit ostendit; in primis 
monet nt coutineant milit^s, ne stndiS pugnaodi aut spS 
praedae longius progrediantnr ; quid iniquitas loci habeat in- 
oommodi proponit: Hoc ^nS, celerit^te posse vlt&ri; occ^iOnis w 
ease rem, uon proeli. His r€bus expositis aignnm dat et ab 
dextrS parte alio aBc€nB& eodem tempore Haednoa mittit. 

46. Oppidi m&rna & pl&nitie atqae initio ascensua r£ct& 
regifine, si nullus infrjlctua intercederet, nee paaaus aberat; 
quicquid hue circuitus ad molliendum clivum accesaerat, id 
spatinm itineria auggbat. A medid fer€ coUe in longitudinem, 
ut natura montis fergbat, ex gnmdibus saxis aex pedum mQrum, s 
qui nostrorum impetnm tardaret, praeduxerant Oalli atque in- 
feriore omni apatio vacuO relictd anperiorem partem oollia naque 
ad murum oppidi dgnsiBsimis castris complgreraat. Militga 
datd aigno celeriter ad munitionem perreniunt eamqne trans- 
gresai trinia caatiia potiuntur ; ac tanta f nit in castiis capiendis lo 
eeleritas nt Tentomatus, rex Nitiobrogum, snbitfi in taberna- 
eul5 oppresBiiB, ut meridie conqui5verat, superidre corporia 
parte nQda, vulneratfl eqno, rix ae ex manibas praedantiam 
milUum griperet. 



47. Cdnaecutiu id quod animQ prdpoaaerat, Caeaar ra- 
ceptni cani inasit, legidnisque decimae, quacum erat, continno 
aigna cdDBtitgrnot. At reliqnaram legioQum militga ndn an- 
dit5 Bond tubae, qaod satis magna valles intercedgbat, tamen 

« a tribunis militum Ugatisqae, nt erat a Gaesare praeceptum, 
retinebantur. 8ed Slat! ape celeris victdriae et hoetinm foga 
et superidrum temporum secandis proeliia nihil adeo ardnnm 
sibi ease exiatimftbant qaod non virtute consequi poaaent, neque 
finem priua sequendl fSc^runt quam miiro oppidi portiaque 

10 appropinqafimnt. Turn rgro, ex omnibna urbia partibna ortd 
clamdre, qni longina aberant repentind tamnltu perterriti, cum 
hostem intra portas esse ezistimarent, a@ ez oppido eiScgrunt. 
Matr^s familiae de muro vestem argentumque iactabant et 
pectore nndd promiuentes passia manibus obtestabantnr Rd- 

11 manoa nt sibi parcereut neu, aicat Ararici fecissent, ug a 
mulieribns quidem atque infantibae abs tine rent ; non nullae d€ 
muro per manus demissae sesS militibus tr&debant. L. Fabius, 
centurid legidnis octarae, qnem inter auds eo die dixisse c5a- 
stabat ezcitari aS Avaricensibua praemiis neque commiaaaram 

K nt prins quisquam murum asoenderet, trSs suoa nactus manipu- 
larga atqae ab iis BublevatuB muram aecendit; hos ipse rurana 
aingulos exceptans in murum extultt. 

48. Interim i! qui ad alteram partem oppidi, nt auprA 
dSmdnstravimus, munltionis caas& conTenerant, primo exandltd 
cHmdre, inde etiam crebria nuntiiB incitati oppidnm a Bomanls 
teQ§ri, praemissiB equitibus magno curau eo conteaderunt. 

G Edrum nt quiaque primua venerai, aub muro consiatebat sno- 
rumque pugnantium numerum augebat, Qndrum cum magna 
multitudo convenisBet, matreB familiae, quae paulo ante 
Bomanis de muro mantis tendebant, auds obtestSxi et more 
Gallicd paseum capillum ostentare liberoBque in conspectum 
10 prBferre coepenint, Erat Romania nee loco nee numerfi aeqna 
contentid; simul et curau et spati5 pugnae defatigati nfln facile 
recentSs atque integroa anatinebant. 

49. Caesar cum iniqno loco pugoart hoatiumqae ^pifta 


angSrl vidSret, praemetaens Bala ad T. Sextiam l§g&tam, qaem 
mindribua castris praesidid reliqaerat, misit ut cohortga ax 
castria celeriter educeret et sub infimo colle & dextrS latere 
hostium coQstitaeret, nt, si Dostrds locd depulsos Tidisset, qaO- B 
minus libere hostes Insequerentnr terreret. Ipse panlom ez 
80 loco cum legione prdgressas nbi coiiBtiterat gventnm pugnae 

50. Cam acerrimg comminoB pngnaretnT, host^B locS et 
Damero, nostri Tirtute confiderent, Bubitd Bunt Haedoi tibI ab 
latere nostris aperto, quos Caesar ab dextr& parte alio asc^Dsu 
manus distioeDdae causA miserat. Hi similitiidiQe armdrnm 
Tehemeiit«r nostroa perterruernnt, ao tametai dextria ameris s 
exsertis auimadvertebantur, quod insigne pac&toram esse o6n- . 
suerat, tamen id ipsum sui fallendi cansa milites ab boatibns fac> 
tum exiatimabant. Eddem tempore L. Fabins centurift quiqae 
jina mumm aacenderant oiroamventi atqae iaterfecti d5 milrO 
praecipitabantnr. M. Petronius, eiasdem legionis centurid, lo 
cum portaa excidere conatus esaet, a multitudine oppresans ao 
aibi desp^rana, mnltia iam ruliieribna acceptis, manipuUribos ' 
aniat][ui ilium aeciiti erant, *Quomam,' inquit, 'm€ un& rdbiB- 
cum aerv&re noa posaam, vestrae qaidem certe vitae prospiciam, 
qnoa cnpidit&te glome adduotna in periculum dedilxi. VOs u 
data facnlt&te Tobis coasulite.* Simul in medioa hoateB irrnpit 
daobuBqne interfectia reliquoa & port& paulum submovit, 
Conantibas aosilifiri auTs, 'Fruatrfi,' inquit, 'meae vltae aub- 
renire coD&miai, qaem iam sanguis virfiaque deficiunt. Froinde 
abite, dum eat facult&s, rusque ad legidnem recipite.* Ita tt 
pugnfins post paulum concidit ac suis saluti fuit. 

01. Koatri, com andique premerentur, XLvi centori^nibaB 
Smiasia deiecti aunt locd. Sed intolerantins Qallds iosequen- 
tcB legio decima tardavit, quae pro subsidid pauld aequiore locd 
cdnatiterat. Hanc ruraus tertiae decimae legidnis cohortga 
- excgpgrunt, quae ex castria minoribus eductae cum T. SextiS s 
legato cgperant locum auperiorem. Legioues, ubi primum 
planitiem attigeruot, Infeatis contra hoates eigiuB cfinatitSnuit. 

: .Google 


Vercingetorlx ab radicibns collis 8u6b intra, muDitionSs red&xit. 
Ed diS militgs Bunt paald minnB Beptingenti desiderati. 

52. PoBterd die Caesar cdntidne adrocata temerit&tem 
cupiditatemqae mllitnm reprehendit, quod Bibi ipsi iudic&vis- 
sent qno prdcSdendnm ant quid agandum videretur neqne 
signo recipiendi dat5 cdnstitiBBeut neqne Sl tribiinis militnm 

5 leg&tiBque retineri potaisBent. Exposuit quid inlquitas loci 
posset, quod ipse ad Avaricum senaisaet, cum sine dnce et 
sine equit&tn dSprehSnsIs hoBtibus osplor&tam rictdriam di- 
misisset, ng parmm modo detrimentum in contentions prop- 
ter iniquitatem loci sccideret. Quantopere eorum aniini 

JO magnitudinem admir&retur, qnfis ndn castrdrum munitiones, 
nfin altitndd montis, non mnrns oppidi tar dare potnia- 
set, tantopere licentiam arrogantiamqne reprehendere, quod 
plus b€ qnam imperatdrem dS Tictdrifi atqne exitu rerum Ben- 
tire existimJlrent; nee minus Bg a milite modestiam et con- 

tG tinentiam qnam rirtutem atque animi magnitudinem desi- 

S3: Hac habita cOnti&ne et ad extrgmnm confirmiltiB mili- 
tibuB, ne ob hanc causam animd permoTgrentur neu, quod in- 
IquitaB loci attuliBset, id rirtuti hostium tribnerent, eadem de 
profectione cogitans quae ante sSnserat, legiones ex CBBtris 

» gduxit aciemque idOneo locd constituit. Gum Vercingetorlx 
nihilo magis in aequum locum descenderet, levl facto equoBtri 
proelio, atque eO secundo, in caatra exercitnm redfirit. Cum 
hoc idem poeterfi die feciBset, Batia ad Gallicam ostentitionem 
minuendam militumque animOB cOnflrmandos factum exiati- 

10 mana in Haeduos mdvit caatra. N€ turn qnidem inseciitis 
hostibns, tertio die ad flumen Elaver venit; pontem refecit ex- 
ercitnm que tradaxit. 

04. Ibi a Viridomaro atque Eporedorlge Haeduia appelU- 

tus discit cum omnI equit&tu Litaviccum ad eollicitandos Hae- 

duoB profectnm : Opus esse ipsoa antecSdere ad cfinflrmandam ' 

civitatem. Etri multia iam rSbuB perfidiam Haeduomm per- 

s spectam habebst atque h&mm disoessii matfir&ri defeotiOnem 

: .Coo>;Ic 


eivit&tis exiBtim&bat, tamen eoa retiDendos nfin cgnenit, nS ant 
iD^erre iniuriam ridgrgtar ant daret timorie aliquam eosplcid- 
nem. DiscSdentibaa iia breviter sua in Kaednda merits expo- 
suit, qads et qnam hnmilSa accCpisset, compulaos in oppida, 
mnlt&t&B agris, omnibua greptis sociis imposito stipendid, ob- to 
sidiboB sarnm^ cnm cootamelii extortis, et quam in fortunam 
quamqne in amplitudinem duxieset, nt udn a&lnm in priatinnm 
Blatum redissent, sed omnium tempornm dignitatem et gra- 
tiam antecessisse Tiderentnr. H!s datis mandgtiB eds ab eg 
dimisit. It 

65. NoTiod&nnm erat oppidnm Haedaornm ad ripas Li- 
gerig opportune locd positum. Hflc Caesar omnSa obsides 
Oalliae, frflmentnm, pecuniam pablicam, suorum atque exerci- 
t6a impedlmentdriiin magnam partem oontnlerat ; hue magnnm 
numerum eqndrum haias belli cans^ in Itali& atque IIiBp£ini& b 
coemptum miaerat. E6 cum EporSdorix Viridomamaqne Te- 
nissent et d5 statu cmtatia cognflvisBent, Litaviccum Bibracte 
ab Haeduia receptnm, quod eat oppidum apad e6s maximae 
auctoritatis, Convictolitavem magiBtritum magnamque partem 
sengtus ad enm convenisBe, legatoa ad Vercingetorigem d6 lo 
paoe et amicitia concilianda pnblicg miaads, nQn praetermitten- 
dum tantum commodum exiatimavernnt. Itaque interfectis 
fi^ovioduni cuBtodibua qnique ed neg5tiandi causa convenerant, 
pecaniam atque equoB inter ae partiti Bunt ; obsidgs elTitatum 
Bibracte ad magiBtratum deducendos curargrunt; oppidum, is 
quod a se teneri non poBse iudicabant, ne cut OBset usuT Ro- 
manis, incenderunt ; {rumenti quod aubito potuerunt navibns 
aTexgrunt, reliqunm flumine atque incendio corrQperunt. IpsI 
ex finitimlB regidnibus copiaa cogere, praesidia cuatddiasque 
ad ripaa Ligeris disponA'e, eqaitatumque omnibus locTs inici- ao 
end! timdris cauaa oatentare coepgrunt, si ab rS frumentarii, 
Bomanda excl^dere posaent. Quam ad spem multnm eos ad- 
invabat, quod Liger ex nivibua cruverat, ut omnind Tado non 
poBBO tranalrl yiderfitar. 

B6. Quibus rSbus cognitia CaeBar maturandnm sibi o6n- 


snit, si «8set in perficiendls pontibna periclitandnm, at priiu- 
qnam eaaent maidrSs ed cototae cdpiae dimicaret. Nam a6 
Gommutald cdosUid iter in prdvinciam conrerteret, nt aon 

t nemO tnm qoidem necess^rid faciendam existimabat, cnm in- 
famia atqae indignitaa rei et oppositus mona Cebenna Tiarnm- 
qne difficoltae impediebat, tam maxima qaod abiunctd LabiSod 
atqae iis legionibus quas una miserat Tehementer timSbat. 
Itaque admodum magula diumTe noctaraiaque itineribaa cdo- 

10 fectia oontril omoiam oplnioneni ad Ligerim vfinit vadQqae per 
eqoitga inTeato pro rel necessitate opportuno, nt braccbia mode 
atqne omeri ad suBtineada arma liberi ab aqna esse poasent, 
dispoeito eqaitstu qui vim fiuminis refringeret atque boetibas 
primo aspectn pertarbatis, inoolnmem exercitum tradnxit fra- 

15 mentamqae in agris et pecoris odpiam nactas repletd his rSbas 
exercitu iter in Senones facere Institait. 

67. Dum baeo apad Caesarem gerantur, Labienas, ed sap- 
plemeatd qaod nQper ex Italia renerat relicts Agedinci, at 
esset impedimeatis praesidio, cam qaattuor legidnibas Latetiam 
proficlscitar. Id est oppidnm Parisioram, positnm in insala 
s flumiois Seqaanae. Caiae adrenbu ab hostibae ct^nito mag- 
nae ex finitimla civitatibua copiae coavenemnt. Summa im> 
peri traditur Camnlogeno Aalerco, qui prope cdnfeotas aetate 
tamen propter singalarem Bcientiam rei militaria ad earn est 
honorem evocataB. Is cam animadvertisaet perpetnam esse 

10 paludem qoae inflneret in Sequanam atqne ilium omnem locam 
magnopere impediret, hie conaedit nostrosqae transitu prohi- 
bere institsit. 

58. LabiSnuB primd Tine&B agere, cratibus atque aggere 
paludem explere atque iter munire coD&b&tnr. Postquam id 
difficilius fieri aoioiadvertit, ailentid i castris terti& vigilia 
ggresBus, eddem qufl venerat itinere MetioBednm pervenit. Id 
s est oppidnm Senonnm in Insula Seqaanae positum, at paulo 
ante de Lutetia dixlmna. DgprehensiB n^vibus circiter qnln- 
quaginta celeriterque coniiinctis atque eO militibna impoaitis 
et rei novitate perterritis oppidaais, qaSrum magna pars erat 


ad bellnm gvocata, sine contentione oppidd potltar. Refecto 
ponte, qnem snperioribas diebns hoetes resciderant, exercitam lO 
traducit et seonndo flumine ad Lutetiam iter facere coepit. 
HosteB, re cognita ab lis qui Hetioe^do fagerant, Lutetiam in- 
cendi pootesque eiuB oppidi rescind! iubent; ipsi profecti & 
palude in rip& Sgqnanae 6 regione Latetise contr& XiabignT 
caatra considant. is 

69. lam Caesar & Qergovia discessisse aadisbatnr, iam d6 
Haedaornm defectidne et secnndo Oalliae mdtu rumSres aSere- 
bantar, Galliqne in colloqails interclusum itinera et Ligeri 
Gaesarem inopiil frumenti co&ctum in prdvinciam contendisse 
confirmabant. BelloTaci antem defectione Haednorum cognit&, e 
qui iam aote erant per se infideles, manua cdgere atqne apertg 
bellum par&re coep^runt. Turn Labienus tant& rerum com- 
mutatlone longe aliud sibi capiendnm conailium atque antea 
senaerat intellegebat, neqne iam ut aliquid acquiroret proelio- 
que hostes laceeseret, sed nt incolumem exercitum Agedincnm lo 
reduceret cogit&bat. Namque altera ex parte Bellovaol, qnae 
ciTitae in GalliA maximam habet opinifinem virtfitis, Inst&bant, 
alteram Camulogeaus paratd atqno instrQotQ exercitu tenebat; 
torn legiongs & praeeidio atque impedimentis interclaa&s maxi- 
mnm flamen distinSbat. Tantis Bubit5 difficultatibus obiectis is 
ab animi virtute anxilium petendum videbat. 

60. Itaque snb vesperum consilio conTooatS, cohortatns ut 
ea qnae imperasset diligenter industrieque admiaistrarent, 
navSs, qn&s Metiosedd dedoserat, singular equitibus Romania 
attribnit et prima cdnfect& vigilia qnattuor milia passuum 
secnndo flfimine silentio prdgredi ibiqne Be exapectare inbet. » 
Quinqne cohortes, quas minime firmfLs ad dimicandum ease ex- 
iatimabat, caatrie praesidio relinquit; quinqne eiusdem legionia 
reliqnas dfi rnedi^ nocte cum omnibna impedi^)enti8 adverso 
flOmine magnd tumultn proficiaci imperat. Conqnirit etiam 
lintr^a ; has magnO sonitii remorum incitataa in eandem partem lo 
mittit. Ipae post paulS silentio egressns cnm tribua legionibna 
enm locnm petit quo navga appelli inaaerat. 


61. Ed cum esset Tentnm, expldrfttdres hostimn, nt omni 
fluminis parte erant dispoeiti, inopTnanteB, quod magna subitO 
erat coorta tempestas, a nostria opprimnntnr ; exercitns eqaita- 
tasque equitibus BomaniB administrantibne, qnos ei uegotio 

E praefecerat, celeriter transmittitur. XJn6 fere tempore sub 
lucem hostibos nuntiatiir in castris Bdm^norum praeter cod- 
euetudinem tumuUa&ri, et magnam Ire agmen advereo flumine 
sonitumquo rgmumm in eadem parte esaudirl, et paald infra 
militgs navibns transportari. Qaibns rebna auditia, qnod 

10 ezistimabant tribus locis transire legioneB atque omnes pertur- 
batoa defectidne Haedudrnm fugam parfire, Buis qnoqoe cdpiae 
in tres partes distribngrnnt. Nam praesidid e regidne castru- 
ram relicto, et parra manu MetioB^dnm versna misBg. quae 
taotum prOgrederetar quantum n&vga processissent, reliquas 

15 cApifie contra Labi^num duxernnt. 

62. Prima luce et nostri omn§8 erant transportati et 
hoetium acies cerneb&tur. Labienns, militeB cohortatne ut 
suae pristinae virtutis et Becundissimdrum proeliorum retine- 
rent memoriam atque ipsum CaeBarem, cuius ductu eaepe 

E numerd hoates Buperasaeut, praesentem adeBae exiatimarenfc, 
dat aignum proeli. Primo concursu ab dextro cornu, nbi 
aeptima legio cofiatiterat, hoatea pelluntur atque ia fngam 
coniciuntur; ab sinistro, quem locam duodecima legio tengbat, 
cum primi ordings hoatium transfix! pilia concidiasent, tamen 
10 acerrime reliqui reaiat^bant, nee dabat auapici&nem fngae quis- 
qnam. Ipae dux hoatium Camulogenus auia aderat atqae eda 
cohortabatur. Incerto etiam nunc exitii victoriae, cum aep- 
timae legionis tribunia eaaet niintiatum quae in ainiatro oorn& 
gererentur, post tergum hoatium legidnem ostenderant aignaque 

16 intulerunt. NS eo quidem tempore quisquam locd ceaait, aed 
circumTenti omnes interfectiqae aunt. Eandem fort&nam tulit 
CamulogenUB. At ii qui in praeaidid contra caatra Labieni 
erant relicti, cum proelium commiasum audiaaent, aubsidio 
aula ierunt collemque ceperunt, neque noatromm militum 

10 victBrum impetum austinere potuerunt. Sic cum auia fagien- 


tibuB permixti, qads ntn eilvae montesque tSxerunt, ab. 
eqaitfttb siiDt interfecti. H6c negotio confectd Labignna re- 
vertitar Agedincnm, iibi impedimenta totiuB exercitua relicts 
erant; inde cam omnibaa c&piia ad Caeaarem pervgnit. 

63. Dgfectione HaeduOmm coguit& bellum aug6tar. 
LSgatidnSa in omngg partga circnmmittuntnr; qoantam 
gr&tiS, anctdritat«, pecunia valent, ad soIlicitandlU civit&tea 
nltantar; nacti obaidSa qnda Caeaar apnd e6s dgposnerat, 
iL&rnm anppliciO dubitantGa territant. Petnnt a Vercingetorlge e 
Haedai at ad b6 veniat ratidnesqae belli gerendi commnnjcet. 
fie impetratii contendant at ipsis aumma imperi tr&datnr, et 
t€ in aontrOveraiam dsdaotfi totina Galliae conciliam Bibract« 
indicitar. Gonveiiiaiit nndiqoe fraqaentSs. Moltitudinia aaf- 
fr&giis res permittitar; ad unam omnSs Verciagetorigem lo 
probaat imper&torem. Ab hfic conoilio RSmT, Litigonga, 
Treverl ifnerant: ill!, qnod amicitlam Rfim&Ddrum seqagban- 
tar; Treverl, qaod aberant longiua et & Oermanis premeban- 
tur, quae fuit caaaa quare tdtd abeaaent bello et neatris auxilia 
mitterent. Uagn6 dolore Haedai fenrnt ah deiecboe principatu, u 
qaeruDtnr fortanae commut&tidnem et Caesaria iadalgentiam 
in afi requirnnt, neqne tamen BuaceptS belI6 sunm conailiam ab 
reliquiB a€par&re audent. Inviti summae spei aduleacentda, 
Eporgdorix et ViridomarHa, Vercingetorigi parent. 

64. Ille imperat reliquis ciritatibas obsidSa diemque ei rei 
cdnatituit. Omngs eqnitga, quindecim milia numerd, celeriter 
convenire iubet; peditata quem antea habaerit sS fore coiiten- 
turn dicit, neque fortnnam temptaturnm ant acie dimic&turnm; 
sed, qaoniam' abundet eqnitatii, perfacile esse factii fr&ment&- a 
iionibna pabulatio nib usque Romanos prohibere; aequd mode 
animo sua ipsi frumenta corrnmpant aedificiaque incendant, 
qua rei familiaria iactura perpettiiim imperium libertfitemque 
se conaeqni yideant. His constitiitia rebne Uaednis SeguaiJl- 
visque, qui aunt flnitimi provinciae, decern mIlia peditum lo 
imperab; hue addit eqnitga octingentda. His praeficit friitrem 
£por€dorigis bellumque iaferre Allobrogibos iabet. Alterft '- 

, CoooAc 


parte Gabalds proximdsqDe pagos ArvernorDin in Helvids, item 

ButSnoB Cadurcdsqne ad fines Yolcarum Arecomicorum de- 
ls popnlandoB mittit. N'ihilo minns claiidestlnis nnntiis leg&tio- 

nibQBqoe AllobrogSB sollicltat, qoornm mentea noiidum ab 
■ soperiore bell6 resedisae Bperabat. Horum priocipibne peeii- 

niaB, civitati autem imperinm totins provinciae pollicetnr, 

65, Ad hoa omnea casus proviaa eraut praesidia cohortiam 
duarnm et viginti, qnae ex ipsa coacta proTincia ab L. Caeeare 
legato ad omnea partes opponfibantur. Holvil su& aponte cum 
finitimis proelio congreasi pellnntnr et C. Valeria Domnotaaro, 

5 Caburi fni6, principe civitfitis, compluribasque aliiB interfectia 
intra oppida mur5aque com pellnntnr. Allobroggs crgbris ad 
Khodaniim dispositlB praesidiis magna cnm cura et diligentia 
snds fines tnentur. Gaeaar, qnod hostes equitatii BuperidrSs 
esse intelleg^bat et interclusis omnibus itineribus niilia re ex 

10 proyincia atque Italia sableTari poterat, trans Bbennm in 
Oermaniam mittit ad eas ciritates quas snperioribus annls 
pac&verat, equiteaque ab his arcessit et levis armaturae peditSs 
qui inter e6s proeliari cfinsuerant. Eorum adTentu, qnod minns 
idoneis equis iitebantur, a tribunia militnm reliquiaque equiti- 

lE bus Bo mania atqne uvocatis equos aumit Qermaniaqae diatribnit. 

66. Interea, dam haec geruntur, hoatinm copiae ex Arvemis 
equiteaque qui toti Galliae erant imperati conveninnt. Magno 
bSrum coacto nnmero, cnm Caesar in Sequanos per extremoe 
Lingonam fines iter faceret quo faciUua anbaidium provinciae 

- ferre posset, circiter milia passnnm decem ab EQmania trinis 
oastris Vercingetorix cfinaedit convocatiaque ad cdnsilinm 
praefeotis equitnm Tenisae tempuBvictoriaedemSnstrat: Fugere 
in provinciam Romanoa GalliAqne excedere. Id aibi ad prae- 
sentem obtinendam libertatem satia esse; ad reliqui temporis 
to pacem atqne otium param prCfici; maioribua enim coactis 
copiis reyersuroa neque finem bellandi factiirdB. Proinde in 
agmine impeditoa adoriantnr. Si peditga anis anxilium ferant 
atqne in e6 morentur, iter facere n6n poaae ; si, id qnod magic 
fntiiTum contidat, relictis impedlmentis suae salQti cfinaulani. 


et AbQ rernm necesBiriarum et dignit&te Bpoli&tnm in; nam » 
de equitibna hoBtium, qnin nemo eornm pr6gredi modo extrA 
agmen audeat, ne ipsos qaidem d^bgre dubit&re. Id qnd 
maiore faciant animfi, c&pifi,B b6 omnSa pro castriB babitiirnm 
et terrori hostibuB faturnm. Conclamant «qnitSB, BaiictlBsimd 
iure iurandd confirm^ri oportgra ng tSctd recipi&tur, ne ad ao 
liberos, tie ad parentee, nh ad oxdrem aditum habeat qui non 
biB per agmen bostium perequitarit. 

67. Prob&ti re atqne omnibna ad iuB iurandum adftctis, 
posterd die in tree partes distribatfi eqnit&tu daae a§ aciSa ab 
dnobuB lateribuB oBtendnnt, ana & primd ^mine iter impedire 
coepit. Qaa rS nuntiatfi Caesar snum quoqne equitatnm 
tripertit6 divisum contra bostem ire iubet. Fngnatur un& * 
omnibus in partibns. G&nsistit agmen; impedimenta iiitr& 
legidnes recipiuntnr. Si qua in parte noatri labor^re ant 
gravius premi vidsbantur, eo signa inferri Caesar aciemqne 
convert! iubSbat; quae tSb et hostSB ad inseqnendum tardabat 
et noatrOB spg auxili c&nfirmabat. Tandem German! ab dextrd lo 
latere Bummum iugum nact! hostes loco depelluut ; fugientes 
asque ad flumen, ubi Vercingetorix cum pedestribua copiis 
couseder&t, persequnntur compluresque interficiunt. Qaa r6 
animadverBA reliqai, ne circumvenirentur Teriti, se fugae man- 
dant. Omnibus locis fit caedes. Trgg nobilissimi Haedni ts 
oapti ad Caesarem perducuntur: Cotua, praefoctus eqaitum, 
qui controversiam cum ConTictolitave proximle comitilB habu- 
erat, et Cavarillus, qui post defectionem Litavicci pedestribua 
copiiB praefuerat, et Eporedoriz, quo dace ante adventnm 
Gaesaris Haedui cum SSquania bello contenderant. » 

Tlie sleee of AleBla was tbe climax at tbe war, and tbe greatest of Caosar'a 
military operations against tbe Sauls. Tbe poalclon was one of remarkable 
atrengeb, and tbe nnmber ot the eaetny was enormous. 

Tbe location ot tiie town at Allse Sle, Relne was made entirely certain by 
Colonel Stoftel, wbo, acting under tbe orders o( the Emperor Napoleon in, 
spent three ^eari In eicavatlng the works described by Caesar, At the present 
time f nrther excavations are going on at tbe same place. Tbe town occupied 
tbe summit of a hill whose base Is six miles In drcumterence. The slopes rlu 
BTadnally to a wall or rock nblch Is broken In a few places, espedally at the 


68. Floats omni eqnitatu Vercingetoriz copiiiB Baas, nt 

are based on tbe actual results or eicavatioa. 

teec above tba plain. Is a Bat summit, one aail 
le wide. Springs and wells lumtsbed abundaul 
water. On the nortb. east, and Boath other hills or equal height surround this 
one, but on thelwestls an open plain. 

Caesar bad ten legions. contalnluK perhaps tO.OOO men, and some cavalry. As 
only cwo Gallic BtaWB now remained faithful to him, his CJalUc cavalry were Tew. 
He had ihereCore blred some Oerman cavalry, who were superior to tbe QalUc in 
QgbtlDg ability, though rar Interior la number. He must also have bad some 
auxiliary Inrantrj. Verclngetorii had 80.000 Infantry and IS.OOO cavalry. Arier 
the siege began, more than 250.000 Oauls came to help Verclngelorli. 

1. fugbUt . . . •qultfttft: as Caesar 


town. Knowing that an. army 

trncts a double line of 
about it. 

Chap. SS. Yerolugetorix r< 
to Alesls, pursued by Caesar. 

marching toward t 
Verclngelorli attacked him with hla 
cavalry, wblle bia infantry stood In 
battle array before their camp, taking 
no part In tbe fight. Vercingetorix was 



pr6 castrls collocfiverat, rediixit prdtinusqae Alesiam, quod est 
oppidnm Mandubidram, iter faoere coepit celeriterqae impedi- 
menta ex caatris gduc! et s6 Bubseqni insait. Caesar, impedi- 
meotia in proximum collem dnctis, duilbus legidnibai praesidid f 
relictis, secutns hostgs qaaatDm dig! tempas est passum, 
circiter tribns milibna ex noTissimo agmioe interfectis, altero 
die ad AleBiam castra fScit. Perapect5 urbia situ perterritisque 
bostibus, quod equitfttu, qui maxime parte sxeroitus cSnflde- 
baut, erant puis!, adhort&tus ad labdrem mllitgs Alesiam u 
circumvailftre Inatitnit. 

69. Ipsum erat oppidnm in colle summd admodum €dit& 
loco, nt niai obsidiOne expugn&n n6n posse vidfiretur; cuius 
collia r&dicgs dno dnabns ex partibns flumina snblngbant. 
Ante oppidum planitiSs circiter milia passuum tria in longitu- 
dinem pat^bat; reliquis ex omnibus partibns collgs mediocr! in- ■ 
teriecto apatio pari f>ltitudinis faatigid oppidum cinggbant. Sub 
inurd quae pars coUis ad orientem aolem spectabat, hnnc omnem 
locum cdpiae Gall6rum complfiTerant fossamque et mftceriam 
tQ altitudinem sex pedum praeduxerant. Eina munitidnis 
quae ab Edmanis iustitugbatur cirouitus xi milia passuum lo 
tenSbat. Gaatra opportunis loois erant posita Tin caatellaque 

aeteatsd eWoBy by Caeaar'a German 

ut - . . ooUoDftTsrat: Le. wicbouire- 
tumlng to aamp for the baggage. 

T. ftltnOdU, "oncbeuextday." 

8. Biiutt&ta: atlatlve at gpecIHca' 

Chap. 69. The situation of Alssiil, 
and Caesar^ a fortiflcatioua arouad it. 

3. loofi: ablntlve or place. On the 
whole description, see the piac. p. SSS. 
and the long noK on p. 391. 

8. duo flamioa: the Oae and tbe 

4. ante oppidum; i.e. on iho west, 
lii lonBitttdlnBln.' this is the greatest 

length ot tbe plalQ. measuring south 
trom (he hill north vest o( the town to 
a point not Bbowa on tbe plan. 

8. purlfMUKlSldesariptlTeablatira. 
T. mtU4: the wallol the town. 
quae van, hnnc omnni looum, "all 

tbat part which." 

8. mlhMrluii: iracea ot this wall 
may Still b« seen. Tbe camp protected 
tbe low ridge which connects (he hill ol 
AJeala wltb tbe one to its east.— the only 
point a( whlcb the (own could possibly 

e. slut mtnltlSuii: tbls probably 
relers only to the ring ol camps aod re- 
doubts ; but he may have already traced 
out and begun the inser wall and ditch, 
represented on the plan as oomple(«ly 
encircling the (own. Tbls line Is some, 
what less tbou eleven Roman mllea in 

11. iwilbal, "extended") m (hat 



zziii facts; qaibus in castelUs interdiQ atatidnes pdnSbantnr, 
ng qna sabitS 6rupti& fieret; haec eadem noctu excnbitdribna 
ac firmiB praeeidiis tenebantur. 

70. Opere iiiatitOt& fit eqaestre proelinm in e& pl&nitie 
quam intermissam collibas tria milia passnum in longitndinem 
patSre 8npr& dSmdDBtr&Timus. Samma vT ab ntrieqne con- 
tenditar. LaboraDtibns nostria Caesar Germanoa aabmittlt 

E legionSaqae pro castrla conatitnit, ne qua aabito irraptid ab 
hostinm pedit&tQ flat. Fraesidio legionnm additd noatrig 
animus aagStur; host^s in fngam coniecti se ipsT multitudine 
impedinnt atqce angnatiorlbua portis reUctis ooartantor. Ger- 
mfini &crius naqce ad munitionSs Bequnntnr. Fit m^na 

10 caedga; n6n null! relictU equia foaaam tranaire et maceriam 
tr&nacendere cdnantnr. Paulum legidnSs Caesar qaaa pro 
valid cdnstitnerat prdmovgri iabet. Ndn minna qui intra 
munitidngs erant Oalli perturbantur ; Teniri ad sS confestim 
esistimant^s ad arma conclamant; non nulH perterriti in op- 

lE pidnm irrumpant. VercingetorTi iubet portas claudT, ng castra 
nudentnr. Mnltis interfectla, compluribna eqnia captis, Ger- 
man! 8€8€ recipiant. 

71. VercingetorTi, priuaqaam miin!ti5nSB ab BdmaniB per- 
ficiantur, consilium capit omnem ab ag eqnitatum noctu 
dlmittere. Discedentibus mandat ut auam quisque edmm 

eutia VIII: traces at &u these bave 
be«D discovered, 

euMlla ZXm: traces or Qre bare 
been discoiered; the rest are locaMdon 
the plan onljr b; couleclare. 

Chap. TO. The GaulB are defeated 

3. IntBrmlttam oolUbut, "qd- 


4. Oarm&nDi: the Ocrman cavalry. 
P. pro eaitria: those near the platn. 
a. pluildiS. "support." 

8. ■nirurtUTlbus . . . ralletli, " In 

the gates, which had been made too nar- 
row." The cavalry Hednp the Ose and 
the Oseraln to the weslem waUs of the 
Qallic camp, 
11. prO Ti,116 = prf coffrii, 1, G. 
IS, nSiL minus: than the horaemen, 
who had Just been routed, 

flUl . . . Qftlll: the Oallle Infantry, 
who bad been in the camp all the time. 
IB, port&i: Of theiown. 
Chap. 71. VeTcingetorli sendaont 
aU his cavalry to appeal for help, 
perftctantur: App, SU. i. 
•qultfttum dlmittere: tbey were 
less Id the city, and woatd only help 
lonaome the limited iiiipply ot pro 

THE SIEGE OF ALE8U, B.C. 52 395 

cint&teni adeat ornDgsqiie qui per aetMem arma ferre possint 
ad bellnin cogant;. Sua in illda merita prOpOnit obteat&turqae t 
at euae aalutis rationem habeant neu bS optimg d€ comman! 
libertate m«ritnm hoBtibna in crnciatnni d^dant. Quod Bi 
indillgentidreB fueiint, milia hominum delecta lzzz un& 
secam interitura demonstrat. Ratione inita frumentum sS 
exigue dierum sxs babgre Bed pauld etiam longins toler&ri w 
poBBe parcendd. His datta mandatis, qu& erat noatrnm opns 
intermissum, Becnnda vigilia Bilenti5 equitatam dimittit. Fru- 
mentum omne ad b€ referri iubet; capitis poenam iU qui ndo 
parnerint cdnBtitnit; pecns, cuius magna erat cdpia & Mandu- 
biis compulse, riritim distribuit; frumentum parc6 et paulatim u 
metiri instituit; cOpias omnSs. quas pro oppidQ collocaverat 
in oppidum recipit. His rationibus auxilia Oalliae exspect&re 
et bellnm administrare parat. 

72. Qnibua rebus cognitis ex perfugls et captiTis, Caesar 
haeo genera munitionis instituit. Fossam pedum viginti 
dgrgctis lateribus duxit, ut eiuB fossae solum taatundem 
patSret quantum summa labra dist&rent; reliquas omn€s m&nT- 
tidnga ab ea fossa passus ccco reduxit hoc cdasiliS, quoniam i 

S. oAgant: plural because all the 
cavaliT are tlwuslit of aa a aaWeot; 
amaii ta the object, 

i. tS , , , tnarltum, " blm. tbe nun 
wbo had done moBi lor the liberty ol 

9. T&tl&ne intt&, " according lo hla 

10. colerirl poite: impersonal: 
" tbey could bold out." 

13. dlmlUlt: tbey probably escaped 
up tbe Talleya oC tbe Oae and Ibe Oae- 

le. Tlrltlm distribuit :1a order tbat 
they mlgbc be eaten drat, since there 
was nothing to feed them on. 

Chap. 7a. CaoBar'H works of in- 

In this and tbe foUowlng cbapter, were 
OOUBlmcted only In tbe plain wes t ot the 
town. When tbe Hue ran over hllla U 
did not need so much artlflcial protec- 

padum Tlglntl: in width: tbe depth 
was eight or nine leel. This trench waa 
dug only In tbe plain, and was no part 
ol the real line ol Inieatmenl. As Caesar 
says later, It merely protected (he 
men while tbey were working back ol 

S. dJrEetl* IftterlbQt, 

peudlcular sides," 
Mlum; natioJura, 

a. pMsaa caoo: tua is 

real distance al tbe ends: s 

'wlcli per- 


tautnm esaet tieceBB&ri5 spati- 

am complexnB nee facile totnm 

opna cordn& militnm cingerg- 

tur, n6 de imprdviso ant noctu 

ad tiiditTtiSngs mnltitudd hoe- w 

tiam advolaret, aut interdiu 

tela in nostroa operi dgstina- 

tos conicere possent. Hdc in- 

termiBBO apatid duas fossas zt 

pedea lat&s e&dem altitudine a 

perdusit; qniram interidrem 

I campeatribuB ao dSmisais locis 

^ aqnfi ex fliimine dgrtvata com- 

g plevit. PoBt e&s aggerem ac 

g Tflllum 211 pedum eiatr&xit; ao 

I 8. tMitnm ■patlum: the diaiAnce 

I around Out blU of Alesla. 

7. iia e . . . cl&Baritiir : I.e. Caesar 

I could not spare men enough to form a 

' line ot protection lor those who were 

' working. 

> IS. aidem altlttkdUia: i.e. the two 

I irencbeB were ol ihs same depth, which 

I the eicaTsUone show was eight or nine 

I teet. 

I 18. IntatUiram; the one nearer the 

18. ex flbmlne: chiefly the OBerain. 

The gravel washed loM the trench was 
traced ror some dUlonoe bf the excava- 

19. poit efts: Caesar describee the 
works (rom the point of view of Alesla. 

30. ZII pedum: thla was the com- 
bined height ol the earthwork (ifffcr^m) 
aLd the palisades (vSllam). 

31. these were 
made of iDterwovea osiers, and were 
uaed as a facing for the palisades. The 
lorica was contloaous, lumlablng some 
protection, but low enough to allow the 
Bomans lo throw mlsBUee over it; the 



cit, grandibuB cerris Sminentibns ad coiumiBsurfia plutoAmm 
atqne aggeris qal aBceasum hostinm tardarent, et turrSa totd 
opere oircnmdedit quae pedes Lxxx inter ah dist&rent, 

73. Erat eCdem tempore et m&teri&^ et frUmentari et 
tantas mnnitiOngB fieri neoeese dSmiatttlB Qostrls c5pii8, quae 
longing a caatris prSgrediSbantar; acn<>n nnmquam opera nos- 
tra Qalli temptftre atqne gmptiOnenL ex oppido pluribas portis 
gumma vi facere oonabantur. Qu&rg ad haec rurans opera ad- • 
dendum Caesar pnt&rit, qnfi minOre nnmerO militnm munlti- 
onga defend) poasent. Itaqne tmnoia arbomm ant admodnm 
firmis ramis absolsla atqne hdram delibrfttis ao prseacutis cacu- 
minibus perpetuae foaaae qnin&B pedSa altae ducSbantnr. Hue 
ill! atipitSB demiasi et ab infimj} rerinctt, nS revelli poaaent, ab lo 
ramlB eminebant. Qnini enint Ordinea, coniQnoti inter a6 
atque implic&ti ; qno qui iiitT£Terant bS ips! acutiaaimls rfillia 
indugbaat. Hda cippda appellabant. Ante b&B obliqnis dr- 

frinnai were tuctlemeDU, Ugh enongli 
to shield the wbole person. 

33. oerTl*: tree lopa, with the 
brancbeB shorpensd. They projected 
boTlzoatally, and were held In plane by 
the lower ends of the pnllsadee. 

pluteBrum; here referring to the en- 
tire parapet, InaltidlnK vSUum, Uriea, 

281 tout opart: ablative otplKM. 
a*i au&edllttT*nt:aclanBeotehar- 
Kcterlstlci " so that they were, etc. " 
Chap. 78, The deTloea by itUcIl 

Caesar strengthened his lines of in- 

1. srat . . . pTSrre^Stiuitiii, lit 

"to get limber and provisions and (or 
... to be made was necessary for our 
diminished troops, which, etc." ■ "our 
troops, reduced In number by b&vlng to 
go farther and farther from the camp, 
bad to, eui." Jltrl la best translated by 
the active. The soldiers bad to go far- 
ther and farther from the camp as they 
exhausted the supplies near at band; 
this reduced tbe number of men actu- 
ally at work at any one time. 

B. rlknniaddMidiiin."thatbemD>t 

•. anO, "In order that." 

7. tranoU, etc. ; a tree top or a great 
Umb with many branches was lopped 
off, and each branch was peeled and 
sharpened. Five rows of these were 
set upright In a trenchwhlch ran parallel 
with tbe trenches described In 73, 10. 
Apparently there were Bever«l Of these 
trenches, although the Illustration, p. 
3H. shows bat one, 

a. bite = '»ftS'/'>"a' 

10. ab rlmll, ' ' with their branches 

11. rnilnl: five rows in each trench. 
eohlimall . . , Implic&tl: the rows 

were set bo closely together that thelt 
projecting branches Interlaced. 

13. quo quI'lntriTsrant, "whoerer 
got among them." 

TfclUs: the sharpened branches, which 
were like palisades. 

13. ante bOi: Le. on the side lowarA 



dinibaa in qaincunoem diapositia acrobSs Id altitildinein trinm 

IE pedum fodiebantnr paulatim angustiore ad iaflmam fastigid. 

Hue teretes stTpitea feminis cTassitadine ab summo prseacuti et 

praensti dumittebantur ita ut ndn ampliug digitis quattuor ex 

terra ^minerent ; eimul confirmandi et stabili'^ndi causa singoli 

ab infimO boIo pedea terra ezculcabantnr, reiiqua pare scrobis 

«> ad occultandas iusidias viminibus ac virgultis iDtegeb&tor. 

Huius generis octoui ordin^s ducti temoB inter ae pedea distfi- 

bant. Id ex aimilitudine floris lilium appell&baat. Ante haeo 

tfileae pedem longae ferreia hamia infixlg tdtae in terrain info- 

diebaatur mediocribusque intermiBsis spatiia omDibua locis dis- 

K serebantur; qnos stimaloB ndminabant. 

74. His rebus perfectia, regiouea aecutus quam potoit 
aequissimas pro loci natura, xiiii milia paaBunm complexua 
parSa eiusdem generis munitionea, diTersAs ab hia, contra ex- 
teriorem hostem perfecit, nt ne magnil quidem moltitudine 
s munltionnm praesidia eiromufundi possent; ne antem cum 
periculo ex oaBtria ggred! cogatur, dierum xxx pabulum fru- 
meiitumqufl habere omngs oonrectum iubet. 

IB. pAnUtlm futlBlA: Le. the pics 
irere faimel-sbftped. Tbey were about 
six feet Id diameter M the top. Man; 
ot them have been lounCL 

K. etMiltlkdUia: deKr^ilve abls- 

11. pnMDit]: to tuTdentbe point. 

18. ilngull . . . axonlei- 
buttnr, "each stake was 
troddea la st the tmltom wlUi 
«srtb a loot deep." 

13. baee: l-e. the tttla. 

SS. UlSMlwoodeastakes 
with barbed hooks ol Iron 
set la their topa. Tbe hooka 
were so shore that the; nould 
not be seeD amoog tbe grass- 
Several ot tbem bave b 

Cbap. T*, Caesar oonBtiuots a sUni- 
lar Una of workH ss a defense aKalnst 
mttaoks from without. 

1. reglBnSi , . , keaulBsUnis, 

"keeping on as level ground as poa- 
Blbie." This outer line ran over the 
cops oC the bills (see plan. p. 3B2): but 
Caeaaravolded, astarasheoould, plaon 
where aa outside enemy could charge 
doBTiblll on the works. 

3. xnu . . . pMSUum: the line in- 
cluded aU of Caesar's camps and re- 
doubts, and of course was longer tban 
the Inner line; but It was somewhat 
less than lourleen luUes In length. 

>. dlTers&« ab his, " tadag In tbe 
opposite direction." 

4. Ut . . . posssnt: Le. that the gar- 
risons of single camps might not be 
surrounded and cut oD from the others 
Between the two llaea troops ooulil 
move back and lorth so as to concen- 
trate at points of danger, 

T. h&b<r« eonTeetum, "bring la 
and keep." 

■, Google 



75. Dum haeo ad Alesiam gerontor, Galli coQcili6 prlnci- 
pom iDdictd dod onmes qai arma I^rre possent, ut censait 
Verciagetorix, coDvociuidds statauot, sed oertam namernm cai- 
qae imper&ndam, oe tanta, maltitudine oonfuBfl nee 
moder&ri nee discernere buos nee frumentandi rationem habere s 
poasent. Imperant Haeduis atque edmm clieutibus, Segnsl- 
&via, AmbiTaretis, Aulercia BrannovieibuB, milia xxxr; parem 
numeram Arrernia, adiunctla Elentetis, Cadurcle, Gabalia, Vel- 
Uviis, qui aab impend ArremOrntn ease cdnsaerunt; Sequania, 
Senonibna, Biturtgibus, Santonia, Butgnia, Camutibaa duo- u 
denamilia; Bellovacia x; totidemLemoTicibua; ootona Pictoni- 
buB et TaroniB et Pariaiia et Helrgtiis ; a^na Andiboa, Ambi&nis, 
MediomatrioTs, PetrocoriiB, Nerviia, MorinU, NitiobrogiboB; 
Tmllia Aulercia C6noman!s; totidem Atrebatiboa; llll Yeliocas- 
aiboa; Aulercia Eburovlcibus iii; Sanracia et Boiia bina; u 
X iltjiversis ciTit&tibuB quae Oceannm attingimt qnaeqne eornm 
conanetudine Aremoricao appellatttur, qnd aont in numero 
CorioBoIitgg, Bedonga, Ambibarii, Calet€a, Osismi, Yeneti, 
Lexovil, Yenelli. Ex bia Bellovaci suum ntunernm non contn- 
l^runt, quod Be and ndmioe atqne arbitrio cam Romania bellam m 
gesturoB dlcerent neqne cuiuaquam impend obtemperatUros ; 
rogati tamen ab CommiS pro eiua hospitid duo miiia miaerant. 

Chap. T6-TB. A Eieat Qalllc ai 

1. Ut oinanit TeroUiKBtorlz: cf. 

71, 4. The decision u> send a Oied 
quats from eaeh state, Inalead of all the 
flghtlDg men, was wise. The toul □( 
■ a cliapMr la 


S. Imperant, etc.: forty-two sta 
are named In the toUowlna list. 
Aqnltantan slate is mentioned; 
Beml and the LlnKones were taltb 

to Caesar; the Treverlwere threatened 
by the Germans. Wttb these exceptloos 
tbe llat liictDdesalllbelmportantstat«a 

ID. duodank mllU, " twelve thou- 
sand each " ; translau (be following 
distrlbutlveg similarly. 


It full 

30, quod dlMnnt: cl. Dot« on gaoa 

ilcerel.V.t,ll. . 

arbltrlS, "on their own ac- 
count and according to their own 
Ideas." The Bellovaci were strong and 
proud (n, 4, 1S-15>. and they kept their 
promise by talcing up arms against 
Caesar the following year. 
33. prA, "Inct 



76. Hnius opera Comtnl, ut anteft demonstrayimae, fidell 
atque utili BUperidribos annia erat Qsaa la Brttauni& Caesar; 
pro qaibus mentis ciTitatem eiuB imniaDeTii esse iusserat, iiira 
legesque reddiderat atqae ipsi Morinoe attribaerat. Tanta 

B tamen UDiversae Galliae cdDs^neid tuit libertatia rindicandae 
et pristinae belli laudie recuperandae, ut neque beoeficiis neqne 
amicitiae memorig movSrStur, omngaqne et animd et opibna in id 
bellnm incumberent. Co&ctia eqaitam milibua viii et peditum 
circiter CCL, haeo in Haeduorum flnibua recetiBebantur, du- 

10 meraaqne inib^tur, praefecti cdnetituebantur : Commid Atre- 
b&ti, Viridom&rS et Eporedorigi Haeduia, VercasBlTellaund 
ArrernS, cfinaobrinS Vercingetorigia, aomma iraperi traditur. 
His dglgcti ex civit&tibua attribuuntur quorum cdmilio bellum 
administrargtur. Omngs alacrgs et fiduciae pleai ad Aleaiam 

IS proficiacontur, neque erat omnium quiaquam qui aapectnm 
modo tantae multitudinia Hustingri posae arbitraretnr, prae- 
aertim ancipit! proelio, cum ex oppid6 ernptione pugniretur, 
foria tantae c&piae eqaitatua peditatuaque cernerentur. 

77. At i[ qui Aleaiae obaidebantur, praeterita diS qua 

1. IS: V, 33, 1 

1. Mteft; cf.iv, 3: 
a. olTitiLttntMiia; 

InunlkDaliL, " free from tribute. 
implies that tbe other conquered 
paid tribute, though 

has I 

ItLTk . . . Hddldeiat: l.e. had ai- 
lowed the state to live under Its old 
form of goTemment, insload of appoint- 
ing a goiernor to rule It. 

i. Ipil: I.e. Commlus, As a punlsh- 
meot tor their obstinate resistance, the 

ligltgut and ware eovemed b; Commlus. 

S. otiiuSiiBlC llbvTtfttlB Tlndlcan- 
dae, "unanimity lu demanding liberty." 

T. inOT6Tfitur; the subject la (Tolfia. 

18. diljotl ax clTititlbuB, "repre- 
sentatives of the several states." The 
fatal weakness of the Oauls was their 
Inability to mtlte eOectlve!;. The 

states were so Jealous ot one another 
that they could not agree on a single 
commander, now that Verelngetorli 
was out of the qoeatlon. It was bad 
enough to have tour commanders-m- 
chlef: but it was worse lo bamper them 
with a council of representatives, 
14. ad:cf. App.]31,a. 

IB. ktpaeliun modo, " the mere 

IT. anoipltl pToeUS, "in a battle 
with double front ": explained b; the 
following clauses. 

pugnbrMui, eaTnirentur: indirect 
discourse for the future Indicative, 

Chap. TT. The besieged Bieinsnch 
proposed in a coauc^ 

1. dii Qua axBpeotftTarant: Ver- 
clngelorlx had told the cavalry that he 
had supplies for thirty days ; at the end 
of tbat lime he expected reUel. For the 
gender of <Ji« see App, SO. a. 


anzilia Budram ezspectaverant, conaampto omn! framentfi, 
inscil quid in Haedais gereretur, concilio co&cto d€ exitu sna- 
rum fortuDarnm consul tS,baiit. Ac vanis dictia BeatentiiB, 
quarnm pars deditionem, pars, dum vires sappeterent, erup- s 
tionem censebat, noQ praetereoDda dr&tid Critogn&ti videtnr 
propter eias singalareoi et uef^riaoi cr&delitatem. Etc 
Bummd in ArrerniB ortns loco et magDae habitus aactoritatis, 
'Nihil,' inqnit, 'de eomm sententia dictSrus sum qui tnrpis- 
simam aerritutem dgditionia uomiue appellant, neque hoa lo 
habendos civium locd aequo ad concilium adhibendds censed. 
Gum hiB mihi rea est qui ^rnptionem probant; quorum in con- 
ailio omnium Teatnim cdnsensa pristinae residere virtutia 
memoria yidetur. Animi est ista moUitia, non virtiia, panlis- 
per inopiam ferre non posse. Qui 8€ ultro mortl oSersnt is 
faciliuB reperinntur quam qui dolSrem patienter ferant. Atqne 
ego banc seutentiam proba.rem (tantum apud mg dignitSs 
potest), si nQllam praeterquam vltae nostrae iacturam fieri 
Tid^rem ; aed in consiliS capiendo omnem Galliam respieiamus, 
quam ad nostrum auxiUnm concitavimue. Quid hominum w 
milibas lxxx uno loco interfectia propinqais cdnsangnineisqne 
nostria animI fore eiiatim&tta, si paene in ipgis cadS.Teribn8 
proeli5 decert&re cdgentur? Nolite hds veatro auxilid ezspo- 
liare, qui vestrae salutls cauB& anum periculum neglexemnt, 
nee Btaltitia ac temeritate veetra aut animi imb^cillitate omnem k 
Oalliam proBternere et perpetnae servitiiti aubicere. An, qnod 

a. In B&eduli: where tbe army ot IT. probUem al Ttdfirem : App. 2S4. 

r«lie[ bad saUiered. tftntom poMit, "bas so mucb 

6. ■uppaureut: implied Indirect weigh c," 

dlBCOQTse lor the present Indicative. dlKniUB, "tbe authority," ot thow 

<. Il6n prMt«rBunil&, " lo deserve who wished to malie a sally, 

not to be passed aver." 18. nDllam . . . l&EtDrkm, "no 

19. cum IiU . . . «Bt, " I am con- lossexcept (chatlolour lives," 

cemed with those," IS. reBptetftmiu: App, 21T. 

14. iBtft is the subject, and Is ex- 30. quid propluquls noBtils Milisl 

plained by the luflnlttves which lollow, fore exlitlmfctls, lit. "what ot conrage 

It iB attracted from the neuter Into the do you think there will be to our rela- 

IB. qui . . . faruit, "men are 
eaall; found to oSer . , . cbau to. 



ad diem nda TeDSnmt, de edmm fide cdnatanti&qne dnbitatU? 
Quid ergd? Bdmtooa in illls nlteridhboB munlti&mbiiB ani- 
mlDe causft cotldie exercerl putatiB? Si illdrom Duntilg 

K cftnfirm&rl ndn potestie, omoi aditd praeeaepto, his utimim 
testibos appropinqnare eoram adveatam; caiua rei timdre ez- 
territi diem noctemque in opere rersantar. Qaid ergd mei 
connll est? Faoere qaod noatri maiores nequ&qnam pari belld 
Cimbromm Tentonnmqae fecgmot; qni in oppida compnlsi 

» ac simill inopia snbacti eoram corporibaa qnl aetate ad bellam 
iafitilga videbantar vitam toleravgront neqne sS hostibns tra- 
didenmt. Gniua rei ai ezemplnm nUn baberSmasi tamen 
Iibertatis caoaa inatitui et poateria prodi palcheirimDm iudi- 
c&rem. Nam qaid illi aimile bello foil;? Depopaia,t& Gallia 

w Cimbri magnaque illat& calamitate fioibna qaidem nostria 
aliqaandd^scesaerniit atqne aliaa terraa petiemnt; iura, leg^s, 
agroa, libertatem nobia reliqaemnt. Romani TfirS qaid petunt 
aliad ant quid volant, niai iuTidi& addnctl, qnoa tama Qobilea 
potenteaque belio cogndrerant, hornm in agria civit^tibusqae 

« conaidere atqne his aeternam iniangere aerritutem? Keqae 
enim amquam alia condiciane bella gesagrant. Qaod si ea 
qaae in longinqnia natidnibos geruntnr ignor&tia, respicite 
finitimam Oaltiam, qaae ia proTiaciam redacta, inre et 
legiboB commat&tia, Bec&ribnB snbiecta perpetoA premitar 

M eerritute.' 

SS. nltarlCTlbai mftBltutnibui : the 
onrar line ot works, wblch sbon'ed that 
tbe ^muiB expected an attack rt«m 
thBt aide. 

2>. lllBmm: tbe Oaols ontalde. 

30. bli: the BoTnans. 

81. tntibiu, "aawltneMes." 

B3. quid . . . aat, "what, then. Is 
my odvlcaT"; lit. " belonss to mj ad- 


8B. pari: l-e. equal to the present 

H. Oimbrerum Teuloauinqn*: see 
Int. 3T. 
SB. pulchanlmum: predicate ad- 

jective with <jn understood ; " I should 
thlnlc it most slorlous for tbla precedent 
to be eatabJlabed." 

as. quid . . . talt, " wbal UkeneKB 
bad that war (to this one)7"; UliliiUe 

depopnlfctfc: passive la meanlns. 
thouffh the verb Is deponent. 

41. alt&« . . . petlirust; after rav- 
aging Gaul. Instead of settling there 
they marcbed Into Spain. 

4B. qafii; tbe antecedent Is A^rum. 

48. nalUmun GiUUun; l-e. tb^ 


■, Goot^lc 


78. SententilB dictis ofinBtitnnnt at it qai TalSt&dine aat 
aetate inutilcs aint bello oppido ezcedant, atqae onmia prins 
experiantnr quam ad Critognati aeDtentiam dSsceudant; ill6 
tamen potina utendum consilifi, si res cdgat atqne ansilia tno* 
rentur, qaam aat deditionia aut pacis Bnbenndam oondiciOnem. h 
Mandubii, qui eds oppido reogperant, cum liberie atqne nzOri- 
bas exire odgantnr. Hi, cam ad msQitidnSB Rdmanfimm ac- 
cessisseiit, flentSe omnibus precibus drilbaiit ut se iu seiritutem 
recept&s dbo inTHreDt. At Caesar diepositis in valid custodiiB 
recipi prohibebat. lo 

79. Intere& Commius reliquique ducSs qnibus summa im- 
peri permiBsa erat cum omnibus cdpiiB ad Alesiam perveniunt 
et colle exteriore ocoupfttg non longias mllle passibus & nostriB 
munitianibuB cfinsidnnt, Posterd di6 aqnitfitu ex castris 
gductS omnem earn pl&nitiem quam in longitudinem milia pas- s 
Buom tria patera dSmdnstravimus complent pedestresque c5pi&s 
panlam ab eo locfi abductoa in locia Buperioribus cdnstitnimt. 
Erat ex oppido Alesia dSapectus in campnm. ConcnrruDt hiB 
auzilila Tiais; fit grjitnlJltid inter efls, atque omnium animi 
ad laetitiam excitantur. Itaque prdductis cdpiis ante oppidnm n 
consistunt et prozimam fossam crfttibos iutegunt atqne aggere 
explent aSque ad ernptidnem atqne omuSs c&sub comparant. 

Chap. 78. The uon-combkUjits 
vainly ende&Tor to leave Alesta. 

3. Oppldt tXcUuit: olthoosh Cae- 
sar lella m (TT, 3) that the grain was 
already eaten up. there must have been 
some scant; sapplr ot toad left. None 
of tbis coQia he spared tor the noi 

1. expciluitUT: the subject ts the 

"that the; m 

10. reetpl problbibat: this was 
purposeless crnetty, but an attempt to 
torce the Qanls u> nse np their sapplles. 
According to another writer, the 
combatanls perished of hunger be- 

. oeeuptitS.' see plan p. 

It became necesaair. 

». lit . . . tSl, "the; congratnlated 
one another." 

10. ants oppldum: on the wesu 

11. proxlmunlOBiun: the twenty- 
foot trench. 

ortitlbns: here apparently a kind of 
bridge, made ol li 
aXBara, "earth." 

■, Google 



SO. GaeBar, omn! exercitu ad ntramque partem mfiniti&nnm 
disposito, ut, si USU8 veniat, Buum quisque locnm teneat et 
Doverit, equitatum ex caatrls ediici et proelium Gommitti iubet. 
Erat ex omnibus caetris quae summum undique iugnm teng- 

B baut despectna, atqae omuSa mllites intent! pugnae prdrentum 
ezspect&baut. Galli inter eqnitgs raroB sagitt&rids expeditoa- 
que levia armaturae interiecerant qui Buia cedentibua auxilio 
BUGcarrerent et noatrOrum eqaitum impetiiB sustinerent. Ab 
his Gomplurea de impr5vls5 vulnerat! proelio excedebant. 

10 Cum Buoa pugna auperioree esse Galli confiderent et noatros 
multitadiuB premT videreat, ex omnibuB partibua et ii qui mu- 
nitidnibus oontinebantur et ii qui ad anxiUum coDvenerant 
olamore et ululatii sudrum animoa edofirmabsnt. Qnod in 
couspeotu omaium r^B gergb&tur neqne recte ac tairpiter fa&> 

IS turn celarl poterat, utrAaque et laadia eupiditas et timor igno- 
miniae ad virtutem excitabat. Gum a meridie prope ad selis 
occaaum dubi& Tictdria pugnargtur, OermanI una in parte 
conferlis turmis in hostea impetum fgcgrunt eOaque propuU- 
runt; qnibas in f ugam coniectia aagittfLril circumventi inter- 

10 fectiqne sunt. Item ex reliqniapartibna noatri cSdentea uaquA 

ad castra inaecilti ani colligendi facultatem ndn dederaat. At 

ii qui Alesia prOceaaerant, maeati, prope victdria dgapSriltiL, &6 

in oppidum recgp^mnt. 

81. 0no dig intermiaao, Qalll, atque hOc apatio magno 


BO-83. The Oauls are de- 
ilUo CBTaJiT is de- 

l. exerclltk: 1-e. the Inlantry. 

utrkmqua . . . mtnltltnum: ihe 

%vo Uaea ot detense, Che one facing tlie 

toim and the otber tbe relleTlDg armr- 

I. tl Hini Ttnlat, "it there should 

t. iLfSb . . . armiittira*: anlmlia- 
(!□□ or the Oerman arrangement: see 

9. OOmplDTes: or Caeur's caTBlry. 

10. dalll : the speetaWM^ 

14. iMiiua . . . faotnin, "and no 
brave or cowardl; act " ; /aelutn Is lued 
as a noun, but Is modified by adverbs 
because U Is reallf a participle. 

18. eum pugniritDT, "when the 
battle had been going on." 

IT. dubtft TlotGrU, "wltbont dad- 

^a& the Baman lines. 

. Oalll: the rellevins armr. 




or&, Boalarnni, harpagdnmn namero effects, medi& ttocte 
Bilentio <3X oaetiia §greeBi ad campeatrgs muQitidngs accgdnnt. 
Subito cl&mdre snblfito, quasignificfitidDequi in oppidd ol»id€- 
batitor de suo adrentu cognoscere possent, cr&tgB proicere, t 
fundis, sagittia, lapidibas nostrda dg valid proturb&re reliqiia- 
que quae ad oppugn&tidaem pertinent parant administr&re. 
Eddem tempore cl&mdre ezauditd dat tuba aignum sais Ver- 
cingetoiix atqae ex oppidd 6ducit. Noatri, at superiSribna 
diebna anna cniqae erat locas attributaa, ad munitidnSa aocS- >a 
dunt; fundis librllibna andibuaque, qnaa in opere dispoauerant, 
ac glandibua Gallfls prfiterrent. Pr&apectn tenebria adgmpto 
multa utrimque rulnera accipiuntar. Complura tormentia 
t6la conicinntur. At M. Antoniua et C. Trebdnina leg&ti, 
quibaa bae partgs ad d&fendendniu obv^nerant, qn& ex parte noa- ts 
trds premi intellSxerant, bia anxilio ex ulteri6ribna caetellia 
dgductOa aabmittebant. 

82. Dum longiuB a luiinitione aberant Galll, pl&a mnltitu- 
dine t^ldrum pr&fici€bant; poateaqnam propiua saccesBernnt, 
ant aS etimulia inopinantga induSbant ant in aerobes dsl&ti 
tr&nefodi€bantur aut ex rallo ac turribaa tr&iecti pllis mur&li- 
bua interibant. Multia undiqne vulneribua acceptis, null& & 
munitidue pernipt&, cam lux appeteret, reriti ne ab latere 
apertd ex anperi5ribaa caatris gruptione circumyeDireatur, si 
ad auda recSperunt. At iutehorSs, dum ea quae & Vercinget 

S. bmrpagBnum: boobs tMiened lo 

long poles, witb wblob tbe; InMaded to 
poll down tbe breastworks on cbe Ro- 
il ol 

S. ounpaatrSs: la Ibe plain w 

1 purpose 

9. u( . . . Mtnbiktiu: cf. 80. 1. 
11. •udlbni: Slakes with sbarpened 
points hardsned by Ore, used as Jave- 


13. flAOillbua: fo 

14. AaUniius: Uai 

throwitis In 
Anlonr, atler- 

warda trlamvlr. 
IB. Ilka piirUa: tbe detenies la tlia 

IS. •! . . . dfidnotOB, "troops 
brougbl Irom. etc." 

Chap. S3. The oleht attack is ro. 

1. dum abarsnt: (or tense see App 
SS4. 6. 

lonflus, "at a considerable dlstance,- 

S. HlmullB: a«e TS, 3t-X. 

tBTObti: see TS, IMS- 

T. «x . . . ekstrli: espedall^tha 
ones marked D and E on tbe plan 

S. interUrSi: cbe besieged. 




otige ad graptiOnem prseparata eraitt prfiferunt, prioroa foseis 

w explent, dintiuB io his rSbus administrandis morati prinB snoB 
disceesiBBe cogndrgniiit qnam munitidiiibas appropinqiiareut. 
Its rg iDfecta in oppidnm rsTerUrant. 

83. Bis magnd cum dgtrimentO repnUi Galli quid agant 
consalant; locdrum peritdaadhibent; ex his aaperioram castro- 
rnm sitilB niQnitidncsqae cognoscant. Erat & septentridniboa 
collis, quern propter magnitadinem circuitfls opere circumplecH 

• nfln potnerant nostrl, necess^rifiqae paene iniqnd loc5 et ISniter 
decliTi castra Kcerant. Haeo C. AntistiDs Regians et C. Ca- 
Dial us BebiluB l6g&ti cum dn&bna legidnibus obtingbant. 
Cognitis per expldr&tdrSs regiduibuB ducSa hoatium lx milia 
ex omni numerd dsligant e&rum ciTitatnm quae maximam 

w virtiitis opiDidnem habebant; quid qudque pactd agi placeat 
occulte later b€ cdUBtituunt ; adeuudi tempua detiniunt, cum 
meridi^B esBe videStur. 5Ib copiis Vercasaivellaunum Arver- 
uum, UDum ex quattuor ducibuB, propinqnum VercingetorigiB, 
praeficiunt. Ille ex caetriB primii yigili^ egreasus, prope coQ' 

tt fecto sub liicem itinere, post moDtem Be occQltavit militesque 
ex noctumd lab6re seBe reficere iuBBit. Cum iam meridieB 
appropinqu&re yidSretur, ad ea caetra quae supra demonstra- 
rimuB contendit; e6demque tempore equit&tus ad campeetreB 
muaiti5n€a acc€dere et reliquae cOpiae prd caatrls BeB€ osten- 

•0 dere coeperunt. 

t. prfOri* (oHia; protnbl? ibe 
twenty-loot trench and the trenclieB in 
■wMolj the cippi were plued. 

Chap. BB-B8. The rellevliie army 
makes a Snal and desperate attactc, 
and then disappears. 

The rello . _„ 
Lt and attacks i 

I. quid ftgant: this question would 
require the Babjanctive In the direct 
form; App. 210. 

4. opere: the outer line of defense. 

B. Ioo9 InlquO: explained bf Unittr 
decSvi. The camp la marked A on the 
plan. Becaoee the Kroond eloped down 

to Its outer wall, missiles could easH; he 

earth could be built up to Ita rampart. 

T. dnftbua leslOnlhua: a strong gu- 
rlBon, to compensate for the weahnefis 
of the position. 

10. gntd quBqae paetO: £iy;Uah 
cannot well compress the two quesUons 
Into oue. as the Latin does: " what tber 
want done, and In what way." 

13. TldeMui: Implied Indlnct dis- 
course for the faiure; ihey said In ef- 
fect, "we will attack whan It sbaU 

IB. isllanae ofipUta; they amounled 



84. Veroingetorix ex arce Aleaiae auds conspicntne en 
oppido €greditar ; crates, longarids, miir&Ua t&lces, reliquaqud 
quae emptidaia causa parSverat prdfert. Pngoatnr iioo tem- 
pore omnibnB locis, atque omnia temptantur; quae minimi 
visa pars firma est, hue ooncurritur. Eomanorum mauus ^ 
tantiB muQitionibus distinetur nee facile pluribus locis occar- 
rit. Mnltnm ad terrendQs nostrds valet clilmor qui post tergum 
pugnantibuB exsistit, quod suum perlculum in alieoA Tident 
Tirtute coQBt&re; omnia enim pISrnmqne quae absunt Tebemen- 
ttus bominnm mentis perturbant. ii 

85. Caesar idonenm locum nactua, quid qu&qne in parte 
geratur oogndBoit; laborantibus anbsidiam submittit. Utriaqne 
ad animnm occarrit iinum esse illud tempus quA maximS con- 
tend! coDvenist: GallT, nisi perfregerint munitiongs, dg omni 
aalute dgsperant; Rom&Ql, sT rem obtinnerint, finem laborum s 
omnium exspectant. Maxime ad superidres munitidn^s labor- 
atur, qud VercaasiTellauQum missnm dgmonstrarimua. Ini- 
quum loci ad declivitatem fastigium magnum habet momentnm. 

CD 190,000 men, less those who ma; h^ve 
been killed In tutttle; but ther were so 
poorly commftDded thac Caeau s&tb 
nothing more ot them. Tbey probabl; 
nude a feeble attack In tbe platD. If 
the; had made vlgorouH attacks at 
several otber points. Caesar could not 
have sent reenforcements to camp A. 
TbelT bad generalBhlp saved Caesar. 
Chap. S4. Vet-olnBOtorii attacks 

le Inner line. 

3. lo: 


r bridging t 

T. port torgum: aa the Romans 
formed two lines placed back Co back, 
flttch line had the enemy behind it. 

B. pugnantibu*. "as therfongbt": 

App. 120. 

suum . . . oBnatlra: their own peril 
(we should say " safety •■) depended on 
the line t>eblnd them. 

1. liUnBDm locnm: supposed to 
bave been on the hUl^slde. a little west 
ot camp E. 

qniijua In p»rt», " every where "; I.e. 
t wBsBgbtfng;. He could 
ee all parts of his lines. 
utrlB<iue . . . ogeuTTtt, "both 

I obtlnuarlnt, "if theyw 

E. Bl Tl 

e. nuuctme . . . IkbOrttui: at this 

point hundreds of Gallic coins were 
found. Millstones, broken water Jan, 
and similar things found in the trencbes 

forced to use as missiles w 
qoHld lay their bands on. 

7. Iniqunm . . . ftatlglum, "(be 
unfavorabls downward slope of lh« 




Alii tela coniciniit, alii testadine fact& sobennt; defatig&tls in 
w Tieem integri snccgdunt. Agger »b Gniveraie in miiniti^nem 
coniectns et ascenBuiii dat Gallia et ea quae in terr& occulta- 
ver&nt Bomani coategit; nee iam arma noetrls nee TirSs 

86. His rebns cognitis Caesar Labi^nnm cnm cohortibus 
eex enbaidio laborantibua mittit; imperat, sT soBtingre ndn 
possit, dedactis cohortibuB eruptione pognet; id niBi neces- 
earifi ne faciat. Ipse adit reliqnds; cobortfttar ne labdri 

s Buccnmbant ; omninm Buperiorum dimic&tidnnm friictam in ed 
die atqne hora docet cftnBiatere. InteriOreB desperatia cam- 
pestribus locTs propter magnitadinem munltidnum loca prae- 
rapta aaceDBu temptant; buc ea qaae paraverant cdnferunt, 
Multitudine telomm es tnrribas prdpugnantea detarbant, 

10 aggere et cr&tibus foss&B explent, falcibns vallum ac loricam 
rescind unt. 

87. Mittit prlmtim Brutum adul^Bcentem cunt cohortibns 
CaeBar, poBt cum aliis G. Fabium Igg&tnm; postr6ni5 ipae, 
cum TehementiuB pngn^retur, integrSa subsidid adducit. 
Restitntd proelid ac repaUia bostibna, ed quo Labienum 

G miserat contendit; cohortSa quattuor ex proximo caatello 
dgducit, equitum partem ai aequi, partem circumire exteridrea 
munitiones et a tergo hostes adoriri iubet. Labienns, post- 

OTer the llimi. 

: eanh va& thrown 

sloplufc mound oj 

against tbe lampart of Ihe camp. 

Chap. B6. Caesar aendB re-enforce- 
menta to the camp and encourages 
those flEhtlng in the plain. 

S. dJductlB! trom the rampart. 

Bruptt&na: this plan had once saved 
Galba under similar clronioa lances; 
m. S and 8, 

Id: I.e. make a sally, 

4. rellques: those detendlng the 
works In tbe plOiln. Caesar galloped 
down from his position on the bill. 

7. 1dc« praeruptft: near the bottom 
of the hill on which camp E lay. The 

fortlflcatloQS were less formidable here 

trying to 

4. efl . . . contendlt: berodeacross 
the plain, between bla lines, to camp A. 

6. •qultum: cavalry followed him 
from camps F, O. and H. He sent a 
mounl«d aide to camp B,orderlDe the 
cavalry stationed there to ride around 
outside his outer line and lake UteOauU 




qnam neqiie aggerSs neqne foseae vim boBtinm snetinere pot«- 
rant, coactJs xi cohortibns, quia ex prozimis praesidiis dgduGt£is 
fora obtulit, Gaeaarem per nuntioB facit certiorem quid facien- lO 
dum eziatimet. Accelerat Caesar, ut proelio iutersit. 

88. EiuB adventu ex colore vestTtua cognito, turmisque 
equitnm et cohortibua viaia quaa ee aequi iasaerat, at de locia 
enperidnbag haec dgclivia et d^Texa cerngbantar, boatea proe- 
liatn committant. Utrimque clamore sublato excipit rursua 
ex T&Ud atque omnibua muniti&nibns clamor. Noatri emiBBis g 
piliBgladiis rem gertmt. Bepente poat tergam eqaitataa cer- 
nitur ; cohortes aliae appropinquant. Hoatga terga vertunt ; f a- 
gientibusequitSsoccurruDt. Fit magna cacdga. Sedulina, dux 
et priaceps LemoTicum, occiditur; VercasaiTellaaaua Arremus 
TiniB in tag& comprehenditur; aigna militaria Lxsiv ad Cae- lo 
earem referuntur; pane? ex tantd numer5 ag incolames in caatra 
recipiunt. Conspicftt! ex oppido caedem et fngam Bu5rum des- 
perata salute cdpiaB a munitiSnibns reducunt. Fit prdtmns hac 
rg audita ex caatria Grallonimfuga. Quod nisi ere bris BabaidilB 
sc tjjtiua diel labore milit€B eaaent dgfeaai, omneB hoBtium i5 

B. ZI eobDrtlbua: oTielaiair i 
legions dereoded ttafl aamp; Lablenua 
had brougliC six cohorts; Caes&r i 
brlngliiK four; Lableuos Qoir seaii 
eleven more: more than two-flttbs ol 
the whole army were concentrated at 
this one point This was the opportu- 
nity ror the rest of the Qalllc army, If It 
had beea capably led. 

10. quid'. . . •xlstliiiat:l.e.aaallr. 

Chap. as. The sixty thonsand are 
slain, and tlie rest of the reUeTlng 
BTmy diapersoa. 

1. veatltts: a scarlet cloak. 

3. de looli inperierlbui: the hUl 

S. liaec . . . dfrTexa.: tbe slopes be- 
low camp E, from which Caesar 

lioitfii . . . aonualttiuit: apparently 
the itomaos have saUled out and tbe 
Oauls have withdrawn a little In sur- 

prise; now the Gauls attac 
greater vigor, hoping to win tbe 
before Caesar can arrive. 
4. azalplt . . . cl&mor: e 

«. post tarcum: of the RomanB 
who have sallied out. The iqaastai 
and cohoTlit are those who have fol- 
lowed Caesar. 

8. aqulMi ooDUTrunt: these are the 
cavalry from camp B. 

13. ex oppldA, " tbe Qanls from the 

14. ex oattrla: the camp of the re- 
lieving army. The Oauls feared an 
Immediate attack. 

quod Dial, "and unless." 
■ubetdtU: their marches back and 
forth to reUeve points of danger. 



odpiae delSK potniBsent. De media nocte misBas eqnitUni 
noTisBimam agmen ooaBeqaitiir : magnaB QameniB capitnr 
atqne interficitur ; reliqai ex fng& in civitateB diBcednnt. 

89. PoBtero die Yercingetoriz concilio ooavocato id belloin 
se suscepisse non Baaram neceBsitatam, Bed commonis liber- 
tatla causa demoQBtrat, et qaoniam Bit forttiaae cedendDm, sd 
utramqoe rem Be illiB ofierre, sea morte Baa Bomania satisfacere 

6 sea Tivam tradere relint. Mittantarde his rebus ad Caesarem 
Ugatl. lubet arma tradi, prmcipes produci. Ipse in muni* 
tiflne pr6 caBtria considit; eo duces producantar; Vercingefc 
orix deditur, arma proiciantnr. Reservatis Haedais atqne 
ArvemiB, si per eoa civitates recnperftre poBset, ex reltqais 

10 captivis toti exercitni capita singula praedae ndmine dis- 

90. His T^bua confectis in Haedads proficiscitar ; civitatem 
recipit. Ed leg&ti ab ArvemiB misai quae imperaret se factii- 
roB poUicentnr. Imperat magnum numerum obaidum. Legi- 
ones in hibema mittit. Captivorum circiter xx milia Haedais 

6 Arverniaque reddit. T. Labiennm cum duabus legionibas et 
equitatu in Sequanos proficiBci iubet; huic M. Semproniam 
Rutilum attribuit. C. Fabium legatum et L. Minuciom 
BasUum cum legionibns duabuB in Remia coUocat, ne qnam a 
finitimia Bellovacis calamitatem accipiant. G. Antietium Regi- 

10 num in Ambivaretoa, T. Sextium in Bituriges, C, Caniniom 

CliaD. 80-BO. Vercingetorli sur- 
rendeTB, and the QaUTc leagne ib 
broken Qp. 

Chap. S9. VerciBgetoriz and the 
hemesed army Gurrender. 

8. ad utrvnqu* rom, "lor eltber 
purpose"; ratplatned by the following 
cl>iU8?B. The conduct ot VerclngeuiTlz 
In defeat shows that he was of the troe 

T. Varalnsatorlx dMltur: be was 

kept a prisoner UU the year M, that he 
mi£ht appear In Caesar's triumphal 
procession In Borne; then he was ei- 

8. HftadnU atqna Arvenlai since 

these were the leading states of OaaL 

their submission would ettectually break 

up all concerted rebellion. 
•. il poBset, "losee whether." 
10. amplla siuciila, "a man apiece." 
Chap. BO. The Haedoi and the 

Arrernl submit. The army sobb into 

winter qoarters. 
8. Huie . . . attnbttlt: l.e. Rutilos 

was placed under Che orders of I^blo 

8. Ui . . . ftOOlplMIt; the Reml had 
remained faithful to Caesar, Trhlle Uie 
Belloracl bad announced their InuO' 
tlon of ttgbttng him. 



fiebilmn m Ruteods cam singulis legionibas mittit. Q. Tnl- 
liam Ciceronem et P. Sulpicinm Oavilloni et Matiacone in 
Haediiis ad Ararim rei frumentariae caus& collocat. Ipse 
Bibracte hiem&re cdnatituit. His rebus ex Gaesaris litterla 
cogDitis, Romae dierum viginti supplicatid redditnr. " 

IS. ■uppllaiU6: at. IV, SS, il. One I was bf far the KTeateat or CaaBu'B 
might have expected that tba number campaigns la Qaul. 
of days would be Increased, since (bla | 



I, 13,7-19. Sip&cempopnlaaRdm&nDBciiniHelTetiiB/aciet, 
in earn partem ibuni atqne ibi erunt HelvUH ubi eoB tH consti' 
tueris atqne esse volueris; sin bello peraequi perseverdbis, remU 
nucere et veterie incommodi populi Romuni et prietinae virtutis 
HelvetiSram. Quod impruviBu unnm pugum adortua es, cum 
ii qui flumen trdnsierant sala auxilium ferre nSn posaent, ndlt 
ob earn rem aut tuae magnopere virtutl tribuere aut nos despi- 
cere; nos ita a patribus maidribusqne nosiris dididmus ut magla 
Tirtiite contenddmus quam dolo aut inaidiiB n\tdmur. Quare 
«5/i committere ut Ulc locos ubi constiiimus ei calamitate po- 
puli Kdm&ni et internecidne exercitaa nfitnen capiat aut memo- 
riam prodat. 

I, 14, 1-30. Ed mihi minua dubitfitifinia daiur, quod eaa 
rga quas vos commemordvistis memoria leneo, atque eo gravius 
fero quo minua merito populi Romiini acdderuni; qui si alicu- 
iu8 iniiiriae eibi oOnscinB fujaset, non fuil difficile cavere; aed 
ed deceptua est, quod neque commiaautn a aS intellegebat quare 
timgret, neque sine cauaa timendum putdbat. Quod ai veteria 
contumeliae obliviac! velity num etiam recentium iuiuriftrnm, 
quod 00 inTito iter per prfivinciam per Tim temptdvistts, quod 
HaeduoB, quod Ambarrda, quod K\^o^yroghAvexdvistis, memoriam 
Ahpon^TK potestt Quod vestrd victdria tarn insolenter jr'^ia- 
viint, quodque tarn diii vos impune iniuri&a intulisae admtrdmini, 
eddem pertinent, Consueverunt enim dt immortdles, quo 
gravius homines ex commiitationfl rgmm doleaut, quoa pro 
Bcelere e5rum ulciaci volunt, hia secundiorea interdnm r€a et 
diutnrniorem impunitatem concedere. Cum haec ita aint, 
tsmen, ai obeidSs a voHs mihi dabuntur, at! ea quae pollicemini 
vSa faoturOa intellegam, et si Haeduia dS iniiirilB qnis ipeis 


sociiaqae intulisHs, item bT AUobrogibna satUfacietis, v6iiscum 
pacem faciam. 

%0-%Z. Its HelvUil a maioribna buIb inalilull aunt uti obsi- 
des accipere, non dare, cdDsnennt; huius lei populus Bom&nua 
est testis. 

I, 17, 2-13. Sunt QOQ nulll quorum auctoritaa apud pl$- 
bem plurimam valeat, qni privatim plus possint quam ipti 
magiatratus. Hi Beditidsa atqne improba Sratidne multitudi- 
nem deterrent ne frumentam c&Dferant qaod debent: [these 
men Bay] " Fraestat, bi (Haedai) iam princip&tnm Qalliae ob- , 
tinere noa possunt, Qallornm quam Romaiadram imperia per- 
fem ; neque dubttdmus qaiD, Bi HelretidB snperarerint RdmfinI, 
una cum reliqna Oalli& HaedalB llbertatem Bintgrepturl,'* Ab 
isdem vestra cocBilU quaeqne in castris geruntur hoBtibus 
inuntiaritur. HI dtni ooSrceri ndn possunt; quin etiam, quod 
□eceaaarid rem coSctaB tibi enuntidvi, intellego quauto id cum 
periculo/ecerun, et ob eam oanaam quam diu potui tacut. 

I, 18,6-34. iip«« es/ iJufnnorix, Bnmma audacia, magn& spnd 
pUbem propter liberalit&tem grfttift, cupidus rernm nov&mm. 
ComplurSs acnds portdria reliquaque omnia Haednorum veot!- 
g&lia parrfi pretio redempta habet, proptere& qaod ill6 licente 
cimtrfi licer! audet n€md. His rSbue et aoam rem familiftrem 
auxit et faoultatSa ad largiendnm magn&s compardvii; magnum 
nnmernmequit&t'us sab Bumptu semper o/i^ et circnm ae habet; 
neqae s&lum domi, sed etiam apud finitimaa civitiltSa largiter 
potest, atque hniuB potentiae causiL matrem in Biturigibna 
homini illic nobiliaaimo ac potentiasimo collocdvit, ipse ez 
Helvetiis uxorem habet, sordrem ei matre et propinqnae snas 
nuptum in ali&a oivit&t€s collocdvit. Favet et cupil Helvetiis 
propter eam affiait&tem, odU etiam and n5mine Caeaarem et 
RomilnSB, qnod eornm adrentu potentia eios deminnta et 
DiviciacuB frater in antiquum locum gratiae atque hoaoriB est 
restitutuB. Si quid accidat Romanis, snmmam in gpem per 
Helvetica regni obtinendi venit; imperio populi Bomftnl nbn 
mode d§ rggno, aed etiam de ea quam Aabet gratis despSroL 
. .Coog\c 


I, 20, 2-12. Scio ista ease vera, nee quisquatn ex e5 plaa 
qaam ego doloria capit, propterea quod, cum ego gr&tia pluri- 
mam domi atqne in reliqua G&Wxk possem, Ule minimam propter 
adnlescentiam posset, per me crevit; qaibaa opibas ac nervia 
non solam ad minuendam gratiam, sed paene ad pemiciein 
meam utUur. Ego bamen et amore fr&temo et exiatim&tione 
valg! commoveor. Quod si quid ei a fe gravius acciderit, cum 
ego hunc locum amicitiae apud te ieneam, nemo existimdbit nou 
TJisd Yolnntate factum; qnS. ex re totlua Qalliae aoimi & me 

1, 30, 3-10. Intellegimus, tametai pro reteribus Helretiornm 
iniuriis populi Bomani ab his poenas bello repetieris, tamen 
eam rem non minus ex iisii Oalliae qnam populi Rdmani acci- 
disse, propterea quod eo consilio fioreatissimis rebus domos anas 
Helvfitii reliqueruni, uti . . . habSrent. 

I, 3 1 , 5-8. N^on minus id contendimus et labordmus, n€ ea 
quae dixerimus enitntientur qa»m uti ea qaae volumus impe- 
tremus, propterea quod, k Snuntiiltam erif, anmmum in cruci- 
atnm not veniiiros vidimus. 

8-56. Galliae totins factiones aunt duae: hilrum alterius 
priacipfttum tenent Saedui, alterius Arverni. Hi cum tanto- 
pere dg potentatu inter b& multds annds contenderent, factum 
est uti ab Arremis S€qnanisque German! merc€de arcesseren- 
tur. Hornm primfi circiter milia xv RfaSnum trdnsierurU; 
posteaqaam i^oa et cultum et cdpiaa Gallorum homings feii 
ac barbari adamdrunt, trdducil sunt plures. Nunc sunt in 
Oallia ad centum et viginti milium numerum. Gum hia 
Haedui eorumque clientea semel atque iterum armia amtende- 
runt; magnam calamltatem pulsi acceperunt, omnem nobili- 
tatem, omnem seniLtum, omnem equitatum dmiserunt. Qui- 
bus prooliia calami tatibuaque frdcll, qui et ana rirtute et 
populi Rdmani hoapitio atque amicttia plurimum ante in 
Gallia potuerant, cndctt sunt SEquania obsidea dare . . . 
imperio essent. Unus ego sum ex omni civitate Haedno- 
Tum qui addfici son potuerim ut iurdrem aut liberOa meos 


obsides daretn. Ob earn rem ex civitute prufugl et Rdmam 
ad seiiatum venl auiilium postulatum, quod solus neque 
iure iurando neque obeidibas lenebar. Sed peine vicKribus 
Sequania quam Haeduis victis accidit, propterea quod ArioviS' 
tus, rex Germanorum, in eorum finibua consMit tertiamque 
partem agri Sequani, qui est optimus toting Galliae, occupdvit 
et nunc de altera parte tertia Sequanos -decedere iubei, prop- 
terea quod paucis mensibna ante Hariidum milia bominum 
XXIV ad eum venerunf, quibus locas ac aGdOa parantur. Pauois 
aniila omnca ex Galliae finibuB pellentur ftif^ae omneB Germani 
EhC'nnm trdnsliuHt; neque enini conferendtis est Qallicus cum 
Germanoram agro, neque haec coiismtudd victua cum ilia com- 
paranda. Ariovistus aut«m, ut eemel Gallorum cupiaa proeliS 
vlcit, quod proelium factum est ad Magetobrigam, enperbg et 
«rudeliter imperai, obsidea nobilissimi cuiuaque liberos poscti 
«t iu eos omnia excmpla cruciatusque edii, a! qua res non ad 
nutum aut ad Toluiitatem eiua facta est. Homo est barbarus, 
irdcundus, femerdrius; non possunt eius imperia diutiua ans- 
tinerl. Nisi quid in le populoque Romano erit auzilT, omnibue 
Gallis idem est faciendum quod Helvetii fecerunl, ut domo 
. . . experiantur. Haec si enuntiata Ariovisto erunt, nQn du- 
bifo quin de omnibus obsidibusqui apud eum sunt graviasimum 
aupplicium sumat. Til vel auctoritate tud aCque exercitua vel 
recent! victoria vel nomine populJ Eomiini deterrere poles ne 
maior multitudo Germanorum Eheaum traducatur, Oalliamque 
omnem ab Ariovisti iniuria^o^es defeiidere. 

I, 32,8-15. B.6c est misertor et gravior fortuna Sequano- 
rum quam reliquorum,